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History of Nanako Islands
From top left to down right :
Kiyomoto Castle, Japanese invasion
of Nanako (1940), British invasion
of Nanako (1578), Deijī Hime (c. late
14th century), Adachi Line (1922),
Ainu people (c. 1453)
Paleolithic before 13,000BC
Jōmon 13,000BC - 1,000BC
Para-Yayoi 1,000BC - 300
Yamato 300 - 710
Kofun Satsumon 300 - 500
Ōjidai 500 - 800
Asuka 650 - 710
Nara 710 - 794
Heian 794 - 1185
Kamakura 1185 - 1336
Kenmu Restoration 1333 - 1336
Muromachi Ashikaga 1336 - 1467
Sengoku 1467 - 1601
Colonial Era 1601 - 1899
First British Colony 1601 - 1807
Nanakian Republic 1807 - 1815
Second British Colony 1815 - 1899
Dominion Era 1899 - 1957
Confederation 1899 - 1914
World War 1 1914 - 1918
Interwar 1918 - 1940
Japanese Occupation 1940 - 1945
Postwar 1945 - 1957
Modern Nanako 1957 -
First Miracle 1958 - 1970
Blossom Era 1970 - 1995
Second Miracle 1995 - 2008
Recession 2008 - 2015
The Kofun period corresponds to the appearance of new mortuary rituals from Korea. The southern half of Japan is undergoing a major cultural change, while the north, Hokkaido and Nanako are less foreign-influenced and develop the Satsumon or later Emishi culture, a mix between Jōmon, Yayoi and Kofun cultures. During the Ōjidai period, which coincides with the Yamato period in Japan, the first forms of government appeared, in the form of clans and monarchies, on the archipelago, refusing the authority of the Japanese emperor. In 656, the Legend of the Three Peaks Chronicles (Miyama Den (三峰伝)) records the legendary creation of the Kingdom of Nanako, first idea of an unified Nanako, around 600BC, through Nanakian Shinto mythology and first legendary ruler of Nanako, Princess Deijī (弟衣事姫, Deijī Hime). During the 600s to 800s, many conflicts between the local kingdoms and the Japanese emperor ended the Ōjidai period and marked the beginning of the Heian period in Nanako, characterized by the establishment of a regent caste of Japanese people. The legendary tale of Nanako is kept secret by Shinto priests until 1878.
From the eighth to the twelfth century, the archipelago was divided between two demographic groups and two cultures. The dominant Japanese class, from the south and the west, is closely linked to Japanese culture and mainly Nanakian and Japanese Shinto and Buddhist. A classical culture carried by the imperial court is developing, very influenced by continental models from which it emancipated itself during the tenth century. The Ainu are mainly dominated except in the northern territories and the Kuril Islands, where the tribes are free and trade with the Japanese. The Japanese Nanakian clans will take part in the political tensions of the time alongside the Fujiwara clan.
The Middle Ages on Nanako began in 1180 with the Genpei War in mainland Japan and the loss of power of the Fujiwara clan which forced the Nanakian clans to recognize the authority of the Kamakura Shogun, which marked the beginning of the Kamakura period. Trade with the Ainu populations is increasing, and the Ainu tribes are gaining strength. The influence of the Japanese Nanakian clans grew on the island taking advantage of the feudal system resulting from the instability of the imperial government and the shogunate. During the Kenmu restoration, the two most powerful clans of Nanako go into conflict with each other, taking with them their Ainu trading partners. During the Muromachi era, the Eastern clan, favorable to the emperor, lost its influence and dissolved into several clans and even into a few kingdoms, giving way to a period of prosperity for the Shubikujiwa clan. During the Sengoku Period, the clan of Shubikujiwa amassed a lot of wealth from the Ainu and the trade with Hokkaido and Sakhalin. The conflicts between west and south multiply and the south approaches the Nanbu clan. Between 1456 and 1463, Ainu tribes formed confederations and attacked clans to appropriate marketable resources. This emancipation is accompanied by internal Ainu revolts in the clans, all of which will be reprimanded. In 1478, Nanako was mainly controlled by Japanese clans.
1 Paleolithic (before 13,000BC)
2 Ancient Nanako (13,000BC - 500)
2.1 Jōmon (13,000BC - 1000BC)
2.2 Para-Yayoi (1000BC - 300)
2.3 Kofun Satsumon (300 - 500)
3 Classical Nanako (500 - 1185)
3.1 Ōjidai (500 - 800)
3.1.1 Asuka (650 - 710)
3.1.2 Nara (710 - 794)
3.2 Heian (794 - 1185)
4 Medieval Nanako (1185 - 1601)
4.1 Kamakura (1185 - 1336)
4.1.1 Kenmu Restoration (1333 - 1336)
4.2 Muromachi Ashikaga (1336 - 1467)
4.3 Sengoku (1467 - 1601)
5 Occidental Nanako (1601 - 1899)
5.1 First British Colonial Era (1601 - 1807)
5.2 The Republic of Nanako (1807 - 1816)
5.3 Second British Colonial Era (1815 - 1899)
6 Dominion of Nanako (1899 - 1957)
6.1 The Confederation (1899 - 1940)
6.1.1 First World War (1914 - 1918)
6.1.2 Interwar Nanako (1918 - 1940)
6.2 World War 2 (1940 - 1945)
6.3 Postwar Nanako (1945 - 1957)
7 Modern Nanako (1957 - )
7.1 First Economic Miracle (1958 - 1970)
7.2 Blossom Era (1970 - 1995)
7.3 Second Economic Miracle (1995 - 2008)
7.4 Global Economic Recession (2008 - )
8 Politics and Controversies regarding multi-cultural history
9 Cultural print of the Nanakian history
During the Napoleonic Wars, in 1807, a French armada tasked to disrupt British trade routes takes advantage of the island's relative defenses to invade it. Rear-admiral Henri Gatingues, a convinced French revolutionary, conveys to the local population republican and democratic ideas, calling for rebellion. The Nanakian Republic is proclaimed in 1808 by a local assembly governed by Gatingues in Hokosinawa. Eastern regions under French influence hailed the change but the loyalist regions of the west and south seceded against the east. Thought 1808 to 1815-1816, the Eastern regions are deeply influenced by French culture, and two thirds of the population were taught french in public schools. In 1815, the island and its dependencies are given back to the British.
The post-French period was marked by strong democratic demands which led to a number of political reforms from 1815 to 1840. In 1840, the colonial council to the governor was replaced by a council of commoners, mainly originating from the bourgeoisie. Through 1842 to 1870, French political instability becomes a motive to immigrate to Nanako, thus the eastern regions become more and more influenced by French culture, and republican ideas. 1856 marks the first time ever the Kuril islands become a diplomatic issue between Russia and Nanako. In 1890, the governor Sir Philips Nottingham creates a independent judicial system known as the Confederated Court of Justice. In 1899, strongly affected by the industrial revolution due to its coal and steel ressources, a socialist movement overthrows the governor and creates "His Majesty's Nanakian Confederation". Through this revolt, the crown and the British Parliament grants the status of dominion to Nanako and a parliamentary democracy led by a Prime Minister is installed.
The Chinese revolution of 1911 created a wave of Chinese immigration on Nanako, the origin of the Chinese districts of Inaba and Shubikujiwa. The outbreak of World War One engenders a wave of Commonwealth-patriotism, and shows that tensions of the past century have settled down. Of precisely 378,442 soldiers sent to Europe, only 103,666 will come back to Nanako, recording one of the Commonwealth's most casualties/manpower ratios. The inter-war period was characterized by a constant economic and industrial growth, a rapid natality growth due to the losses in WW1 and the development of rail in the country, becoming the first mean of transportation. The Russian civil war created a wave of immigration to Nanako, mainly in the western provinces. The stock market crash of 1929 had relatively little impact on Nanako, which took advantage of its position as a developed island, in a still relatively underdeveloped Asia, to make its trade flourish.
Japanese agressive behaviors in the region led to the extension of the Nanakian Royal Army and its defensive facilities. In 1941, Japan invades Nanako. The battle for Nanako lasted 1 year from 1941 to 1942. Officialy the Nanakian government never surrendered, and fled to the Andreanof Islands, Nanakian overseas territories and was protected by the USA. A guerrilla resistance force organized itself on Japanese occupied Nanako. Many attacks against the Japanese led them to retaliate by mass-killing civilian populations. The total Nanakian casualties from WW2 are estimated to 100,678 soldiers, sailors and airmen and 209,677 civilians for a total population at that time of around 17 millions. The country was liberated by the capitulation of Japan in september 1945, just before the Red Army landed on Nanakian shores. In 1947, protests led by communist movements and independentists demand for independence. The pression is such that the British Government allows Nanako to leave its dominion status in the "Independence Bill 1947", letting Nanako a 10 years transition period to create a constitution and a working political system. In 1957, trough "The Partition Act", Nanako becomes a fully recognized and independent realm of The Commonwealth of Nations. The Independence bill also institutes the "Regime Duality".
Nanako stood during the cold war as a close and strategic ally to NATO, the Commonwealth and Japan due ot its direct proximity to the Soviet Union. However, Nanakian diplomacy tended towards neutral relationship the Soviet Union, to avoid many crisis an to try keeping stability in the Northern Pacific, mostly because of the very tendentious Kuril Islands concern. The First Economic Miracle (1958) gave Nanako a two digits economic growth partially explained by post-war reconstructions. This period also was a long reconciliation time between Francophone, Japanese and English populations, leading to the construction of a multi-cultural nation. In 1978, following hippie movements ideals, the country revoked its right to declare war, and the military was renamed Nanako Self-Defense Forces. 1980, same sex-marriage and abortion are legalized. The same year, the government adopts the denomination "Republic" as an official alternative to "Realm", closer to the actual depiction of the political system, in the frame of the "Regime Duality Law". 1995 marks the beginning of the second Economic Miracle, based on research, high-tech and medical and aeronautics industry. Nanako becomes the 6th largest economic power in 2006 and in 2008, the economy is affected by the global recession. Social-Democrats assume power. Most recently, Nanako join the newly created United Forum of Nations organisation and now hosts the International Court of Justice.
in the Late Pleistocene about 40,000
=> : Migratory route
[-] : Emerged lands (tundra)
[-] : Current landmass (tundra)
[-] : Vegetated areas
The Nanakian Paleolithic probably began around 45,000 years ago when first humans reached Nanako and its archipelago using land bridges between Sakhalin, Hokkaido and the archipelago itself. During the last glacial period, from 115,000 to 11,500 years ago, large ice caps caused sea levels to descend, emerging shallow sea beds. At the climax of this period around -18,000, the sea level was then 130 to 140 meters lower than the current level. Most of the territory was then occupied by tundra, except to the south and in the emerged lands of Adachi Bay in which had grown, sheltered from polar winds, coniferous forests. The first homo sapiens shared the land with large animals, including mammoths and probably occupied the forested areas of the island. However, excavations in permafrost soil of the northeast fjords of the island have revealed that isolated populations remained beyond the central mountain range. The acidic nature of some soils makes it impossible to preserve human remains.
The first traces of craftsmanship date back to around 30,000 years ago for the most part and consist mainly of polished stones. The oldest crafted object was discovered in 1997 during excavations in the Narakonai region, and was dated to around 45,000 by carbon dating. Multiple datings were carried out on this object since it contradicted a theory according to which the migratory flow would have come from Hokkaido, and thus would be dated around 32,000 years, years of the beginning of Paleolitic in Japan. The doubts were removed in 1998 by the discovery of a second object in region's mountains, also dated around 40,000 years ago. The artifacts discovered on Nanako consist for the most part of spears and harpoon, axes and knives. This period of industry will last up to 15,000 BC. During this period, 20,000 years ago, the population was estimated at 6,000 or even 7,000 inhabitants, living mainly from hunting, fishing and gathering.
In 15,000 BC, in the southern forested areas, appears thinner blades and more elaborate tools. This more developed industry will spread over the rest of the island between 15,000 BC and 12,000 BC. The wedge shape of these blades recalls the cutting methods observed around Lake Baďkal, thus corroborating the idea that first waves of migration had come from the west, from mainland, rather than from the south. Indeed, in southern Japan, the rounded shapes of the blades are similar to those found in southern China. Climate change, melting ice, as well as the disappearance of some game lead to a shift in the diet of these first inhabitants towards a diet richer in plants and fish.
Ancient Nanako is a protohistoric period of the Nanakian history sending between aproximately 13,000 BC and 500 (13,500 years) which saw three major eras : the Jōmon era, Para-Yayoi era and Kofun era. In terms of world historical landmarks, this great period encompasses the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Ancient Nanako begins with the emergence of the Jōmon culture through immigration and the evolution of technology, is marked by a major ethnic change with the arrival of the Yamato, sometimes used as an alternative periodic division, and ends with the start of the Ōjidai period and the creation of the first states organized as such.
The Jōmon era begins around 13,000BC, that is 15,000 years ago. The Jōmon period (縄文時代, Jōmon jidai) takes its name from the pottery characteristic of this period, which marked a turning point in Nanakian culture. The first archaeological discoveries uncovered potteries "decorated (文, mon) by printing strings (縄, jō)". The Jōmon period was rich in tools and jewellery made from bone, stone, shell and antler; pottery figurines and vessels; and lacquerware. It is often compared to pre-Columbian cultures of the North American Pacific Northwest because in these settings cultural complexity developed within a primarily hunting-gathering context with limited use of horticulture. The very long, approximately 14,000 year Jōmon period is conventionally divided into several phases: Incipient (16,500-10,000 years ago), Initial (10,000–7,000), Early (7,000–5,450), Middle (5,450–4,420), Late (4,420–3,220), and Final (3,220–2,350), with each phase progressively shorter than the prior phase. Dating of the Jōmon sub-phases is based primarily upon ceramic typology.
Final Jōmon dogū, Asumoji Site
The earliest "Incipient Jōmon" phase began while Nanako was still linked to continental Asia as a narrow peninsula. The sudden rise in temperatures which begins at the end of the Younger Dryas, around 11,700 BC, marked the start of the Holocene interglacial and continued until around 4,000 BCE. On this date it seems that the temperature during the summer was two degrees higher than current temperatures. By the end of the Incipient Jōmon phase, around 8,000BC, a semi-sedentary lifestyle apparently led to an increase in population density, so that the subsequent phase, the Initial Jōmon, exhibits some of the highest densities known for foraging populations. The warming causes large migratory movements and a demographic growth which will be reflected through these initial Jōmon periods. During Jōmon, the population which was then estimated at 7,000 inhabitants increased to 47,000 or even 86,000 inhabitants, judging by the number of houses found.
Flame style jar, Middle Jōmon
Highly ornate pottery dogū figurines and jars, such as the so-called "flame style" jars, and lacquered wood objects remain from Middle Jōmon and beyond. Although the ornamentation of pottery increased over time, the ceramic fabric always remained quite coarse. This period saw a rise in complexity in the design of pit-houses, the most commonly used method of housing at the time, with some even having stone paved floors. This form of dwelling continued up until the Satsumon culture, after the Para-Yayoi period. After 1,500BC, late and final Jōmon, the climate cooled, and populations seem to have contracted dramatically. Comparatively few archaeological sites can be found after 1,500BC.
Genetic mapping studies by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza have shown a pattern of genetic expansion from the area of the Sea of Japan towards the rest of eastern Asia. This appears as the third principal component of genetic variation in Eurasia (after the "Great expansion" from the African continent, and a second expansion from the area of Northern Siberia), which suggests geographical expansion during the early Jōmon period. These studies also suggest that the Jōmon demographic expansion could possibly have reached America along a path following the Pacific coast.
Migrations and origins of
technologies during Para-Yayoi
Deijī Hime, legendary founder
of Nanako (c. late 14th century)
The Para-Yayoi period, or Epi-Jōmon, is the period following the Jōmon period from around 1000BC to 300AD. It parallels the Yayoi period of ancient Japan, but diverges enough to be called Para-Yayoi (from the ancient Greek παρά, pará, "next to") or Epi-Jōmon (ancient Greek ἐπί, epí, over, successor). The period was characterized by the development of agriculture, especially in the large river basins of Hokosinawa, Shiitoyate, Narakonai and the Nokabe in general. This period also saw, shortly after, its first Bronze Age - Iron Age.
Dōtaku, middle Para-Yayoi
The Yayoi people are the name given to the Korean farmers who immigrated in large numbers to Japan during the period, mixing with the Jōmon population, even destroying it sometimes. Again, the location of Nanako makes the idea that the technologies were introduced by Koreans quite improbable. Unlike the rice example, bronze (300BC) and iron (100AD) casting technologies would have come from Korea and China, but not through immigration, but through trade between the eastern regions and the peoples of the Amur River, who themselves traded with the Chinese and Koreans from Gojoseon. It is also likely that some of these populations migrated to Nanako, taking with them Sinno-Korean know-how.
Throughout the period, the lifestyle of the inhabitants will settle down for good, except in certain tribes scattered in the mountains and the north, which will develop a more hunter-gatherer culture, probably the foundation of the Ainu people. The adoption of this new way of life leads to a strong increase in the population, going from about 50,000 to almost 850,000. As the population increased, the society became more stratified and complex. They wove textiles, lived in permanent farming villages, and constructed buildings with wood and stone. They also accumulated wealth through land ownership and the storage of grain. Such factors promoted the development of distinct social classes. Para-Yayoi pottery was simply decorated and produced using the same coiling technique previously used in Jōmon pottery. Para-Yayoi craft specialists made bronze ceremonial bells (dōtaku), mirrors, and weapons. By the 1st century AD, Para-Yayoi people began using iron agricultural tools and weapons. It is thought from Chinese descriptions of the Han dynasty that the Epi-Jōmon wore tattoos. Indeed, the first written mention of the people of Nanako appears in the Book of Han from 111. In volume 28, Treatise on Geography, is mentioned the people of Japan, and of Nanako: "The people of Wo (Japan) are located across the ocean from Lelang Commandery, are divided into more than one hundred tribes, and come to offer tribute from time to time. Still futher where the water starts freezing, still exists tribes form the people of Wo, but come to offer tribute more rarely." Although archaeological research shows that the Yayoi people and Epi-Jōmon did not have the same influences, their culture remains close since most Chinese sources consider them as individuals of the Wo people. Third-century Chinese sources reported that the Wa people of the North (Běifāng Wō, 北方倭) lived on raw fish, vegetables, and rice served on bamboo and wooden trays, clapped their hands in worship (something still done in Shinto shrines today), and built earthen-grave mounds. They also maintained vassal-master relations, collected taxes, had provincial granaries and markets, and observed mourning. Society was characterized by violent struggles.
Scholars think the major chiasm between Nanakian and Japanese shinto happened during the Epi-Jōmon period, from differing influences, thus leading to the foundation of the Nanakian civilization origins myths. The origin myths of Nanakian civilization extend back to Para-Yayoi, though they show little or no relation to the current archaeological understanding of Epi-Jōmon culture. 600BC is the traditional founding date of the Nanakian nation by Princess Deijī. This version of Nanakian history, however, comes from the country's first written record, the Miyama-Den, dating from the 6th century. In addition, this legendary genesis will be stifled in favor of the Japanese imperial reign. Despite everything, recent studies in the Narakonai region, and the study of ancient Chinese texts, which reffers "tributes from Northern Wo people", even if described as rare, suggest that during the end of Para-Yayoi, a state was established in the region. But written descriptions of kingdoms on the island won't arrive until later in the Records of the Three Kingdoms. These discoveries are supported by the story described in the Miyama-Den. Deijī Hime is actually a semi-legendary character corresponding to the first queen of the Kingdom of Narakonai (500AD-570AD), but made legendary in Miyama-Den.
The Kofun-Satsumon period spans across the 300-500AD period and saw the birth of organized states and the emergence of a distinct Satsumon culture, distinct from the emerging Japanese Yamato mainland culture, although sharing a lot of customs and the same language. The satsumon culture differentiates itself from the Yamato culture for its development is not heavily influenced by Korean and Chinese cultures. Kofun-Satsumon culture is the decedent of the preceding Epi-Jōmon culture. It is the equivalent of the Japanese Kofun period.
Throughout this period stratification of the society in different castes accelerated due to the increasing food production and bronze and iron productions. Initiated during the late Para-Yayoi period, this phenomenon starts to uniformly effect the island and organized territories and fiefdoms start to emerge, setting the foundations of the upcoming Ōjidai period. The known organized state to have emerged is the City of Narakonai that became the Kingdom of Nanako around 500 under the rule of semi-legendary princess Deijī. Other organised states to have emerged during this period comprise numerous self-governing cities of the Nokabe region and on the shores of the Adachi bay. Northern regions, less populated, remain less sedentary and practice less agriculture. Their culture will around 500 diverge from the Satsumon culture to become the Ainu culture. The Satsumon culture has also spread through emigration and commerce to Sakhalin, the Kurils, where it became Ainu cultures too, and Hokkaido where it merged with the present Emishi-Satsumon culture to become the Emishi culture, culture of the Tohoku region.
The period saw the emergence of a developed architectural and art style, of Japanese style, but adapted to the cooler climate. Writing used Chinese characters and was limited to a literate elite. Swords, mirrors and armour decorated with Chinese characters where found in burial mounds. Funeral rites developed during this period, introducing aforementioned burial mounds (凹丘, Kubo-oka, Hollow hill) and ceremonial funeral gifts to important figures. First archaeologists though theses mounds where evidence that the Koreans had influenced Nanako, as the mounds seemed very similar to the Kofuns found in Korean-influenced Japan (Yamato-kofun). But excavation and exploration of theses burial mounds showed that these mounds where significantly different from those found in Japan, differently shaped, placed and organized, leading to believe that this culture was locally-developed. This discovery led to the differentiation of the Nanakian Kofun-Satsumon and Japanese Kofun cultures. Iron and bronze casting techniques developed into industrial production, boosting agricultural production, deforestation and supported the emergence of organized states through the development of arms. Conflicts between cities led to evolution of the islands politics and supported the raise of a warrior aristocracy. Nanakian Shinto continued to organize itself around its beliefs and organised shrines uniformed the practice of customs throughout the island.
Chinese sources state that the numerous independent cities of Nanako came to pay tribute to the emperor more often than they did during the Epi-Jōmon period, supporting the idea that cities formed themselves as organised states, with ambassadors. Silla, Goguryeo and Baekje, the three kingdoms of Korea where also in contact with Nanakian tribes. This increase in the number of contacts also leads to belive that the Nanakian Satsumon culture was characterized by advance navigation technologies, enabling them to also keep a very good contact with mainland Japan, which was their main trade partner. The Epi-Jōmon and Kofun-Satsumon period are often referred has "The Two Japan", highlighting the fact, while keeping similar customs, two different Japanese-style cultures developed on the two islands. It also highlights the fact that during this time there were two cultural centers: southern Japan and Nanako, while Hokkaido was less prosperous. This phenomenon is still hardly explainable by current studies and is known in the study of the Nanakian history as the "Isolation paradox".
The word Satsumon describes a type of pottery that was found in Hokkaido, Japan and that was identified has a merger of late Para-Yayoi and Yayoi-Emishi art styles. As such, Satsumon is deemed unsuitable to describe the Kofun-Satsumon period of Nanako that was very different from the real Satsumon culture found in northern Japan and Hokkaido. Some scholars tried to find new ways to name this period. Some proposed to simply say Nanakian-Satsumon, to properly differentiate the two, but the cultures a too different to be called by the same name, argued historian Ishigo Jimede. Moreover, he points out that the pottery type designated by "Satsumon" is not even found during this time period of Nanako, for the culture of Nanako was fundamentally different and more developed. He proposed in 2016 to call this period "Kubokō-jidai", the hollow hills period.
History of Nanako Articles
Prehistoric and Ancient Nanako
Nanakian Paleolithic · Ancient Nanako (Jōmon era · Para-Yayoi era · Kofun-Satsumon era) · Yamato era
Classical and Medieval Nanako
Classical Nanako (Ōjidai era · Asuka era · Nara era · Heian era)
Colonial and Modern Nanako
Colonial Nanako (1st British Nanako Colony · Nanakian Republic · 2nd British Nanako Colony)
Independence · First Economic Miracle · Cold War Nanako · Blossom Era (Emancipation) · Second Economic Miracle · Global Recession