by Max Barry

Latest Forum Topics




[+] Advanced...




«12. . .92,01292,01392,01492,01592,01692,01792,018. . .92,04792,048»


His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings, Defender of the Faith, and Elect of God invites King Abdullah I, Custodian of the Two Holy Cities, Descendent of the Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him, and Patriarch of the Islamic Faith to the island of Dahlak Kebir in the Dahlak Peninsula to discuss relations between the two great kingdoms across the Red Sea.


With Wei Yuan ideals of a multi-ethnic country with no major bias towards one ethnicity,proving quite unpopular with members of his own party.As many believe that a Chinese ethnic supremacy is the best way to go for the future of Maziya.Those who had believed in Chinese ethnic supremacy made a separation from the Maziyan Communist Party (M.Z.C.P) to form a new communist faction called the Maziya Chinese Association (麻子牙華人協會) Party abbreviated as the M.C.A.P.This new splintered off faction of the M.Z.C.P was founded by and would be led by Yap Wei Bai,the first female political faction leader in Maziya on record.Wei Bai could commonly be seen promoting her beliefs of communism which already has latched onto the thoughts of many ethnic Chinese and her belief that the current communist party led by Wei Yuan has failed during their time in power,to the area now known as Kampung Orang China but officially designated as Kampung Hutan Tersembunyi,due to its widely known high ethnic Chinese population.


    April 1949
    The Frankfurt Documents

T H E    F R A N K F U R T    D O C U M E N T S


| On the FIRST OF JULY, of 1948, representatives of the three occupying powers in Western Germany (the United States, France, and the United Kingdom), committed the Ministers-President of the West German Lander to the Frankfurt Documents (Frankfurter Dokumente). These documents officialized a request to the Minister-President to arrange for a constitutional assembly of German officials, politicians and representatives from across West Germany that will design ad draft a democratic and federal constitution for the establishment of a West German state. The constitution must specify a central power of the German government, but respect to the administration of the Lander will also be protected. Civil, political, individual and social rights of the German people will be guaranteed. A federal structure of a future German state shall follow constitutional tradition since 1871. These were the key points of the Frankfurt Documents, the laying down of the foundations of a West German state. |

| The Ministers-President voiced concern about the Frankfurt Documents, citing the possibility that a West German state would mean the permanent disruption and separation of Germany. A conference was convened near Koblenz a few days later, which ratified the beginning of discussions on the constitution of a West German state. However, with the establishment of the Parlamentarischer Rat (Parliamentary Council), it was decided that the constitution would be named the "Basic Law" rather than a constitution. With these provisions, it would also be made clear that future German self-determination and German reunification would remain on the future state's agenda. The Herrenchiemsee convention in August in Bavaria was held, with the convention's delegates being appointed by the leaders of the newly formed Lander (states). In September, the 65 members of the Parliamentary Council began drafting the official wording of the Basic Law. |

| Among the most prominent attendees would be Konrad Adenauer, a prominent German official and the Lord Mayor of Cologne; he would attend these debates alongside Kurt Schumacher, formerly of the Social Democrats, and other politicians who survived the Volkist regime, or new ones like Sophie Scholl, who established themselves during the war and in the postwar as fighters for democracy and liberty. |

| Through the turn from '48 into '49, discussions and preparations continued. The potential effect of the establishment of a West German state would be considered, both politically, economically and socially. Adenauer urged delegates to tread carefully, considering the threat that the Soviet Union and the communist nations to the east still posed. Some argued that the exclusion of eastern Germany (the section occupied by the Soviet Union) was avoidable, but this debate was quickly shot down by the Berlin Blockade and the polarization of the European tensions. By late April, the Parliamentary Council's leadership convened once more to prepare the final document. It was decided: In early May, the Parliamentary Council would reconvene - most likely in Bonn - to vote to pass the Basic Law. Followed by a ratification by the occupying powers then the signing and promulgating of the Basic Law by the Parliamentary Council, the establishment of a Federal Republic would finally be seen. |

        الهاشمي العربية
        أشدو أن لا إله إلا الله ، وشدو أنا محمدان رسول الله



    | Abdullah I's reign in Arabia began as quick as a passing wind. Faisal II voluntarily abdicated the throne to his uncle so he may begin experiencing his teenage years and pursue his own intrigues. Abdullah I was not hesitant to make his presence known over the past 2 months that a new era has begun: large portraits of Abdullah I would be displayed throughout Baghdad, an increased presence of flags appear throughout the Kingdom, the banner and flag of the Hashemites would be placed on golden flagpoles, the emblem of the Hashemites would appear on the columns and the pediment of government buildings: Babylonia comes to life. This visualization was far different than the hands off approach from Faisal II; however, it was a reality that was gradually being welcomed as a sense of security, especially after recent annexation of Jordan and exiting of the Arab-Israeli War. The sense of societal pressures from democratic election cycles made citizens rather uneasy and divisive. The idea of a strong leader on the crown called into question if continual practices of democracy was needed as the idea of gambling on power was not too favorable, especially for the Supreme Shura Council, military officers, and the senior leadership of the Arab State & Law Coalition. With a gloom over Baghdad from the establishment and growing global recognition of Israel as a sovereign nation, Abdullah I knew that the people were looking toward the Hashemites for answers. It was clear that the people of Arabia did not want Palestinians to be stuck in a Zionist state, isolated from the Arabs.

    In covert diplomatic action, Abdullah I kept a best secret until it was time to reveal his first strategic victory: the entering of 400,000 Palestinians into the Hashemite Kingdom of Arabia through Jordan. With the first arrivals of Palestinians into Baghdad, Abdullah I would be at the National Broadcast Corporation of Arabia when he would be given the signal to begin his speech on public broadcast radio:


      "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin. The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. The Only Owner of the Day of Recompense. The difficulty of the politics of the region sparks stress and anxiety upon the security of this burgeoning nation. The now existence of Israel is a reality that we have to comprehend but it will not deter the course of our own existence and survival. On the question of the future of the Palestinians as their historical lands, this is a direct connection to me as recognized King of the Palestinians last year by a Council in Jerusalem. I must now do and commit to my obligation to the Palestinian people. I have. 400,000 Palestinians will now call Arabia home. 400,000 people shall be introduced into our family here. Although they may have lost their original home of history, legacy, and precedent....our Palestinian brothers and sisters have been granted citizenship to call these vast lands their new home for the next generations of Palestinians. Their survival have been secured and their future has been promised. We have a moral obligation to never turn our backs to those who suffer and struggle. And it is with this that we can never forgive the oppressor nor ones that instigate exile. The 400,000 Palestinians are hereby given full Constitutional and Crown protections and will immediately begin the full process to obtain citizenship documentation, including identification cards. In exchange, to our Jewish population across Arabia, you are given the opportunity to leave Arabia and become citizens to your newly established homelands if you so decide to leave. We do not believe in forced imprisonment here in Arabia; therefore, you shall do as you so please. Getting to Israel is of your priority. Nonetheless, this is a day of celebration as our Palestinian Arabs are now home at last."

    (Kuomintang) Republic of China / (國民黨)中華民國

    北方是我们的! 平津战役将北方统一在毛泽东的统治之下!

    January 1949 | 1949年1月


      The year of 1947 saw the collapse of the Central Plains (Dabie Mountains) region to the Communist forces in the north. Disruptions within the regular operations of the Nationalist forces became prevalent as the rapidly strengthening CCP began gaining territory not through sheer strength and more powerful weapons, but rather through proper strategic thinking and a less corrupt bureaucracy. Within the Kuomintang, corruption was prominent, with the seizure of equipment necessary for the frontlines being especially commonplace. Foodstuffs and uniforms for the front ended up in the hands of KMT officers and commanders, most of whom played only a minimal role in the actual full planning of military operations by General Chiang Kai-Shek’s forces.

      Since the fall of the Dabie Mountain region in June of 1947, the frontlines had stabilized and a battle of attrition took place; a battle which gave the Kuomintang a significant boost, considering their stronger access to basic supplies which would in a war of attrition prove potentially game-changing for a strategic and tactical victory. Control over the northeast of China eventually began slipping to the Communists as minor advances by the CCP in early 1948 in anticipation of a much larger operation slated for the coming months was prepared.

      This large operation was finally launched in summer of 1948 by Communist forces. The Northeast regions fell completely with the collapse of Shenyang and Changchun to the CCP, despite setbacks to Mao’s forces. This forceful advance into the Northeast was named the Liaoshen Campaign, which saw the surrendering of the New 1st Army of the KMT after a brutal six-month siege of Changchun that killed 150,000 civilians and ruined Nationalist morale. The fall of what was regarded as the KMT’s most powerful army brought damaging news to their forces’ morale, and the surrendering of this force saw the CCP arm itself with new tanks, heavy artillery, and other combined arms weaponry needed to launch future operations and grant themselves a tactical and weaponry advantage.

      The fall of Jinan and Shandong province in September of 1948 began paving the future of the Civil War. By this point, it was already clear that the Communists had set themselves for victory after victory. While General Chiang and the KMT government sought to secure additional foreign aid, Chairman Mao and his CCP sought to use what materiel they had wisely and efficiently to carry out the most amount of damage inflicted while using up the least amount of equipment as possible.

      However, as the CCP continued gaining territory and solidifying its power, the Communists began switching from such a conservative policy to a more aggressive one. This culminated in the Pingjin Campaign, that led to the fall of Northern China to Communist forces. Starting in November, Communist forces pushed hard, suffering heavy casualties, in its effort to secure Zhangjiakou, Tianjin, Dagu and Beiping. The Communists brought 890,000 troops to some 600,000 Kuomintang forces on the defense.

      The successes, albeit harshly won, in Zhangjiakou and other northern towns created a propaganda victory for the Communists, and a damaging morale defeat for the KMT. The Communists had more less-equipped men, while the KMT had less better-equipped men. Despite these odds, and the KMT having foreign support and recognition behind them, the Communists pushed, winning victory after victory.

      In contradiction to General Chiang’s words of support, Chairman Mao of the Communist Party declared firmly; ‘Victory is finally within our grasp’.


    🇹🇼 🇹🇼 🇹🇼

    May 1949
    Die Bundesrepublik!

T H E    F E D E R A L    R E P U B L I C


    Listen for ambience:

| The MUSEUM KOENIG in BONN — a natural history and zoological sciences building and museum in Bonn — would on the 8th of May, of 1949, be home to the Parliamentary Council of Germany (Parlamentarischer Rat), the constitutional convention of the future West German state. Over the past several months, they had worked tirelessly and with co-operation from all ideological sides — bar perhaps that of the Communists — to establish the framework for a free, democratic and capitalist and sovereign West German state. It would be federal in nature, and the civil and individual rights of the German people would be enshrined in its new BASIC LAW, which would serve as the state's official constitution. Several months of tiring work on behalf of the elected delegates to the Parliamentary Council — elected by the Lander (states) that they represented — culminated in the solemn ceremony of voting on May 8, 1949. On that day, in the Museum Koenig (for it was the only building in Bonn that was intact and large enough to house the entirety of the Parliamentary Council), the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany was RATIFIED by the aforementioned delegates. |

| The news of the ratification was transmitted to the occupying Allied powers, and on 12 May 1949 the occupying powers offered their own ratification. The parliaments of the Lander of the Trizone offered their own ratifications bar Bavaria, who rejected it due to a lack of autonomy for the individual Lander. Despite this, it was clarified that the Basic Law would still go into effect despite the Bavarian opposition should two-thirds of the other Lander vote in favor of it — which they did. The Parliamentary Council re-convened in Bonn on 23 May 1949 where, in a solemn session attended by various delegates and representatives, the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany was officially promulgated and signed into law. The period of non-existence and status as a legal nonentity for Germany had finally concluded, as the Federal Republic of Germany was finally proclaimed, although it would remain under continued Western occupation. |


      INSPIRED by the determination to promote world peace as an equal partner in a united Europe, the German people, in the exercise of their constituent ower, have adopted this Basic Law.

    (1) Human dignity shall be inviolable. To respect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority.

    (2) The German people therefore acknowledge inviolable and inalienable human rights as the basis of every community, of peace and of justice in the world.

    (A.2.1) Every person shall have the right to free development of his personality insofar as he does not violate the rights of others or offend against the constitutional order or the moral law.

    (A.2.2.) Every person shall have the right to life and physical integrity. Freedom of the person shall be inviolable. These rights may be interfered with only pursuant to a law.

    (A.3.3.) No person shall be favored or disfavored because of sex, parentage, race, language, homeland and origin, faith or religious or political opinions. No person shall be disfavored because of disability.

    (A.5.1.) Every person shall have the right to freely express and disseminate his opinions in speech, writing and pictures to inform himself without hindrance from generally accessibly sources. Freedom of the press and freedom of reporting by means of broadcasting and films shall be guaranteed. There shall be no censorship.

    (A.9.1.) All Germans shall have the right to form societies and other associations.

    (A.10.1) The privacy of correspondence, posts and telecommunications shall be inviolable.

    (A.20.1-4) The Federal Republic of Germany is a democratic and social federal state. All state authority is derived from the people. It shall be exercised by the people through elections and other votes and through specific legislative, executive and judicial bodies. The legislature shall be bound by the constitutional order, the executive and the judiciary by law and justice. All Germans shall have the right to resist any person seeking to abolish this constitutional order if no other remedy is available.

    (A.26.1) Acts tending to and undertaken with the intend to disturb the peaceful relations between nations, especially to prepare for a war of aggression, shall be unconstitutional. They shall be criminalized.

    (A.26.2) Weapons designed for warfare may be manufactured, transported or marketed only with permission of the Federal Government. Details shall be regulated by a federal law.

| Despite all the hurdles, despite the history, Germany now stood mostly together once more, with a bright future potentially awaiting them. The establishment of the democratic institutions of the new Federal Republic would soon begin to be set into motion, as preparations for the first federal elections, and along with it the establishment of political parties and political battle lines, prepare to begin. |

      The Kingdom of Greece, The Xenon Incident: Greek Battleship Explodes at Crete, People Put the Blame on Communists!, May 1949
      Το Βασίλειο της Ελλάδας, Το περιστατικό του Ξένου: Ελληνικό θωρηκτό εκρήγνυται στην Κρήτη, Ο λαός ρίχνει το φταίξιμο στους κομμουνιστές!, Μάιος 1949

        Adriatican Islands - The Greek Navy and the Greek Government! - Το Ελληνικό Πολεμικό Ναυτικό και η Ελληνική Κυβέρνηση!


    | At the bustling harbor of Heraklion, dozens if not hundreds of Greek and International Vessels lay moored off the coast of Crete, docked at the pier, or even dry docked for inspections. Two particular vessels currently docked by the pier were the old Greek Coastal Defense Ship 'Xenon'. Bought by the French in 1930, she is one of Greece's only capital ships as of the moment, the rest of the fleet being modernized in Trst, Slovenia. The ship at this moment was undergoing an oil and ammunition replenishment, with around 100 or so 12-inch (305 mm) rounds, along with a good number of 9.4 inches (240 mm) rounds, capped off with several thousand anti-aircraft rounds laying around the ship and the pier. Moored adjacent to the Xenon, was a rather new vessel, an American Liberty-class cargo ship, acquired by Greece at the end of the Second World War along with about 50 more. These ships are used by Greece to transfer oil and goods from other nations, in this case, the vessel had just arrived back in Greece from a trip to Arabia, the vessel carrying a good 200 barrels of oil, the rest being offloaded in the night, the 200 barrels to be shipped to Athens the next day. |

    | At dawn, a group of dockyard workers, along with the crew of the tanker, predominantly supporting communists and liberals were on duty at the harbor. And while they even had a strong opinion against the Greek government, these were old men who were cheap to hire, and despite even being in the Greek navy, price mattered more than ideology. As the Liberty Ship was preparing for Heraklion, a loud boom could be heard, followed by a clang. The Xenon's hull began to vibrate strongly and was followed by an explosion in her magazine, splitting the ship in two, and sending the bow of the ship straight to the bottom. The flames from the explosion reached the upper deck of the Liberty ship's hull, where the oil barrels were stored. One barrel, in particular, was not closed properly, and erupted in flames, followed by the over 200 barrels of oil already on board. The war-torn Liberty ship joined the Xenon, rolling over the port, and exploding, a large hole filled with shrapnel and smoke being seen on her starboard side. Several other fires caused by ammunition and fuel occurred at the pier, resulting in 27 dead and over 200 injured. By the next day, the fire was put out by Greek fire boats, the wrecks of the ship being seen still smoking. Rescue operations were sent out within the day, recovering over 300 men from the wrecks, but along with this, the bodies of the dead were also recovered. |


    | In Athens, public outcry and protests began, with banners supporting Anti-Communist ideals, and tributes to those lost. General Secretary of the Greek Communist Party, Nikos Zachariadis released a statement coming to the aid of the sailors, stating that the Greeks had no true evidence that it was intentional, viewing the event as an accident. In a shocking move of support, the Greek King himself, Pavlos I, proclaimed that the Greek people, were basing these protests out of lunacy, and not even a day after the event. However, despite this, the whole of Greece mourned the loss of these men, brave men who served on the high seas for Greece. Investigations are currently underway, but with the support of the King, the communist and liberal-supporting sailors were cleared of any blame. |

      "I support our people, but this time I do not. These rumors and protests are based on nothing and are just adding fuel to the fire. We have NO concrete or solid evidence that this was the work of any political party or opposition. To those who believe it was the communists or any other political party, what evidence do you have? These people who were victims of hate and were blamed for this incident were doing their job, serving Greece and her merchant and war fleet."

        - King Pavlos I of Greece




    | HELM OF WARFARE, MINISTÈRE DE LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE, FRANÇAIS RÉPUBLIQUE - | The newly formed and nationalized aeronautical company Société Nationale des Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre has been awarded production contracts by the Ministry of National Defense for two jet powered combatant aircraft designs. The first being the SNCAC NC.1080 jet-engined interceptor and the second being the SNCAC NC.270 jet-engined bomber. Both aircraft are capable of carrier-borne operations. The SNCAC NC.1080 is powered by a 22.3Kn thrust Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engine. It features a 22º wing sweepback at quarter-chord and it is armed with three 30mm cannons. The prototype was flown for the first time on the 29th of July 1948 and the flying characteristic showed that further modifications were needed, specially on the spoilers and the tail surfaces.

    After suffering a crash during a flight test on the 12th of January 1949, more modifications were made to the tail surfaces, rudder and wingtips, making the aircraft safer and fit for further testing. With specifications for a crew of 1 pilot, a length of 12.87m, a wingspan of 12m and a gross weight of 7,800kg the plane would have a top speed of 977km per hour or 607 miles per hour. The operational range of the aircraft would be 1,300 km and a service ceiling of 41,000 ft. The Ministry of National Defense has ordered an initial procurement of 500 of the SNCAC NC.1080 which will serve largely in a carrier based role alongside the Arsenal VG 90 and Nord 2200.

    The second aircraft being the SNCAC NC.270 jet bomber features swept-back wings just like the NC.1080. The design team utilized the SNCASE SE-161 Languedoc N0.31 F-BCUT as a launch platform for the project. The plane is powered by two Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engines. The first test flight for the bomber was on the 21st of August 1948. Initial testing indicated that the plane also required some modifications to the wingtips, and tail end of the craft. A second flight test was conducted on the 15th of February 1949 in which engineers and aeronautics experts deemed the aircraft safe for service.

    The specifications for that bomber were that it should weight 25 to 28 tons at maximum with a payload of, at least, 5 tons of bombs with a maximum range of 3000km. Overall the SNCAC NC.270 has a crew of 1 pilot and 1 navigator, a length of 21.20m and a wingspan of 16.2m. The bomber's top speed is 900km per hour or 560 miles per hour and it has a maximum operational range of 3,000km with a weight of 26,000kg. The fuselage was circular with a fuel deposit in the upper part and the bomb compartment that could carry up to 5 tons of bombs in the lower side. The plane is also armed with a remotely-controlled turret with four 20mm guns located at the back behind the tail.

    The Ministry of Defense has signed an initial procurement order for 600 of the SNCAC NC.270 jet bombers which will also serve alongside the new SNCAC NC.1080, Arsenal VG 90, and Nord 2200. As the French military continues to beef up it's aeronautical industries and place jet power at the forefront of all new designs and acquisition programs, the range of capabilities and possibilities for future French aircraft are seemingly endless. |


        VIVE L’EMPIRE!


With the formation of the now month old Maziya Chinese Association Party,came the possibility that they will both replace the M.Z.C.P as the dominant communist faction in Maziya and cause extreme amount of ethnic tension between the already tense Malay and Chinese population and others.To counter this possibility Wei Yuan would hold a parliament meeting after he made the discovery about the former position of Kapitan China in British Malaya who's job was to maintain and control the Chinese community in Malaya.

Results of the parliament meeting.
After much discussion in parliament it would be decided that they will not only just apply their own Kapitan China but apply a Kapitan for other ethnicities.These are the Kapitan India for the Indians,Kapitan Orang Asli Borneo for the native people of Borneo such as the Ibans,Kapitan Melayu for the Malays and the final Kapitan is the Kapitan lain-lain meant for those who aren't Chinese,Indian,Malay and natives of Borneo.All of these Kapitans would receive a superior in the form of Kapitan Maziya who's superior would be the parliament members.

How are the Kapitans supposed to function.
The job of Maziya new Kapitans are simple.MANTAIN and CONTROL the community that they are suppose to govern over.The Kapitans would receive a high paying monthly salary however the amount the Kapitan earns would be based of how much work they've done and how hard the work has been for them,and every year the salary would change based of the previous year records the only exception to this would be the current year where every Kapitan would receive a equal pay.However Kapitan Maziya job is to observe whatever the other Kapitans are doing and report back to the prime minister and the job of Kapitan Maziya would be given to a senior and hard working based of records,member of the Kapitans except for this year as that role would be filled in by a volunteer from parliament.The Kapitan Maziya would also be switched out every 3 years and be given to another Kapitan.About how the other Kapitans get succeeded.It would be based of family as the job of the Kapitan would become a job of the direct descendants of the previous Kapitan who held the position,once that Kapitan line in the family is gone a replacement would be found in either a different family or another person in the same family line who is both willing and capable enough to take over.

The first batch of Kapitans
Kapitan China-TAN KAI WEN
Kapitan Melayu-IZZ AZFAR
Kapitan Orang Asli Borneo-FARAMIR EBRAHIM
Kapitan Lain-Lain-BRIAN MAUL


    June, 1949 | Parliament House, Khartoum Province, The British Imperial Crown Colony Of The Sudan


As the Omdurman Blossoms continued their marches throughout Sudan, the young democratic system of the Sudanese colony managed to withstand the fierce winds of demonstrations calling upon greater self-determination. This however was without surprise given that the elections and democratic form of government would serve as the first building blocks of an independent and sovereign Sudanese nation, a country that has already accepted its form of government and the rule of the people belonging to the people.

The movement however would deliver a very crushing impact on Sudan’s longest-established political institution since the aftermath of the abolishment of the Condominium. Despite Mahgoub’s heavy campaign in advancing the Nationalist ideology, his messages of unquestionable national loyalty, sympathizing with what many saw as the western Zionist occupation of Palestine, the alienation and shaming of any resemblance of Arab or African identity, and above all the borderline delusional and inaccurate sentiment would preaching violence would deliver a huge loss to The Confluence Party as the 1949 Parliamentary elections would strip him and the party of all 15 parties they had been in control of to absolute zero. Effectively removing the Nationalist's Socialist ideology from representative government and throwing it to the dustbin of history along with Italy’s and Germany’s Volkist thugs.

However, the fall of the Nationalists would advance the Communist Party which was itself made of former working-class citizens from the NWCP, along with launching a newfound hope for the Islamist Mahdi party. With the long-standing 72-year-old Speaker of the Sudanese Parliament, The Lord Rugby John Loader Maffey would finally enter retirement as he left for his hometown of Rugby, Warwickshire in Midland England, after his faithful and constant 23 years of service to the Sudanese people and the British Crown. Soon to succeed him as approved by His Majesty’s Government, the Sudanese Parliament would officially appoint Sir George Stewart Symes of Wateringbury Kent as the second official Speaker of the Sudanese Parliament in May of 1949.

Within his first duties as Speaker of Parliament, Sir Symes would announce through the Sudanese Broadcasting Corporation and the British Broadcasting Corporation in Khartoum the official results of the Sudanese Parliamentary Elections of 1949, he would assign the number of seats each political party running in the campaign would get out of the 136 seats needed. The number of seats would entirely depend on the percentage of votes each party had gained.

    136 Available Seats, 68 Need To Create Government

    Unionist Party (NUP) — 60 Seats

    Commonwealth Party (BCP) — 30 Seats

    Liberal Party (LP) — 22 Seats

    Umma Party (MUP) — 17 Seats

    Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) — 7 Seats

    Nationalist Party (NWCP) — 0 Seats

This election has gone a lot smoother and without troubles, perhaps making a quick recovery since the great democratic experiment was launched in Sudan three years ago in the Parliamentary elections of 1946, and shall continue in service of the Sudanese people. However despite the results being clear, all parties had still failed to gain the 68-seat majority to form a government, and as tradition dictates, a coalition of factions must be established to form the official government.

Azheri’s Unionist Party had once again claimed victory by gaining the majority of seats out of the competing parties, but amid their celebrations, their victory would be cut short, as a plot had been revealed by a new political coalition formed by the Commonwealth, Liberals, and Islamist to form their government, thereby throwing Azheri and Unionist off their victory stage and into the corner of the opposition with the Communists, who themselves don’t have enough seats to push the Unionist to the 68 seats needed.

Khalil’s Commonwealth Party, Lwoki’s Liberal Party, and the Mahdi’s Umma Party would join forces in creating a moderate conservative government, combining the 69 seats needed to establish a majority government. Despite the Umma Party running on Islamic principles, they still hold an ideology of Islamic Democracy and had shown clear cooperation with the Imperial government and the British monarchy despite the actions of Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi’s great grandfather, the rebel who’s led a 10-year-long brutal campaign against European powers. But never the less ab Islamist, Liberal, and Commonwealth coalition had not seemed unlikely given that all political parties had echoed the demands of the Blossom movement, with the commonwealth with its large European and foreign voting base joining the demonstrations in the call for greater self-determination to the Sudanese people. The coalition would rally under the umbrella of Sudanese Progress.

The reason behind the Unionists being abandoned was a result of the last three years have proven difficult for cooperation as the NUP had attempted to strike down any progress towards greater Sudanization, rightfully believing it to be a plot against the greater Sudo-Egyptian Union under King Farouq. Azheri and his party had been rather hellbent on stopping the progress of Sudanese existence as a nation of its own, to which the leader of the Liberal Party had proclaimed “The People have spoken! Sudan is a Nation born!” With the Unionists now finding themselves in the opposition alongside a young party with a young inexperienced leader who refuses cooperation with Arab monarchists, Azheri had simply called the situation ”An outrageous stab to the back”

With another betrayal story, Mahjoub and the Nationalists were devastated to find that they had failed to accumulate enough votes needed to even gain a single seat in Parliament, therefore completely kicking the Nationalists out of representative governments and back into their hideouts. With the party now diminished, the writings on the wall could not have been any clearer. Nationalism is now too much in Sudan, thanks to the radio, newspapers, and general information about the war, which was seen as a threat and poison to nations wherever they went. With Mahjoub losing his seat in parliament, he had accepted the result of the elections in the name of the nation and had announced that reforms will be made to the Party in the coming years, to help and answer to what the Sudanese people need in the coming years.

Officially confirmed and approved by Governor-General Sir Alexander Knox Helm, the Imperial Offices and Royal Crown in London, Abdullah Khalil would be officially inaugurated into the position of Chief Minister of British Sudan. Together with Governor Knox Helm, Khalil would also be serving under the Colony’s executive office, officially also acting as an ambassador of the Sudanese Parliament to the office of the Governor, who in turn also acts as an ambassador of the Crown to the colony. Khalil of course is no stranger to the office of Governor, as he had served as Governor-General of Sudan for 20 years before the 1946 elections. Despite it being a clear downgrade, he had chosen to become a member of parliament so that he is closer to the real lawmaking body of the colony where he shall oversee the duties of the Chief Minister by ensuring the passing of bills, as well as be able to listen and provide solutions to the disputes taken out between coalition members, Parliament, civil and military services, as well as disputes between the provinces and affairs occurring within the Sudanese colony.

Khalil’s Administration now faces the rising issues of the Omdurman Blossoms, greater demand for more efficient electricity consumption since the Azheri Administration failed to acquire enough funds for the construction of the Jebel Aulia Dam, calls for unionization by Sudanese workers, and the renewed Eritrean question with the recent annexation of Somaliland by the Ethiopian Empire. Unlike Azheri, Khalil who himself was a former Unionist had vowed his life’s work toward the establishment of a free and strong Sudanese state for the Sudanese people, who he had grown to realize was drastically different than that of Egypt, as we all as too unique to solely hold onto either one of its Arab or African values, but he believes the Sudanese identity comes in embracing those both.


The Commonwealth Of Sudan

Home | Khartoum --

Sudanese Parliament
Legislative Body

The Legislative Branch has powers in both the national government and in Parliament, of the Unicameral Colonial Legislature which is overseen by the Speaker that maintains order and regulates the affairs of Parliament while also presenting solutions. The Colonial Parliament is made up of 136 seats representatives of the population from each province. Each MP is representative of 60,000 people who are in charge of electing them every term, which is three years long. Parliament has the power to establish laws, establish taxes, issue currency, and raise an army, and declare war. Those powers including others have to however also include approval from the Prime Minister’s Office.

136 Seats
68 needed for majority

Speaker (George Stewart Symes) - 1
National Unionist Party (NUP) - 60
British Commonwealth Party (BCP) - 30
Liberal Party (LP) - 22
Mahdi Umma Party (MUP) - 17
Sudan Communist (SCP) - 7
National Workers Confluence Party (NWCP) - 0

Government: BCP, LP, SCP
Opposition: NUP, SCP

Read dispatch


The Commonwealth Of Sudan

Home | Khartoum --

The Prime Minister

Abdallah Khalil

1st Prime Minister of Sudan

18th of March, 1950 - Present

Elizabeth II

Preceded By
Ismail Al-Azheri

Alexander Knox Helm

Speaker of Parliament
George Stewart Symes

Personal details

Omdurman, Khartoum,
Mahdist Sudan


Sudanese Arab

Political Ideology
Imperial Unity

Government House,
Khartoum, Sudan

Sunni Islam

Template thanks to Paseo
Read dispatch



    SHOWA 24 | MAY 1949


 R E B U I L D I N G   T H E   E C O N O M Y 

       オー・スネイル 富士山に登ろう でも、ゆっくり、ゆっくり 
      O Snail; Climb Mount Fuji But slowly, slowly!


| In Tokyo, bells rang in the offices of Japanese newspapers. Good news came from Washington, D.C.: THE U.S. HAD RENOUNCED ITS REPARATIONS CLAIMS ON JAPAN. This proved that the West had abandoned its post-war policy of keeping Japan on its knees and would now focus on rebuilding the Japanese economy. Japanese citizens said, “Arigatai des” [We’re grateful]. But some people doubted. A young Japanese man said: “Of course we should be grateful for this decision. If they wanted to continue these reparations to Japan, what else would be taken away?” In fact, there was still a lot to be taken out of Japan. The U.S. has already halved the number of Japanese plants earmarked for reparations. Now the rest will stay and work to get Japan out of U.S. aid. |

| On Kabuto Cho, Tokyo’s Wall Street, the Japanese elite gathered at the Tokyo Stock Exchange, wearing their best clothes and smiling. Everyone was happy. One speaker said, “The blossoms are opening;” A teuchi shiki (an old Japanese ceremony of congratulations) was requested by the chairman. The assembled bankers and brokers clapped their hands. Then they had lunch. General DOUGLAS MACARTHUR’s headquarters allowed the reopening of the Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya stock exchanges. In the midst of this, YASUHITO, Prince Chichibu, the Emperor’s 46-year-old older brother, spoke a few words. |

    | YASUHITO, Imperial Crown Prince | “I think Japan’s recovery starts now, but there are still so many black market millionaires that honest citizens have lost the will to work.”


| The Imperial Prince doubts that the scarce resources can sustain the huge Japanese population that is constantly growing. |


June, 1949

| PHILLIPE NUMBI, the industrialist of the central Zaire. Numbi was born on 29th of August, 1909 in the town of Gabmbiz near the large diamond mines. Both of his parents worked at the mines and Numbi was destined for the same life until he turned the age of 18 and escaping his family town he managed to make it to the capital city, then Leopoldville. By 1930 at the age of 21, Numbi was working at one of the Belgian diamond and coal companies as a type-writer, having received education from his employers who saw much potential in the young Numbi. By 1935, Numbi managed to rise in ranks but was stopped quite quickly and was fired in 1937. In 1939 he met his current wife, JULIE NUMBI. In 1941, Numbi started his Business Management course at the Career School within the capital. By 1944 he graduated with top marks, and in 1945 opened his own business, NUMBI INDUSTRIES that specialise in manufacturing goods, especially radios and radio parts. By 1947, Numbi managed to push his business further into the country. In 1946, Numbi joined the National Democratic Party, and in 1947 ran successfully for the position of leadership.

Numbi has been described by the Zairean media as "...the symbol of Nigoye's Plan...he has achieved business success and is paving the way for future businessmen and women of the country..." However, Numbi has come across as a hyper-capitalist and his proposed policies push for an outright capitalistic paradise, as he suggests. Numbi is placed as the third candidate in the ring, but his support amongst the working classes is low with much of his supporters stemming from the elites and newly coming middle class. Numbi has also been described by his employees as "...a strong minded boss with little remorse and time for incompetence..."

Numbi's program stands upon the principles of "...self made success through the means of self-development which will eventually lead to individualistic prosperity which then can be shared with others..." Numbi has set out the five point plan for Zaire should he win the elections.

    - Complete privatisation of all industries and resources within Zaire.

    - Creation of a self-made individualistic model of life for Zairians.

    - Large investments into the Zairean military.

    - Advanced Development of the Zairean economy through the means of private investments and businesses.

    - Developing a system through which small businesses can flourish.

Numbi has been in the spotlight thanks to his wife as well, JULIE NUMBI who has been painted by the National Democrats as the ultimate symbol of the new liberated woman of Zaire and Africa. Mrs Numbi owns her own business JULIE COSMETICS which is managing to prosper fairly well in the larger cities of Zaire. In addition, Mrs Numbi, unlike Mrs Banza, has began to invest into clothing made by local Zairean state and private companies. Mrs Numbi has managed to be photographed for the ZAIREAN LIFESTYLE magazine, with only Mrs Banza gaining such privilege earlier. Mr Numbi has accused the Banza regime on multiple occasions for leaning towards socialistic tendencies, being not as pragmatic as they should be, creating an atmosphere of Westernisation and for attacking and deporting tribal leaders.

    [ PHILLIPE NUMBI, speaking in an interview with Zairean Lifestyle ]: "Je ne crois pas franchement que tout ce que Mme Banza a fait soit mauvais. Il y a bien sûr des efforts et des progrès réalisés grâce à ses politiques, mais la question devrait être de savoir si c'est le progrès que nous voulons. Si nous voulons que notre pays prenne cette direction pour les dix prochaines années. Oui, Mme Banza nous a aidés à obtenir l'indépendance, mais je pense que son temps est révolu. Elle a fait tout ce qu'elle pouvait et maintenant le Zaïre a besoin de sang neuf. Le progrès, oui bien sûr, mais un progrès qui nous donne les bons effets. Nous devons regarder l'avenir avec optimisme et avec la ferme conviction que nous atteindrons nos objectifs et nos besoins d'ici la fin des années 50. Je ne vois pas cela sous Mme Banza, qui penche vers le socialisme et n'a pas la capacité de comprendre comment une entreprise doit être gérée de nos jours. Et le Zaïre est une entreprise, une entreprise dans laquelle nous avons tous investi." |




Prime Minister of Japan

Shigeru Yoshida



Naikaku sōridaijin (informal)
His Excellency (formal)


Head of Government

Member Of:

National Diet





Appointed By:

HIM The Emperor


National Diet

Term Length:

Four years or fewer,
renewable indefinitely.


Constitution of Japan


December 22th 1885


Shigeru Yoshida (1948 - Today)

Personal Details

Assumed Office:

October 15th 1948

Preceded By:

Hitoshi Ashida



    The Prime Minister
    The prime minister of Japan (Japanese: 内閣総理大臣, Hepburn: Naikaku Sōri-Daijin) is the head of government of Japan. The prime minister chairs the Cabinet of Japan and has the ability to select and dismiss its Ministers of State. The prime minister also serves as the civilian commander-in-chief of the Japan Armed Forces and as a sitting member of the House of Representatives. The individual is appointed by the emperor of Japan after being nominated by the National Diet and must retain the nomination of the lower house and answer to parliament to remain in office.


    In Japanese, due to the special nature of the work of the head of government, the prime minister's titles vary depending on context, sometimes demonstrating his/her role. Since the inception of the cabinet system, the prime minister is known in Japanese as Naikaku Sōri-Daijin (内閣総理大臣) whenever he is referred to as the head of the Cabinet. However, this title is usually abbreviated to Sōri-Daijin (総理大臣). Other abbreviations include Sōri, Shushō or even Saishō.

    English Notation

    The official English rendering is 'Prime Minister'. This English translation was informally used as the English translation of 'Grand Minister' before the introduction of the cabinet system. However, this was not the original English translation of 'Prime Minister', and a German translation, 'Minister President of the State', was also used in the past.


    Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. Originally, a Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period. It described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the emperor; although in practice, real power was often held elsewhere, such as in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, who intermarried with the imperial family in the Heian period, or by the ruling shōgun. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration.

    Itō Hirobumi, the first Prime Minister
    of Japan.

    Under this system, the Daijō-daijin (太政大臣, Chancellor of the Realm) was the head of the Daijō-kan (Department of State), the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until briefly under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871. The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Minister President of State, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947.


    The prime minister is nominated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals, then a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common nominee. Ultimately, however, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any prime minister it wants. The nominee is then presented with his or her commission, and formally appointed to office by the Emperor.

    Imperial Investiture

    The investiture ceremony is held in the Matsu-no-Ma room (松の間) of the Tokyo Imperial Palace. Several officials are present to witness the entire ceremony. The ceremony first starts with the Prime Minister nominee formally greeting the Emperor upon entering the room. The Emperor greets back upon their approach and addresses that he or she is about to be appointed to office. The Prime Minister nominee acknowledges the Emperor by bowing and then turning to their side to receive their letter of appointment from the former Prime Minister (or the current Prime Minister in the case of the appointment of the Chief Justice) containing the Emperor's Privy Seal and signature. The Prime Minister nominee turns back to face the Emperor, bowing and receding, before making their way to the entrance and then bowing again before leaving the room. The Emperor then leaves the room followed by the other officials.

    For the appointment of the Prime Minister, both the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the House of Councillors are present. If the current Prime Minister is re-appointed, then a Minister of State (usually the Deputy Prime Minister) will take over the role as the former Prime Minister in the investiture ceremony. In practice, the Prime Minister is nominated by the Diet, while the Chief Justice is nominated by the Cabinet. The Emperor is required to appoint the nominated person, without the right to decline appointment. A similar ceremony called the Imperial Attestation (認証官任命式, Ninshōkan-ninmei-shiki) is held for the appointment of the Ministers of State, court judges and other officials. Although they are formally appointed by the Prime Minister, the Constitution stipulates that the ceremony must be attested by the Emperor.


      1 | Must be a member of either house of the Diet. (This implies a minimum age of 25 and a Japanese nationality requirement.)

      2 | Must be a civilian. This excludes serving members of the Japan Armed Forces. Former military persons may be appointed, with Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example.


      1 | Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch.

      2 | Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet.

      3 | Signs laws and Cabinet orders (along with other members of the Cabinet).

      4 | Appoints all Cabinet ministers, and can dismiss them at any time.

      5 | May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers.

      6 | Must make reports on domestic and foreign relations to the Diet.

      7 | Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide answers or explanations.

      8 | May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives.

      9 | Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.

      10 | Commander-in-chief of the Japan Armed Forces.

      11 | May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause.

    Unlike most of his counterparts in constitutional monarchies, the prime minister is both de jure and de facto chief executive. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the prime minister is the leader. His countersignature is required for all laws and Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is effectively an extension of the prime minister's authority.

    List of Office Holders (1945 — Present)

    Prime Minister

    Tenno Eras


    Political Affiliation(s)

    Naruhiko Higashikuni


    (1945 - 1945)

    Imperial Family

    Kijūrō Shidehara


    (1945 - 1946)


    Shigeru Yoshida


    (1946 - 1947)


    Tetsu Katayama


    (1947 - 1948)


    Hitoshi Ashida


    (1948 - 1948)


    Shigeru Yoshida


    (1948 - today)



All Rights Reserved © Tokyo Government | State of Japan

Designed by Paramountica, Assembled for Commonwealth of Liberty.
Read dispatch


July 5th 1949

In comparison to its clandestine supply of weaponry to Israel, Rhodesia has been very public about the desire to provide aid in the form of food which it today formalized. Under the plan Rhodesia shall provide free of charge each and every month : 12 tons of Tobacco, 400 tons of wheat (enough for 680,000 standard sized loaves), 80 tons of maize, 40 tons of oranges, 20 tons of bananas and finally 20 tons of cotton for clothes. Rhodesia has additionally been very open about the possibility of exporting food goods at lower profit margins to Israel in order to negate the effects of possible famine and rationing. Rhodesia still being the largest Agricultural exporter in Africa achieving the Government quota for aid was easily achieved and while there was a financial cost involved this was considered negligible compared to overall incomes from Agricultural exports.

Rhodesian Jews were an additional source of aid, sending care packages along with official aid shipments being made on Rhodesian Trade Vessels, especially for Jewish Children within Israel. These care packages included everything from canned goods and sweets to clothing, shoes and letters of support.

| JULY ИЮЛЬ 1949 |

        Союз Советских Социалистических Республик CCCP  |


The failures of the Soviet Military early in the Great Patriotic war were not lost on those in the highest organs of power. The loss of so many talented military men through the early purges for their possible Counter-Revolutionary ideals was seen as a necessary loss to ensure the Socialist Experiment and ideals of the new Soviet people continue, but now came the time to rebuild the Soviet Armed forces with all the lessons of the Great Patriotic War a force that would now have to deal with the threat of a intense sphere of influence and a duty to defend not only itself, but also a network of Socialist States, Groups, and People across Europe and possibly soon the rest of the world. One advancement that’s been herald is the Union’s Counter-Insurgent ability with the formation of the Povsnet [Tactical Insurgent Force] who has dismantled a massive amount of the Counter-Revolutionary network across the Baltics, Ukraine, and occupied zones in Eastern Europe taking off some stress from the Soviet Red Army. Demobilization of the millions after the Great Patriotic war would need to be efficient and quick to return young men to the duty of reconstructing the Soviet Union from the Volkist destruction it faced in the Great Patriotic War.

    | Conscription and size of the Soviet Armed forces going forward - Призыв и численность Советских Вооруженных Сил в будущем |

The ruthlessness of Soviet conscription was a needed necessity during the Great Patriotic War, which many Soviets understood was needed. Now the Soviet Top Brass wondered if the people would accept this style of conscription now that the immediate threat of total destruction had begun to lift. These would come with higher standards, better pay, military personnel cap, and promotion of volunteering over conscription. This has brought about the discussion of one day ending conscription and the creation of a Volunteer based Soviet Armed Forces in the future.

- The Soviet Red Army would be capped at 2.500.000 Active personnel during times of Peace.
- Physical Standards for the Soviet Armed Forces would be raised to a higher standard.
- Pay scale for the Soviet Armed Forces: Private: 10 Rubles 1st Year, 15 Rubles 2+ Year - Sergeant Jr: 20 Rubles 1st Year, 50 Rubles 3+ Years - Sergeant: 50 Rubles 1st & 2nd Year, 100 Rubles 3+ Years - Sergeant Sr: 100 Ruble 1st & 2nd Year, 125 3+ Years, Starshina: 125 Ruble 1st & 2nd Year, 150 Rubles 3+ Years.
- Medical & University exemptions would be approved more frequently.
- Strong encouragement to build soldiers up for promotion to build a experienced Officer pool.
- Veterans of the Soviet Armed Forces would be given credentials post-service for better housing and employment opportunities.
- Volunteering for the Soviet Armed Forces would have pay be 5+ base pay of their rank.
- During Peacetime, Soviet Conscripts/Volunteers would be granted education opportunities for post-Service employment opportunities.
- 500.000 Red Army Soldiers would be set as the Reserve number to quickly bolster the Red Army in times of Emergency.
- Soviet Military Academies would begin to be promoted to Young Soviets to build up a new Officer class trained with the experience of veterans of WW1, The Civil War, and the Great Patriotic War.

    | The Branches of the Soviet Armed Forces reorganized - Виды Советских Вооруженных Сил реорганизованы |

- Soviet Red Army
- Soviet Air Force
- Soviet Air Defence Forces
- Soviet Navy
- All-Union Militia

    | Guard Troops of the All-Union Militia of the Soviet Union established to ensure the security of the Soviet Union - Войска гвардии Всесоюзной милиции Советского Союза, созданные для обеспечения безопасности Советского Союза. |

As the Ministry of Defence saw the military personnel cap being a possible security threat, to shore up the Soviet Defense capabilities they would seek the build up of a patriotic force of loyal volunteers. This would evolve into the formation of a state militia, named officially the Guard Troops of the All-Union Militia of the Soviet Union. This force would be organized by the Military District and by citizens of that district. This organization would be volunteer based and would exempt the citizen from formal conscription during Peacetime. This force would be capable of Infantry, Armor, and Air Defence capabilities. Service in the Guard Troops of the All-Union Militia of the Soviet Union would be set to a 10 year contract unlike regular conscription which would last 2 years for the Red Army and 3 years for Naval service.

- Volunteer Standards: 18 - 50 years of Age, Citizen of the Soviet Union, meet the Mental-Psychical-Moral requirements set by the Soviet Ministry of Defence, and reside in the Military District in which you volunteer for.
- Training Standards: At time of volunteering they would attend standard Soviet Red Army and Air Defence Forces boot camp and after standard boot camp they would receive a 2 month training course in their military district with emphasis on each district terrain and difficulties. Once basic training is complete Guard Troops would be required to attend annual training course for a 1 month period in their Military District to ensure the readiness of the force at all times.
- Pay Standard: The Guard Troops of the All-Union Militia of the Soviet Union would be similar to Volunteer rates in the Soviet Armed Forces, but would only be paid for their time on base, in service, and in training periods.
- Roles and Responsibilities: In times of Internal crisis the Guard Troops would be expected to provide internal security and maintain public order on the orders of the General-Secretary, provide logistical effort to the Soviet Armed Forces, take on the duty of preparing defenses, defense of frontier regions, and prepared to join the Soviet Armed Forces in combat in times of war.



| JULY ИЮЛЬ 1949 |

        Союз Советских Социалистических Республик CCCP  |


| The situation in the new oblasts of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic have provided a unique opportunity for the once wounded Armenian people who have faced the evil that is genocide from the Ottoman Empire. With that came the fear Turkish residents faced with the people their government once stepped on and oppressed returning to their homeland. The Soviet Red Army would deploy 10,000 Soldiers in 1945 to the Three Oblasts to ensure public order in the Oblasts until the situation was clear and the public was at ease. The first order by the Armenian SSR would be the remaining of the Oblasts to their Armenian names with the capitals of the oblast gaining their original names as well. |

    | Armenian Names return to the Oblasts - Հայկական անունները վերադառնում են շրջաններ |

- Ardahan Oblast -> Gugark Oblast | Գուգարքի մարզ |
- Kars Oblast -> Vanand Oblast | Վանանդ մարզ |
- Iğdır Oblast -> Tsolakert Oblast | Ցոլակերտի մարզ |

    | Dva Naroda Policy put into effect in the Three Oblasts - Политика Два народа вступила в силу в трех областях - Երեք մարզերում ուժի մեջ է մտել Երկու ժողովուրդ քաղաքականությունը |

The worry of ethnic strife in the three oblasts was heavy on the minds of the Armenian SSR and the Soviet Union prepared with the addition of 5,000 more soldiers of the Soviet red army across the three oblasts bringing the total to 15,000 Red Army Soldiers in the region. The idea of Dva Naroda was to slowly heal the region of its ethnic tensions and allow both communities to coexist in the Oblasts. First Secretary Grigory Arutinov would vow that No Turk would be forced to leave the Three Oblasts unless they committed a violent act against a Armenian or the Soviet Red Army.

    | Dva Naroda Policy promises - Обещания Политики Два Народа - Երկու ժողովուրդների քաղաքականության խոստումներ |

- No Citizen who lived in Gurgak, Vanand, and Tsolakert Oblast pre-annexation will be removed by force from their residence unless convicted of criminal activity.
- Armenians will be assisted by the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic in resettlement programs to build housing and provide employment opportunities to bring back the Armenian population into the area.
- Ethnic discrimination will not be tolerated and committing actions deemed such will result in deportation from the Three Oblasts [Equal punishment for Turks & Armenians].
- Turkish Peoples in the three oblasts will be assisted by the Soviet government for volunteer relocation to: Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, or Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.
-The Turkish Language would have official status in the Three Oblasts, but Russian and Armenian would be heavily favored in education to bring cohesion with the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.
- Cultural Cohesion Programs would be established in the Three Oblasts to grow dialogue and cooperation between the two communities.



    July 1949
    New German Politics

P O S T W A R    P O L I T I C S


| The first federal election for the newly born Federal Republic was scheduled for the 14th of August, 1949. In close cooperation and communication with the occupying Allied Powers, who still maintained a powerful presence in the new nation, preparations to carry out the first German election since 1933 and the first election since the official division of the country into East and West were underway. Polling stations across the country were being set up, and efforts to ensure election integrity were being made. For the first time since the death of Weimar democracy in '33, campaign posters from a multitude of parties representing all sides of the political spectrum were appearing. Oil-painting-style posters featuring the face of Konrad Adenauer were plastered across the country. Social Democrat leader Kurt Schumacher met with factory workers and labor unions to stir up working class support, while liberal economist Franz Blucher touted his 'stable economic growth' plan in speeches to halls. |


    "With Adenauer, for peace, freedom and unity in Germany!" — CDU/CSU campaign poster

| This first federal election featured the first great development in postwar German politics. It laid down the major parties and established a new political order in Germany. In contrast to the Weimar democracy, the Federal Republic would seek to fortify the right to vote and the citizens' inalienable right to democracy and liberty and free elections. The 1949 federal election would feature various political parties, representing the right, the left and the center. Several key figures — mainly those leftover from the former Weimar government — were heading political parties, while political newcomers, most of whom had served to resist Volkist autocracy during the war, were also attempting to establish themselves. |

    CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION (CDU/CSU) - Chaired by Konrad Adenauer, Lord Mayor of Cologne and former East Prussia head of government. The Christian Democratic Union formally succeeded the former Centre Party (Zentrum) of the Weimar Republic as the country's leading center/center-right, moderate, non-denominational and Christian democratic party. The CDU was merged into a union with the Christian Social Union (CSU), a Bavarian political party. The CDU/CSU's platform focused on developing a strong, independent and industrialized social market economy and championed integration with the West. These policies were set into motion by the party's leader, Konrad Adenauer, who had served as president of the Parliamentary Council that drafted the Federal Republic's Basic Law. His position as Parliamentary Council president gave him national recognition and established himself as the 'protagonist of the state-to-be'.
    SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (SPD) - Chaired by Kurt Schumacher, the party's leader in the Weimar democracy and the interwar period. The social democratic party was the left-wing bastion in Germany, however it was led by a politician who sought to distinct it from Soviet communism in the east. Schumacher championed a united, democratic and socialist Germany with a large welfare state for the poor. He sought to move the party in the postwar away from an advocacy group for workers to a national-level big tent left wing social democratic party with patriotic features, but has expectedly run into opposition from establishment Marxists. He and the party leadership had agitated against the merger of KPD and SPD elements in the East into the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, marking their difference from Soviet communistic ideals.
    FREE DEMOCRATIC PARTY (FDP) - Chaired by liberal politician Theodor Heuss and led by liberal economist Franz Blucher, the Free Democratic Party represented the liberal center of the country, although it had some center-right leanings and within itself a right-leaning wing. The party backed many of the major national, social and economic policies of the CDU/CSU, with whom it would likely form a coalition with in the event of a hung parliament, although it differentiated itself as the secular party that truly represented all of Germany. The FDP consistently backed the market economy while the CDU/CSU supported a third way of sorts between capitalism and socialism.
    KONSERVATIVE PARTY (KON) - Chaired by Heinrich Hellwege, former leader of the right-wing Deutsche Partei (DP), the new Konservative Party sought to represent the greater conservative right of Germany. It opposed planned economy and land reform, and drummed up nostalgia for the German Empire and German patriotism. However, it also backed the market economy touted by the FDP. The party would be more prominent on the local levels of government within the Lander, but would enter the 1949 election seeking to establish for itself national recognition. 

| Nonetheless, other candidates remained. Candidates like communist Max Reimann and conservative Joseph Baumgartner were also in the ring, albeit as minor politicians. They were not expected to win. Resistance leader and prominent women's rights advocate Sophie Scholl had in the latter months of 1948 touted the possibility of forming her own centrist political alliance, but eventually registered with the Social Democratic Party (SPD) as a moderate social democrat, along with her brother. Scholl's entry into the SPD could easily influence the outcome of the election especially among female voters, but it was widely expected that the election was in truth a tossup between the CDU/CSU and the SPD. |


Vote in the 1949 Election Non-Binding Poll now!:


      The Kingdom of Greece, Greek Housing and Industry to be Rebuilt : Xenon Incident Resolved With Communists Being Cleared, Communist Faith in Greece Restored?, June 1949
      Το Βασίλειο της Ελλάδος, Η ελληνική κατοικία και βιομηχανία ανοικοδομείται : Το επεισόδιο του Ξένου επιλύεται με την εκκαθάριση των κομμουνιστών, αποκαθίσταται η κομμουνιστική πίστη στην Ελλάδα;, Ιούνιος 1949

        Adriatican Islands - The Greek Government and the Greek People! - Η ελληνική κυβέρνηση και ο ελληνικός λαός!


    | As Greece continues and progresses after the Second World War, ever since then, there has been one major issue in Greece, that being the lack of housing and industry. During the Axis occupation, a large amount of Greek infrastructure was destroyed, along with rural areas (excluding Athens), being bombed. As Greece regained its independence and was liberated by the Allied Coalition, the population that was longing to return to the mainland found their homes and estates destroyed or damaged. And while temporary housing was built, it still was not a suitable swap for the thousands of homes lost. Along with this, a large portion of Greek industry was smashed, with dozens of military and civilian factories being rendered useless until 1947. Although it is worth mentioning, factories in Crete and Peloponnese were left largely unaffected, along with most of Greece's shipyards and dockyards. |

    | The issue was a recently added factor and achievement to the Tsaldaris Administration, and working in tandem with some of Greece's largest industrial and materiel companies, managed to lay down plans to resolve the problems. Starting with infrastructure, funds from the American Marshall Plan, along with Slovenian and Arabian investments would be kept aside for infrastructure. Simple and basic housing structures would be built, the old ones being demolished. Assistance plans would also be provided for families who are unemployed, or for people who are not fit to work. Basic sources of living would also be provided. These homes would be built in rural areas of Greece, along with underdeveloped farmlands and population centers. Along with infrastructure, the Greek industrial sector would be rebuilt as well, with separate funds primarily comprising war reparations. For now, Greece would make do with what it had, with the completion of 10,000 homes and 12 factories by the latter half of 1950. |

      "The people of Greece deserve more. They deserve basic living and housing, our work was destroyed by the brutal Axis occupation during the war. But now, we rebuild, we rebuild our nation, we've already rebuilt our faith in the nation, and we've already rebuilt our bond and status as proud Greeks."

        - Prime Minister of Greece, Konstantinos Tsaldaris 


    | Following the explosion of the Greek Coastal Defense Ship 'Xenon' at Heraklion, the event was met with mixed opinions all across the nation. On one hand, the Greek people were unforgiving, largely due to the anti-communist media and propaganda released by the late King George II's government and late Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas' government. The communist hatred in Greece was met with the Greek government coming to the communist defense. On this hand, the Greek government had come to the defense of the communists, stating that the Communists are no longer an enemy, simply a political rival, and along with them being judged with little evidence. The government was right, there were no enemies, and the communist hostilities had ended a year ago. To further bolster the claim, King Pavlos I himself visited Heraklion, stating justice and the clearance of communist forces, even going so far as to fly the KKE emblem on a Greek torpedo boat stationed there. |

      "The Communist Party of Greece has no reason to be hostile, simply a rival at this point. We have no reason to criticize them, they have been oppressed by the general population for too long. I, therefore, have to clear the names of those involved, they are Greeks too, same rights, same freedoms, just with a different ideological preference."

        - King Pavlos I of Greece

    | However, not all had a positive outlook. A Cretan citizen stated the following. |

      "The King is reversing everything the previous regime set out to fight against! The communists are enemies, terrorizing Greece for too long. First, we call them enemies, now we clear their names!?"

        - Unknown Greek Citizen 


         ١٩٤٥ - ١٩٤٦ 

        AFGHANISTAN ☪ Dǝ Afġānistān Šahi Dawlat
        Military Operations agaisint the Safis

Following the government's defeat at the Battle of Mount Almar and the Safi uprising in the eastern province (Nangarhar region), Prime Minister Shah Mahmud Khan took over on the 9th of May 1946. His immediate action was to escalate the campaign against the revolting tribes. Sadar Mohammed Daoud Khan, the eldest son of the deceased German diplomat Prince Mohammed Aziz Khan, was made commander of the central forces against the Safis. The Safi had organized their royal cabinet, the Safi King being Salemai, his Prime Minister Amanat Lewana, and even a minister of defense Amanul Mulk. Prime Minister Mahmud fearing a repeat of the 1929 Civil War, ordered Daoud to crush the Safi rebellion and secure the eastern province. In the Southern Province, Field Marshal. Sardar Wali Khan, an uncle of Zahir Shah, took over as the southern army commander. Both took very different approaches to their strategies; General Daoud's approach would be to crush the Safi with overwhelming firepower. Field Marshal Wali Khan would utilize the Royal Air Force and diplomacy with rival tribes to overcome Mazrak. General Daoud took a brigade, numbering 3,000 strong, marching towards Jalalabad to link up with the local Royal Army garrison against the Salfi. Field Marshal Wali took two brigades with him, numbering 7,500 troops, receiving the most troops since the government deemed Mazrak the more significant threat. From Kabul province, Daoud marched his army toward the eastern province. The infrastructure was lacking or nonexistent in most rural areas in Afghanistan. Once the brigade made its way out of Kabul, the roads changed from concrete to gravel or dirt. Military trucks struggled to traverse the roads toward Jalalabad; it was all too common to see trucks having to be pushed by soldiers. Even for those that didn't get stuck, the ride became unbearable, with the constant bumps and holes causing significant discomfort to the passengers. Soldiers, after a while, opted to move on foot. Calvary and animals of burden had no such problems traversing the road. An artillery battery was also attached to the brigade to provide support. After three days of travel, the brigade arrived at Jalalabad linking with the city garrison; Daoud began his operations against the Safi.

The campaign began when on 24 June 1945, 4 aircraft were dispatched to Jalalabad to assist Daoud Khan's forces against the Safi. Bombs and incendiaries caused extensive damage to Safi villages. One aircraft was lost during operations against the Safis due to technical problems, causing it to crash into a hillside killing the pilot and gunner. Among the villages bombed were the villages of Pacheyano Banda and Tanar. These villages had served as rallying points for the Safi. Thus we're deemed valuable targets by the Royal Air Force. In one of the bombardments of the latter village, civilians were killed in the bombings, and the rest of the family members could not bury the dead in the village graveyard due to the threat of further bombardment. Daoud made it a point to convey that the old tradition of Afghan tribes rising against the government was long over. Now equipped with semi-modern equipment, strategy, and a professional air force, the royal army quickly crushed the Safi in open engagements. The most notable was the Battle of Jologan. Using 10.5 cm leichte Feldhaubitze 16 field guns and Maxim machine guns, the army wiped out a Safi cavalry charge of 200 in 3 minutes. Aside from technological superiority, Daoud employed other tribal levies to assist the army, such as the Nuristani and Shinwari tribesmen. Both these tribes, once enemies of Kabul, now supported the government after receiving payments and privileges.

From the Safi perspective, they overall had 7,000 to 12,000 fighters throughout the campaign. However, most of these fighters were not well equipped, and even those with rifles often sported old single-fire ones like the martini henry. In some instances, the Safi tribespeople used black powder muskets and bows. What they lacked in equipment, the Safi made up with in determination. The Safi King Salemai would rile up his troops with rumors that the government intended to ship women off to Kabul to become prostitutes. Among the more enthusiastic rebel fighters were younger men with more to gain and less to lose from fighting the government. The last major battle against the Safi came when Mir Azam Khan, a cousin of the Safi King, commanded a force of 2,000 and besieged a government garrison at Kunar Khas. The garrison was only 400 strong, but despite being outnumbered and cut off from the roads, they made up for it with consistent air support and supply runs from the royal air force. The siege lasted 14 days, ending when the Safi failed to capture Kunar Khas and the arrival of reinforcements. Once the siege of Kunar Khas was lifted, the royal army, along with Nuristani levies, chased Azam and his remaining forces into the hills. Azam would suffer from a fatal shot to the ribs and succumb to his injuries. With Azam dead, the remaining Safi surrendered, ending the Battle of Kunnar Khas. With this epic defeat, the Safi leadership fled into Mohmand tribal territory in the British Raj. With the collapse of Safi leadership, most of the Safis, except for a few remaining loyalists, surrendered to the Afghan government. Kabul and Safis came to terms with a peace agreement that included the abandonment or postponement of Safi conscription. However, aerial operations against the Safis continued until early November, when the Kunar valley's last remaining strongholds had been destroyed—marking the end of this phase of the Tribal War.




    | HELM OF LIBERTÉ, MINISTÈRE DES COLONIES - | The French Union which is a supranational political entity created in 1946 to replace the old French colonial empire system has five components. The first component is Metropolitan France which includes Algeria. The second is what is referred to as the 'old' colonies which are those of the French West Indies in the Caribbean that became overseas departments in 1946: Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, Réunion. The third component is the 'New' colonies renamed overseas territories which includes the Ivory Coast, Dahomey, Guinea, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, French Sudan, Upper Volta, Congo, Gabon, Ubangi-Shari, Chad, Comoros, French India, Madagascar, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and French Somaliland. The fourth component are the associated states which include the protectorates of French Indochina, Morocco, and Tunisia. Lastly are the United Nations Trust Territories, such as French Cameroons and French Togoland, successors of the League of Nations mandates.

    This month has seen drastic changes among the French Protectorates of Indochina. The State of Vietnam has arisen amid the ongoing conflict against the communist backed Viet Minh guerilla fighters. Beginning with a provisional Western backed government in 1948, the Southern half of Vietnam arose as the State of Vietnam and gained complete independence on July 2, 1949 from France despite proclaiming it in early September 1945. The State of Vietnam has claimed authority over over all of Vietnam despite the Northern half being occupied by communist backed and controlled Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The Republic of France has pledged it's full support to the State of Vietnam in uniting the entirety of the country under one banner. It is for this reason that Emperor Bảo Đại remains grateful to France and has requested that his country remain a part of the French Union. Paris has humbly accepted the Emperor's wishes, taking into account the large number of French troops currently stationed there still.

    Likewise, on July 19th President Vincent Auriol signed an agreement with Laotian King Sisavang Vong in Paris to recognize Laos as a semi-independent state within the French Union. The agreement does carry a clause which allows the French occupy and maintain a permanent military presence in the Kingdom of Laos for the next 25 years. King Sisavang Vong has also agreed that the Kingdom of Laos will assist the French and France's allies in the ongoing conflict against the Viet Minh which stands as an absolute threat to the existence of the Laotian Kingdom. President Auriol also signed an extensive aid package for the Laotian Government which equates per capita to roughly $40 USD per Laotian citizen or $100,000,000.00 USD. Despite the amount of aid afforded to the Kingdom of Laos being a considerable drop in the bucket compared to the aid package of $270,000,000.00 USD granted to the State of Vietnam, there remains no hint of doubt that both countries remain superiorly loyal to France. |


        VIVE L’EMPIRE!

12-13 of August,1949

12th of August
Sultan Zahier Al Hafiz,once the sole leader of Maziya,now regulated down to a position of a figurehead.Came out with his views on the newly emerged Maziya Chinese Association Party which has gotten the Maziya Communist Party so worried over the future of the republic.

    "The newly emerged M.C.A has caused quite a bit of political tension,with their supposed belief of Chinese ethnic supremacism going against the nationalist belief of a Malay nation run by Malays and the M.Z.C.P belief of a nation integrating all of the main big three ethnic groups under one demonym.I personally believe that the M.C.A might cause another civil war with their antics of spreading their beliefs to the public and with the already tense Malay and Chinese ethnic groups,the M.C.A might be the last straw for the two large ethnic groups and we could see a ethnic war once that last straw had been snapped."

-Zahier Al Hafiz

13th of August
With the sultan making his speech.This could possibly make him a target for the M.C.A with the fact that the sultan is a important figure to the Malays.Because of that fact,it was agreed in parliament that a small group of soldiers will be assigned to the sultans palace for the protection of the sultan from any threats.


      ꕦ ꛲ ꕦ ꚿ
      A Z A N I A
      02 August 1949

    Foreign Affairs

      Since its independence in 1939, Zaire has grown to become one of Azania’s closest partners on the continent. The two nations have signed bilateral accords for infrastructural development, ease of movement for their citizens, and laid the framework for continental cooperation through the Universal Declarations of the late war. Today, with Zaire going through a very intense election, the government of Prime Minister Zwane has agreed to pay a visit in an effort to strengthen the bonds between both nations and plot a course for the continent into the future.


    Traveling aboard a specialized executive passenger car, Prime Minister Engameli Zwane traveled through northern Azania and into Zaire along the Atlantic Railway. Constructed as a joint enterprise by the former Estado Novo, Rhodesia, Azania, and Zaire - the rail was the major artery through which commercial goods and people traveled in Southern Africa. Eager to meet again his friend, Gloria Banza, Zwane reviewed his cabinet briefs to occupy his mind as the weight of this meeting settled in. This was to be his first visit in an envisioned tour of Africa, in an effort to drum up support for a formal alliance for the independent states of Africa. Such an organization could carry, he hoped, the diplomatic and economic weight required to stimulate the uplift of the continent and gather the charismatic leaders of Africa on a common cause.

    Once he arrived at the train station, he lit up with excitement and great joy as he viewed the receiving crowds and, of course, Mrs. Banza.

      ENGAMELI ZWANIE, Prime Minister-UT; ”Gloria!! Always a pleasure!”

      | He said leaning in to embrace her warmly with a respectable, and traditional, kiss on either cheek. |


    August 1949
    1949 Election

1 9 4 9    F E D E R A L    E L E C T I O N S


| On 14 August 1949, the first federal election of the newly born Federal Republic of Germany was held. Millions of Germans trooped to the polling stations across the country in the first demonstration of the popular German voice since 1933. Since then, the German state had been ruled by an autocratic far-right nationalistic party that had suspended the citizens' right to decide the future of their country. Now, with the guidance of the occupying Allied Powers and with Allied forces present in the country providing the necessary security and order, the first free and fair election was held since the early Thirties. Polls by local institutions headed into the election showed a tight two-way race between the CDU/CSU, however with the FDP pulling up in a distant third, and the Konservative Party a distant fourth. Many experts and analysts suggested that the election would likely result in a hung parliament unless a coalition is formed, between the CDU/CSU and the Konservatives or the CDU/CSU and the FDP. Experts clarified that it was unlikely Schumacher of the SPD would accept a 'grand coalition' or a national unity government. |

| In the days following, the votes were properly and legitimately counted under the watchful eye of Allied occupation authorities and German election officials, and on 17 August, following the tallying and confirmation of all votes, the popular votes were announced. According to Germany's D'Hondt system of seat allocation, the popular vote would help decide the composition of the new German Bundestag, the legislative body of the new Federal Republic. |

    KONRAD ADENAUER (CDU/CSU) - 35.12% - 7,838,596
    KURT SCHUMACHER (SPD) - 32.93% - 7,348,684
    FRANZ BLUCHER (FDP) - 15.37% - 3,429,385 
    HEINRICH HELLWEGE (KON) - 13.17% - 2,939,473

| By the results, Konrad Adenauer's Christian Democratic Union (CDU/CSU) had won a plurality of all votes at 35.12% of the popular vote, receiving 7.8 million votes across Germany. Kurt Schumacher's left-wing Social Democrats (SPD) received slightly less, at 32.93% of the popular vote, translating to 7.3 million votes. The liberal Franz Blucher of the FDP received 15.37%, translating to 3.4 million votes nationally, while conservative Heinrich Hellwege of the Konservatives received 13.17%, or 2.9 million votes. The Bundestag was thus left hung with 201 seats needed for a majority in the 402-seat chamber. A coalition would be needed due to the following seat allocations according to the popular votes received by the parties. |

    CDU/CSU - 146 seats
    SPD - 137 seats
    FDP - 64 seats
    KON - 55 seats

| The Parliamentary Council, the interim legislative body of the Federal Republic, voted to ratify the election results on 20 August 1949, after some protests by SPD members in a protest against the results led by Kurt Schumacher, who would be tapped to lead the official opposition. |


"Those who adhere to the past won't be able to cope with the future."
WILLY BRANDT, Bundeskanzlerin — 1957-1968


German Federal Election, 1953

Konrad Adenauer

Erich Ollenhauer

Franz Blucher

Heinrich Hellwege









Popular Vote

Popular Vote

Popular Vote

Popular Vote









German Federal Election, 1949

Konrad Adenauer

Kurt Schumacher

Franz Blucher

Heinrich Hellwege









Popular Vote

Popular Vote

Popular Vote

Popular Vote









Results of the Election:

All 100% votes of the Popular Vote
Plurality needed to win

Read dispatch

"Those who adhere to the past won't be able to cope with the future."
WILLY BRANDT, Bundeskanzlerin — 1957-1968


The Federal Government of the German Federal Republic serves as the national government of West Germany, a parliamentary republic in central Europe, composed of 7 states and the special district of West Berlin. The Federal Government of Germany is composed of three distinct branches, namely the Executive (led by the Bundespräsident and the Bundeskanzlerin), the Legislative (composed of the German Bundestag), and the Legislative, composed of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Germany. The German system of democratic and free governance places emphasis on the need of a mandate from the people to rule and vests power in the Chancellor as the head of government, with the role of Bundespräsident primarily serving as a ceremonial role.

Bundestag of the Federal Republic

402 Members of the German Bundestag
201 seats needed for a majority


Konrad Adenauer (CDU/CSU)

Erich Kohler (CDU/CSU)


Erich Kohler (CDU/CSU)

Franz Blucher (FDP)

Erich Ollenhauer (SPD)

Heinrich Hellwege (KON)











Read dispatch



MANILA - In his monthly radio address to the Filipino public, President Manuel Quezon (NP) discussed the achievements of his government 'in the areas of building up the Filipino economy in the postwar'. In his address, he touted primarily economic recovery initiatives and massive infrastructure development projects he had drafted in the National Assembly during the Commonwealth period, that had simply been revived in the postwar to gather foreign investment. President Quezon had been re-elected to the Philippine presidency after a bout with tuberculosis on a platform of encouraging national economic and social growth, recovery from the Second World War, and ensuring a stable transition to 'complete national independence and sovereignty from any occupying power for the first time in the history of our nation'. Quezon's speech, however, revealed to the public only the areas in which his government had lacked. Aid for the poor, calls from the Liberal Party to establish a system of guaranteeing the most vulnerable of society through a primitive welfare state, and separating the Philippines from the United States had and will be key concerns moving into the 1950 election period, the second election to be held in the postwar period.

National polling showed that only 51% of voters viewed the Quezon administration's policies and actions favorably, compared to 37% who viewed them neutrally or as 'having no effect positively or negatively on the nation and its people', against 12% who viewed it strongly negatively. Indeed, the amount of persons who outright declared the Quezon presidency were relatively small, but the approval and favorability of the Nacionalista Party's actions in government had declined consistently since 1947 from 63% to 58% to 55% and now to 51%. Meanwhile, hypothetical election polling indicate a consistent rise in support for Manuel Roxas's Liberal Party, who in the 1946 elections only won 42.0% (1.0 million votes) against Quezon's Nacionalista Party who in the same election won 54.5% (1.3 million votes) of the popular vote. Roxas's Liberals were, if faced off again against the Nacionalista Party, polling 43% against 45% for the Nacionalista Party - a strong decrease for the NP, and a strong rise for the LP. As de facto leader of the opposition, Roxas has decried the government's failure to tackle economic problems and rebuild the country 'not only economically but socially and politically as well'.

Quezon's advanced age has also become an issue of concern. Sources close to Malacanang Palace - seat of the Philippine president - are reporting that the President is suffering 'greater health problems than normal' and now has to 'regularly seek medical checkups with private doctors'. In 1944 and 1945, the president had struggled to fight tuberculosis, something he overcame only thanks to the receiving of an anti-TB vaccine secured by the Roosevelt administration. Some worried that the President could fall ill in office, or worse. In fact, during a debate in the House of Representatives, Modernist Party House leader Esmeraldo Eco declared controversially that 'such a young nation should not be led by such an old politician'. Concerns over the President's ailing health as a potential factor towards government inaction and thus linking his health to direct effect to the Filipino people were not helping the polling numbers of the president's NP.

Nonetheless, the early stages of a national campaign are preparing ahead of the May 1950 national elections. President Quezon has yet to himself announce whether or not he intends to run for office again, or whether or not he intends to hand over power to his vice president, Sergio Osmena. Indeed, it is likely that Manuel Roxas will seek a second run for the presidency, but potential opposition from LP opposition leader in the Senate Sen. Elpidio Quirino could rise. Moncado of the Partido Modernista (PM) and Luis Taruc of the Philippine Progressive Party (PPP) are also likely to run once more.

«12. . .92,01292,01392,01492,01592,01692,01792,018. . .92,04792,048»