I have gotten permission from a best selling author to translate chapter one of her book into Doman (and maybe record it in audio form). All of this as an exercise to expand my language. and develop it further.
That’s awesome dude haha. Good for you! That’ll be so cool to see
Motto: Another Round, Then
Location West of Tsunterland in the Mesder Sea
Population: 12.8 Million
Largest City: Port Caspian
Official Language: Spanish
National Language: Spanish
Deputy Prime Minister:
GDP (nominal): 275.2 Billion USD
GDP (nominal) per capita: 21,500 USD
The State of Jeriga
The State of Jeriga, commonly called Jeriga, is a Constitutional Monarchy in the Mesder Sea. It is bordered on the north and east by Tsunterland.
Jeriga (Jay-Ree-Guh) was the original name given to the island by Spanish explorers in the 11th century. It is derived from a miscommunication between the explorers and the native tribes they found there regarding a small village at the heart of the island.
The standard way to refer to a citizen of Jeriga is as a "Jerigan."
Jeriga was originally founded by voluntary unification of the major tribes of Jeriga in 1617 following a major famine which left thousands dead. The Great Death of 1600-1612 forced the tribes to recognize that each of them aiming to be self-sufficient would no longer feed their growing tribes. As such, they chose to elect Leo Moreno as Grande Chief to organize the irrigation, farming, and management of food stores. Seen as a neutral mediator, the Grande Chief was given the authority to work in contested lands with funds and workers provided by all of the tribes. The Grande Chief worked feverishly with the chiefs to create a national farming and grain storage system to stop the famine from happening again. He also planned and constructed an irrigation system in the contested Northern Plains. This allowed farming to occur there for the first time, which greatly increased the food supply and helped to alleviate the pains of the famine for peasants and chiefs alike. In celebration of the official end of the famine in 1627, peasants crowded the streets of Montien, where the council sat. The Grande Chief continued to grow in popularity over the next 13 years.
Meanwhile, Spanish explorers were bringing with them Christianity and trade goods. By 1640, Grande Chief Leo Moreno and the chiefs were convinced by Priest Aballo that Jeriga needed a King ordained by God to rule them, hoping to bring them under Spanish rule. Instead, the Jerigan Chiefs Council formed the Church of Jeriga. They then reelected Leo Moreno as King Leo Moreno and established Montien as its capital. Crowned by a Priest, the King began building the long arm of his throne. Using new authority afforded by his popularity and title, he began the building of several roads and bridges, levying money from the chiefs to build them. In 1648, the King demanded that annual taxes be paid to the throne for the construction of a grand palace in Montien to house the growing government.
At first, the Chiefs willingly paid the taxes. They, too, wished to see the splendor of their island. However, the King began increasing the taxes each year until 1650. When the taxes for 1651 were announced, the Chiefs refused. The King, having no standing army, could only watch as the Chiefs, in full battledress, marched their combined forces into the city and sat it outside his home. His son, Tito, was 19 at the time. He watched his father walk out to hear their terms and was present for the document he signed eliminating the Chieftains' tax. Following this, King Leo began taxing the peasants on purchases of seed, grain, and by adding tarriffs to imports and exports. Later that year, King Leo died and his son, King Tito Moreno, was crowned King of Jeriga by a Church of Jeriga priest.
King Tito the Warrior
King Tito came to the throne at the age of 20, young by most standards. Guided by the same advisors and watched carefully by the Chiefs, he did not disrupt the power structure that had been created before his birth in his first years. Using the taxes from the peasants, he continued to build a modest palace in Montien and relocated his advisors and ministers there. He also continued to develop roads and bridges. In 1661, Alensvin, the largest port town on the island, fell into the hands of one Chieftain by birthright. The death of Rodrigo Julian resulted in a merger of the Antonio and Julian Chieftains as Rodrigo's son, Fabian, inherited the Julian lands including the city Alensvin.
According to the Pact of 1617, the King had to recognize all Chiefs' land acquisitions with the advice and consent of the Chiefs. This was meant to stop wars from political marrying and to enable the King to mediate land disputes without full autonomy. It was unclear, though, if inheritance counted as land acquisition. The Chiefs assembled in Montien with the King presiding as Fabian Julian made his case as both chief of the Julian and Antonio clans. He was opposed by most of the chiefs, but his position as the leader of both clans enabled him to force the Chiefs to beseech the King for mediation. At first, King Tito, only 30, failed to act, saying the inheritance was outside his authority. However, Fabian quickly began to use his sole ownership of the major ports to charge tariffs on imports and exports, collecting money from his fellow countrymen to swell his influence and, secretly, raise an army with the intent to conquer Montien and the other clans.
The King and Chieftans quickly caught onto this and assembled in Montien to sort the issue out. Fabian did not show. Without his presence, the Chiefs granted the King the authority over inheritance. King Tito followed this resolution with a decree declaring The Julian and Antonio Clans as separate entities and demanded that Fabian return all money collected to the Chieftains. He flatly refused and began to assemble his forces which had swollen to 5000 well armed men. The Chiefs assembled their forces and marched to Montien for the first time as a friendly force. From there, marched to Alensvin. They were intercepted by The Julian Army, as it called itself 10 miles from town. They engaged shortly after noon on July 1st, 1663.
The ensuing battle proved to be devastating. Though the Chieftains forces outnumbered the Julian Army 3 to 1, the badly trained and equipped forces fell in droves against the prepared enemies. As the sun began to set on the battlefield, 4 of the 11 Chiefs lay dead in the field. Still, the fighting continued. When a hole opened in the Chiefs' center, the Julians pressed their advantage. They surged forward, exposing their flank to the disorganized foe. The King, having been denied a command by the Chiefs, dashed forward on foot and took a banner from the ground. Calling to the peasants around him, he charged towards the flank of his enemy. At the same time, Chief Hernando of the Raul clan rallied his center and joined in the charge. As the sun finally set on the battlefield, the Julian Army lay dead in the field as the survivors dispersed. With them, Fabian Julian died as well.
Following the Battle, King Tito was celebrated among the surviving Chiefs, whose lands had suffered greatly from the tariffs and war. In order to stop this from occurring again, the Chiefs gave up the cities as the King's Land and a royal guard was established in the effort of making neutral ground at the ports. It was the first time troops were formally placed under the command of the King.
As the rest of the year unfolded, the financial cost of the battle became ever clearer. Between the payment of for damages to crops, the pacifying of the Julian and Antonio Clans, and the establishment of a royal guard, the country was running low on coin at an unsustainable rate. The King, knowing the peasants were already taxed enough, instituted taxes on the Chiefs without their consent. Once again, the Chiefs' armies marched to Montien to remind the King of who was still in control. The King relented and raised taxes on the peasants instead.
For the next 15 years, peasants would organize protests against their clans as much as they would against the King himself. Despite efforts stop the organization of the peasants, they grew to be a stronger and stronger influence on the Chiefs and the King. It came to a head in 1687 when a peasant protest in Montien met bloodshed at the hands of the Raul clan. This broke the protest and prompted the clans to begin occupying the cities again, simply walking past the Royal Guard. King Tito withdrew them to the palace and offered, in secret, to meet with the leader of the latest revolts, Marcelo.
In the Cabin Meeting of 1687, the King promised to introduce a parliament with representation for the peasants if the peasants would join his Royal Guard to force the clans out of the cities and, ultimately, disarm them. Marcelo readily agreed to this on the grounds that it be a democratic vote. The King agreed and the two set to work. King Tito began training peasants in Montien to join his "Royal Guard". Meanwhile, Marcelo spread pamphlets to discourage the peasantry from joining the Chiefs' forces with the help of a printing press in Montien. It worked. The King's Royal Guard swelled to 7,500, the largest army on the island.
In the first week of June, 1688, King Tito began to move. He started in Alensvin and took the town, disarming the Julian and Antonio clans in the process. He then moved North and West, engaging small forces when taking the Cheifs' manors. Overall, only 50 people died in the battles as peasants deserted their post in the face of the Royal Guard. By the end of the week, the clans were disarmed and the former Chiefs were arrested for treason in their occupation of the King's Land. All of the former Chiefs were executed following a summary sentencing from the King.
On June 7th, 1689, the Unicameral Parliament of Jeriga was established with the power to review the Crown's actions, control the budget, and pass laws regarding civil society and economy. The King still exercised enormous executive powers and appointed the Prime Minister and, through the PM, the ministers. The King strongly believed this new, stable, and Chiefless system would both allow him the power to rule and the stability the nation needed and privately hoped his lack of a veto and his power to act without Parliament in times of war and emergency as declared by parliament.Despite his reservations, the next decades proved that the new relationship could work.
Following King Tito's death in 1703, his son, King Bortimiar, was readily elected by the House of Peasants. The new king, only 15 when he took power, was headstrong and a "people's King". Like his father before him, he was educated in Dormill and imbued with the ideas of liberty, fraternity, and justice. In his reign, he worked with Parliament to codify the laws of the land in the Justice and Courts Act of 1720, attempt to set the rights of the people to speech and assembly in the Commoner's Act of 1745, and strengthened the naval and armed forces of his nation, formally establishing the port cities of Alcillia and Varl with both economic and military ends in mind. His Prime Minister served to both wield executive power in the King's name and to negotiate with Parliament on the King's behalf.
His greatest challenge came in the Sailing War of 1714 when pirates from what is now The Tsunterlands began to raid and attack shipping and commerce vessels. In one particularly large engagement off the coast of Alensvin, the entire Jerigan navy was decimated by an unusually coordinated attack by the Tsunters. After this, King Bortimiar negotiated with the pirates and agreed to pay a large sum of gold annually to the pirates so long as they left Jerigan shipping alone. This arrangement was kept in place for 12 years with each year bringing an increase in the tribute. During that time, King Bortimiar obsessed with the creation of a new navy and worked secretly with parliament, who also saw the need for the force, to procure the funds to create a navy off of the coast of the Island of Alcillia.
In order to rebuild the navy, he created a ship building town called "The Royal Port of Alcillia", now Alcillia City. Named after the island it was built at, the town was quickly built into a permanent naval yard, shipbuilding dock, and trade center. Instead of a governor, the king and the military directly governed the isle, having claimed it only two decades prior in the reign of his father. In a few short years and under great financial hardship to the nation, the new Armada was built.
Once sufficient, the Armada drove the pirates from Jerigan shores and began patrolling the sea lanes between The Tsunterlands and Jeriga in force year round. The conflict would rage until The Tsunterlands was conquered by Aizcona in the 19th century and cemented a sea-faring culture in the Jerigan people that persists to this day.
The Economic ramifications of spending nearly every copper on military production was brutal. Infrastructure, civil projects, and social calamities were practically ignored for nearly 15 years, leading to a severe depression for all those not in the service of the Crown until 1730-31 when increased trade and reinvestment in the people led to a recovery, though the economy remained mostly stagnate until the King's death of Pneumonia following an unusually cold winter that killed hundreds in Jeriga. Despite the last half of his rule, King Bortimiar, like his father before him, remained in the people's memory as a People's King and statues of him still exist in most cities.
Following King Bortimiar's death in 1764, his son, Arsenio was elected as King Arsenio Moreno. However, given the Parliament's concern over the Young King's "mental conditions", as parliament would call his learning disabilities, Parliament did so on the condition that the King immediately promise to appoint whomever was elected by Parliament as Prime Minister, which he officially did with the election of Maxi Pancho as Prime Minister by Parliament shortly after his reign began. Arsenio, understanding his very clear lack of agency in this choice, signed a decree which promised that the Crown would honor the Parliament's choice for Prime Minister so long as the candidate was of "Sound Mind and Health and without traitorous intent." Though vague, it was acceptable to Parliament.
In the last thirty years of King Bortimiar's reign, many things had become obvious. The economic stagnation and the inactivity of Parliament to deal with it showed that the traditional lack of political parties, the deference to the King's power and wisdom for political action, and the respect given to the Crown for their past exploits had all led to the "silent Legislature". The election of Prime Minister Pancho by parliament was the action that broke that silence.
In a matter of a few years, political parties began advertising themselves and enlisting new followers not by virtue of how they would serve the king, which had always been the focus, but by what the party believed would be best for the country. Citizens of all walks of life began to flock to one party or another as each election produced more seats for parties with both broad and narrow focus.
The result was that, in 1789, Parliament was made up of three major parties and a host of smaller parties. The Royalist parties, Sirvientes Reales and Protectores de la Corona, held the majority and formed the first coalition of parliament which saw Prime Minister Gaspar Asdrúbal elected by the parliament. The third party, the Republicanas Constitucionales, argued with increasing effectiveness for what the nation had been slowing trotting towards for a century, but that no one would say aloud: a constitution.
María José Eutimio, the leader of the Republicans, was radical by many standards of the time. She believed in near direct democracy, in the rights of peoples of all colors, sexes, and, in private, of all orientations. She believed that any economy should ultimately serve the will of the people, not a higher class or a royal court. She believed in justice for all with rights and liberties protected by common law rather than the whims of a judge. And, when King Bortimiar died in 1764 and the mentally infirmed King Arsenio took the throne, she knew it was time for a new order not granted to the people by the Crown, but by the people.
She took these beliefs and entered Parliament in 1774 after failing to win a seat in every election since 1766. She worked feverishly within the system to try and expand the rights of women and to expand voting and democratic policies throughout the nation. However, she was frustrated in every attempt, leading to impassioned speeches against the "reactionaries", as she called them. Her speeches, full of anger and zeal, were seen by Gaspar, then only an MP, as unbefitting of a woman.
Gaspar, a man of wealth whose family had benefitted from the reign of the last two kings and could trace their lines back to the first chiefs, gave fiery, dignified responses to what he called the "whimsical delusions" of the women in stations "not theirs to hold." Not nearly as good an orator as Maria, Gaspar instead worked behind the scenes to group together those still "loyal to the crown and all it stood for" and had not "faltered under the assault it was now under." Ultimately, he believed that only the Crown, "Sanctified by heaven and passed down by blood, not by vote", had the legal and god ordained right to rule the nation. He founded the reactionary and ultra-conservative Sirvientes Reales (SR) in 1776.
At the same time as Gaspar advocated for a return to the rule of the sovereign and Maria advocated for the doing away of all monarchial power, Julio Luistio argued against both. Instead, he saw that the status quo, where parliament made the decisions at home and the King dealt with the "precarious state of international affairs through his servants in government", was the best, most stable way to proceed. A merchant with a large stake in the safety of Jerigan shipping, he viewed the role of Parliament as a domestic servant to the crown, administering to the affairs that were "too miniscule in nature for the King to worry himself with." In all, he ultimately argued for the status quo from an economic point of view, aiming to protect the political balance of power and only advocating for change where the economy experienced some sort of issue. Feeling threatened by the rise of extremists both for and against the Crown, Julio founded the deceptively named Protectores de la Corona (PCs) to attempt to halt any reform that could undermine the economy in any sense.
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In 1911, the Young Tsunter movement fired the first shots of the Tsunter War for independence, igniting a 7 year war between the Young Tsunter movement and the Estral forces of Aizcona. For years prior to this, resistance had been growing in the once free ports of the Tsunterlands and was bitterly put down. But, in a matter of a few months, the disorganized rebellion had forced Estral occupation forces out of the "hook" peninsula in a series of resounding victories in quick succession. This soon stalled as the Tsunters faced organized and effective opposition by Estral forces.
In 1912, the Tsunters formed the United Front and declared their intention to create an independent nation from the ashes of the Free Ports. Seeing an opportunity and finally having but one group to negotiate with, Jeriga began supplying the United Front with arms and food as well as other necessities of war. This led to even more victories in 1913 which threatened to seriously damage the Estral army. Solaryia, understanding the threat to the regional balance of power, intervened. Sending in its massive navy to blockade the ports, it decidedly defeated the Tsunters' navy in 1914, cutting off Jerigan supplies and leaving the already fragile economy to implode. The Tsunters starved for ammunition and the people starved for food. Still, the Tsunters hung on, dragging the Wellsians into the fighting in 1916.
The entry of Wellsia into the war caused both King Alberto and Prime Minsiter Tomas to reconsider their initial refusal to overtly involve themselves in the war. The Estral forces were overstretched and the Solaryians were becoming unnerved at the reports of atrocities at the hands of the Estral army. It was now that they chose to strike with the hope of regaining the Island of Varl, toppling Solaryia as a major power in the region for the time being, and weakening the Estral positions in the Mesder.
In November of 1916, the Jerigan navy under Admiral Christian Gabriel steamed from port directly towards the bulk of the Solaryian fleet at anchor outside the Tsunter Bay. The resulting battle was ferocious and lasted into the night with each side lobbing shells at each other with deadly affect until finally, having taken more losses then expected, the Admiral withdrew. The Solaryians had won the day. Their blockade was still intact, but the losses undermined their status as an effective fighting force. Without reinforcements, they would have to withdraw. As more atrocities were uncovered, the Solaryians withdrew from the conflict in January of 1917. As the Solaryians withdrew, the Estrals used what they could to continue the blockade. In response, and ultimately with the hope of taking Varl, the Jerigans made their move.
In late January, using ferries and barges to create more smoke as to inflate the appearance of the naval force, the Jerigan army under General Balduino landed on the eastern coast of Varl. The Estral occupiers had forseen this, though, and the army was met with withering fire as they laid siege to the town of Varlton. The operation was a success in the more important goal, though. As soon as the "fleet" was spotted, the Estral navy split their blockade forces and responded quickly. Admiral Gabriel then struck his blow. Having hidden on the far side of Jeriga until the last moment, the fleet steamed out to meet the depleted task force off the coast of The Tsunterlands. In another pitched battle, the Jerigan forces clashed with the Estral navy in an hours long battle that resulted in the destruction but all of a few of the Estral ships, which withdrew to Aizcona. Realizing their mistake, the rest of the task force attacked the Jerigan fleet, but was held off with minimal casualties to both sides.
The two divisions on Varl did not fair so well. While they were never meant to be just a diversion, that is all their operation amounted to. The naval force that was meant to support them was completely destroyed, their transports captured, and their artillery support wiped out. All of this had been required for the victory at sea, but it was never meant to be the dismal failure at varl that it was. While the Jerigans had won at the Tsunterlands, ultimately allowing the United Front to attack once more and finally push Aizcona out of the Tsunterlands, the army was now cut off. Though they fought for four days, they were ultimately forced to surrender. When the war ended, the Jerigans had won a new ally in The Tsunterlands, weakened the Estral and Solaryian positions in the Mesder, and established themselves as a naval power to be reckoned with. Despite this, the war and its ramifications would be mostly remembered as a failure as the Estrals were able to hold onto Varl. The political backlash and the King's response would ultimately be the end of the Crown.
Following IW2, the still young socialist government spent the next ten years on the reforms it had promised for the post-war world. Corporations were outlawed and replaced with cooperatives. Land was collectivized and systems of cooperatives managed by regional councils of farmers were established. Factories were done individually turning them into democratic but mostly self governing cooperatives which participated in regional councils. Trade unions were given the power to incorporate small unions and turn the workers of each trade into a cooperative of themselves. Education, healthcare, major infrastructure companies and ports were nationalized. Shipping industries were also collectivized and turned into cooperatives. By 1958, almost every industry saw itself collectivized, reorganized, and formed into cooperatives with electoral power for the industry.
Overseeing all of this with varying results was the Council of Economic and Social Reform. It was made up of the brightest minds and representatives of all industries. Most often, the result of a particular reform would come down to how connected and knowledgeable the representatives of industry on the council were. The shipping and rail industries, for example, saw massive disruption by incompetent representatives. Many Crises of the reformation years were caused by similar issues with the government representatives as well. Still others were caused by the theoretical cooperatives imposed on the industry which had to be modified to take into account the state of development of that industry. In 1953, for instance, the technology sector of the economy was crammed into the temporary "Developing Industry Collective" which contained most defunct or obsolete industries that the market had slowly been killing even prior to the Democratization. It suffered horribly under the Cooperative's leadership and eventually appealed to the courts to rectify the issue in 1957.
Other effects of the reformation was the massive amount of corruption that had to be sought out and purged from the ranks. This required the soft-hearted Prime Minster Rene Pia to authorize the formation of what would, by the late 60's, become the secret police of the state: Las Buscadores (The Seekers). This step as well as the build up of the military and heavy investment in new bases not only made the state more authoritarian from the outside view, but more dangerous.
Foreign relations in this fragile decade were tenuous. With victorious capitalist former allies ever suspicious and hostile to the reforms of Jeriga and its armament, eyes turned to the recent foe: The Tsunterlands.
Jeriga is made up of one large island known as Jeriga and some smaller islands. Jeriga has many hilly areas in the North of the large isle that climaxes into a small dormant volcano which is responsible for the formation of the island chain. As the land slopes down, there is one river which winds through the hills and dumps into a series of streams and small lakes. The smooth, sloped land is made up of old volcanic soil made fertile through a series of irrigation projects. The rugged coastline of the island has provided many natural harbors, though few are usable.
The smaller Islands are very rocky in nature and mostly uninhabitable excepting rock climbing and extreme hiking trails. The Southern most island, Alcillia, and the eastern most island, Varl, are different from the others in the fact that they are mostly smooth with the ability to support large towns. Of the other islands, only the western most isle, Unaste, has a population.
Despite the distance from the northern coast of Jeriga to the southern coast of Alcillia, the climate is mostly uniform. Winters rarely drop below 23 degrees Celsius and summers exceed 34 only in the hottest months. Summers tend to be wet and rainy which swells the rivers and streams to the levels needed to soak the land for farming. Winters have never brought much snow if at all.
Metro area population
The State of Jeriga and the Jerigan people strongly believe in the principles of direct democracy insofar as it practical. This is most strongly reflected in their form of government. All power in the central government of Jeriga is derived from the unicameral Parliament, which has 150 members representing the population. The Deputy Prime Minister presides over the Parliament and issues the tie breaking vote. The Prime Minister is elected by parliament and controls the executive branch of government. He does not have veto power and only has limited control of the military in many ways.
The Judicial branch is the only branch of the government which is not elected or appointed by parliament beyond elected the Chief Magistrate who, with a court of 9 other magistrates appointed by Parliament, run the judicial branch in accordance with the Constitution of 1937. According to the constitution, the Judicial branch is responsible for the protection of civil rights and liberties, for administering justice, and the issuing of warrants. No local courts exist as all are directly controlled by the Magistrates.
Jeriga sees itself as the example of a peaceful nation and strong moral character. It prides itself in its past and choosing the right side in IW2, fighting against the Neo-Imperialists. This myth colors their positions and attitude in foreign policy as it attempts to play the peacemaker with a strong arm. Locally, it focuses on cooperation with its neighbors and tries to maintain a steady stream of export/import partners. Regionally, it uses the military as both an arm of peace as well as a tool to expand its influence.
The military is centered around two missions: Protection of the home islands and protection of overseas interests. The Navy is entrusted with the burden of both missions, projecting its force as far as it needs and protecting the home islands in conjunction with the coast guard. The Army and Air Force are given the burden of the former only. Bases on Varl and Alcillia cover the southern isles while bases on Jeriga guard the main Isle.
Both the Air force and the coast guard fulfill one other mission, however: Protecting the Isle of Unaste from all visitors. Discovered in 1844, a tribe of uncontacted natives lives there. After several missionaries attempted to convert them and were killed outright, Parliament passed many laws against contact with them which were amended following IW2 to allow aid during times of crisis for the island. No air traffic is allowed over the island and the Air Force guards the 50 km airspace well redirecting all traffic around the island if need be.
The Navy's main warship is the Type 054D destroyer. It has 12 of these ships as well as their assorted aircraft. That and the assorted support ships make up the Jerigan Royal Fleet and is used for it's overseas missions. The fleet regularly carries out maneuvers for anti-ship and anti-air scenarios in the Mesder Sea, alerting the League and neighbors of such exercises well in advance.
These maneuvers are most often done in conjunction with the Air Force, which primarily uses the J-16 and J-16D for air superiority and ground support. Operating off of bases on Varl, Alscillia, and two in Jeriga, the air force is primarily used for home defense, though it can set up temporary bases closer to a front if need be.
The Army and coast guard are the smallest and work together to secure the coasts and defend against invasion if such a threat was ever seen. With few armored vehicles, the army focuses on defense in depth tactics to draw invaders into the mountainous regions of the nation and engage them there where the infantry advantages are at their best. Bunkers and and hidden anti-air defenses are the core of this defense. Other than this, the army plays a support role for the rest of the military, manning most bases and acting as the military police to limit the personnel demands on the air force and navy.
GDP (nominal) per capita:
Despite the nation's leftist politics, Jerigan culture is steeped in traditionalism, religiosity, and national brotherhood. Always focusing on community service, the Church of Jeriga sees itself as an extension of the Catholic Church and the Crown as an extension of the Pope's authority, thus placing the Crown at the center of religious life in Jeriga. The church's teachings hone in on the sense of community the nation has built over time and cultivated it into the collectivist society it now has.
Another result of this love of the Church is the art and music that is focused around it. Many Jerigan artists of both the media and the traditional arts bathe their works in religion, depicting everything from Jesus ascending to heaven to the coronation of King Solomon. Even more modern works will be Christian in nature.
The infrastructure in Jeriga and the surrounding Islands is robust after centuries of prioritizing roads, irrigation, port facilities, and, in the 20th century, energy production. Highways have connected all Jerigan cities since the early 19th century, ports have been made large and accommodating to vessels of all sizes, and energy production is done primarily through coal, solar and wind farms. While Alcillia City and Varlton both have power grids separate from the rest of the nation, Jeriga has a connected grid with multiple sources of energy production, though coal is the primary method of production.
Green energy initiatives and the lack of abundant fresh water for the massive island populations of Alcillia City and Varlton also force Jeriga to be one of the more conservationist nations in TWI. Strict environmental laws and desalination plants are at the heart of many towns water supply lines.
Airports have also been a major focus of infrastructure bills in the last 50 years. Large, commercial airports are located in Varlton, Alvensin, and Saranei. The only international airport is in the nation's capital in Montien.
Energy infrastructure is divided into to sections: The mainland grid which is powered by Natural Gas, Coal, and a growing center of green energy and the Island grids, which are most powered by a combination of coal and a large amount of green energy. Varlton is home to the nation's largest windfarm, using the plains outside the city as it's home.
As with all infrastructure in Jeriga, it is a constant priority for the practically minded government. New systems are constantly tested and Coal is set to be phased out completely for green energy by 2040, though some experts say that without using nuclear power, it might be 2050 before that is truly feasible.
I continue to expand the history! I'll have a book before I'm done.
That's pretty cool! The book that starts, "In the beginning" is the best seller of all time, but I didn't know She gave personal permission for translations these days.
really? dude that is awesome
Tapu Sahar is the most populous city of the Khas-Kirati Republic. The island city is the economic center of the country with an estimated population of 10 million. Tapu Sahar is considered to be the one of the most populous megacities in the Isles.
Originally a small village of merchants, the island of Tapu was part of Liba Hangate for most its history. During the Imperial War Period (1938 - 1948), non Khas-Kiratis deemed disloyal to the fascist government of Emperor Hem Arumhang were put in concentration camps in the island in large numbers. Khas-Kirati companies set up many new factories in the island and utilized slave labor from the concentration camps. The island was spared from the Free Powers bombing raids that devastated mainland Vendriothos. Beginning in the 1950s, Khas-Kiratis from war-ravaged mainland Vendriothos and all over the Isles started arriving in massive numbers and the island's population skyrocketed.
Tapu Sahar is one of the largest urban economies in the Isles and the leading center of business and finance in the Khas-Kirati Republic.
The island city has hosted multiple international events, including TBD events. Tapu Sahar is a leading center for research and development, represented by various notable universities such as the University of Tapu Sahar.
TBD as usual
Imperial War Period
Imperial War wreaked widespread destruction in mainland Vendriothos due to Free Powers bombing raids but the island of Tapu was spared due to fears of striking concentration camps were many non Khas-Kiratis deemed disloyal to the fascist government of Emperor Hem Arumhang were being held and make to work as slave labor in new factories built there by various Khas-Kirati companies.
1949 - Present
After the Imperial War, the island of Tapu became the base of operations for League Mission in Argus (LEMIA) meant to monitor the transition of the Khas-Kirat Empire to the Khas-Kirati Republic and supervise the demilitarization of Vendriothos. The Free Powers and the newly-formed Khas-Kirati Republic struggled to rebuild war-ravaged mainland Vendriothos. The situation got worse after Razzgriz backed the formation of an Ipachi State hostile to Khas-Kiratis in southeastern Vendriothos. Many Khas-Kiratis and non Khas-Kiratis alike fled mainland Vendriothos to Tapu. Post-Imperial War, most Isles governments were distrustful of their Khas-Kirati communities and heavily encouraged them to "go back to the Khas-Kirati country".
By late 1950s, the island had grown from an unknown village of little importance to the largest city in the Khas-Kirati Republic. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments. In 1978, the Tapu Sahar International Airport was completed.
Tapu Sahar still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Land reclamation projects in the island have also been going on for centuries.
Tapu Sahar's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture. The island city features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including TBD.
Tapu Sahar also contains numerous parks and gardens. The Dhorpatan National Park is located in the island.
The official governmental estimation is that 10 million people live in Tapu Sahar. During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from the islands of Sinja and Newa or cities and towns along the western Vendriothos coastline.
Of Tapu Sahar's 10 million population, approximately 8 million are in the working-age (15 - 64), 1 million are retired (65+) and further 1 million are juveniles (0 - 14).
Khas-Kiratis make up less than 36% of the island's 10 million population. 54% of the population are non Khas-Kirati citizens while 10% were born outside the Khas-Kirati Republic.
Over 200 languages are spoken in Tapu Sahar.
Given this city is an island, I guess the railway is not workable unlike in other cities across the Isles
or else TBD stuff
Tapu Sahar has ten universities and many junior colleges and vocational schools. Many of Khas-Kirati Republic's most prestigious universities are in Tapu Sahar including:
Bidhut Sanchar Bishwabidhyalaya
Niti Adhyan Rastriya Snatak Sanstha
Tapu Institute of Technology
Tapu Medical and Dental Universiy
Tapu University of Education and Technology
Tapu University of Foreign Studies
Tapu University of Marine Science and Technology
Tapu University of the Arts
University of Tapu Sahar
Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools and primary schools are operated by local wards. Public secondary schools in Tapu Sahar are run by the Tapu Sahar Board of Education. Tapu Sahar also has many private schools, mostly operated by various ethnic or religious organizations, from kindergarten through high school.
In Popular Culture
Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements
Tapu Sahar has twinning or friendship agreements with the following cities and states:
- Herriden, Ainslie
- Nouveau Toulon, Segentova
- Southport, Keverai
International academic and scientific research
Research and development in Tapu Sahar are globally represented by several of the island nation's medical and scientific facilities, including Tapu University and other universities in the island city, which work in collaboration with many international institutions. The University of Townside, in particular, has a major working relationship related to academic and scientific research with almost all Tapu Sahar-based universities. Other partners Isles-wide include TBDs.
Gib sister cities and ethnic enclaves.
Ah lovely to see you. How's it going for you? (Polar btw)
All three ships served during the Tsunter War of Independence, (Insert other wars), all the way up to (insert war or year here). The ship class’ most notable battle came during the Tsunter War of Independence where on (date) 1917, the EIU Arranoa and the EIU Belatza broke off from the main blockade force and headed a small fleet of fast ships that raced to support the defenders of Varl from a Jerigan invasion force. Upon arrival the Battle of Varl broke out in which (say a few cool things the ships did) and the small fleet was able to (Say what happened). From there the Arranoa and the Belantza were able to assist the island defenders in routing the invasion force after a failed attempt to drive off the Jerigan fleet that had just destroyed the Estral blockade of the Tsunterlands.
The Captain of the EIU Txolarre, Trajano Lizarraga, earned a posthumous (Insert Naval Award) for (insert heroic actions during battle)
Between 1906 and 1907 Almirantea (Admiral) Ziti Amabizcar championed the creation of a new class of ship for the Estral navy. As in other navies around the world, the idea of a battlecruiser had started to develop for naval minds at the time. For Amabizcar this new ship would be able to be fast enough to get out of engagements with Dreadnaughts and be able to punish any cruisers or smaller ships that it came across. With superior speed, armor and armaments this class of ships would be cruiser killers, seeking out and destroying any fleet that did not have dreadnaughts supporting them. Along with that superior speed and range was a key concern for the Estral navy as there was need for the Mesder Fleets and the Southern Seas Fleets to be able to support each other.
During the design process, there were many weight increases due to growth in the size of the citadel, armor thickness, additions to the ammunition stores, and the rearrangement of the boiler system. While this was a novel and new type of ship for the navy, the Almirantazgoa decided to order three ships to be constructed between the 1908 and 1910 building years. This contract was given to Gaztellu Shipyards in Jainkiria.
The contract for the ships were awarded on May 4th, 1908 and the keel of the first ship was laid down on July 15th, 1908 with the first ship being launched on March 2nd 1910. The first battlecruiser was commissioned on April 12th, 1911 as the EIU Arranoa, lead ship of the class. The Arranoa class of ships were named after birds with the inspiration being the speed and strength of birds such as eagles or hawks.
The Arranoa-class ships were 186.6 m (612 ft 2 in) long overall, 29.4 m (96 ft 5 in) wide, and had a draft of 9.19 m (30 ft 2 in) fully loaded. The ships displaced 22,979 t (22,616 long tons) normally, and 25,400 t (24,999 long tons) fully loaded. The Arranoa-class ships had 15 watertight compartments and a double bottom that ran for 78% of the keel of the ships. They were considered to handle well, with gentle movement even in heavy seas. However, they were slow to answer the helm and were not particularly maneuverable. The ships lost up to 60% speed and heeled 9 degrees at full rudder. The ships had a standard crew of 43 officers and 1010 men.
The Arranoa class ships were powered by four-shaft turbines in two sets and 24 coal-fired boilers, divided into four boiler rooms. The boilers were composed of one steam drum and three water drums apiece, and produced steam at 16 standard atmospheres (240 psi). The turbines were divided into high- and low-pressure pairs. The low-pressure turbines were the inner pair, and were placed in the aft engine room. The high-pressure turbines were on either side of the low-pressure pair, and were located in the forward wing rooms. The turbines powered four propellers, 3.74 m (12.3 ft) in diameter.
The ships' power-plants delivered a rated 51,289 and a top speed of 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph). However, in trials Arranoa attained 85,782 metric horsepower (84,609 shp) and a top speed of 28.4 knots (52.6 km/h; 32.7 mph). At 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph), the ships had a range of 4,120 nautical miles (7,630 km; 4,740 mi). The Arranoa-class ships were equipped with 6 turbo generators that delivered 1,200 kW (1,600 hp) of power at 225 volts. The ships were designed to carry 1,000 tons of coal, although in practice they could store up to 3,100 tons. Fuel consumption on the six-hour forced trial was 0.667 kilogram per horsepower/hour at 76,795 metric horsepower (75,744 shp).
The main armament was ten 28 cm (11 in) (classification) guns in five twin turrets. The guns were placed in (name)/1908 turret mounts; these mountings allowed a maximum elevation of 13.5 degrees. In 1915, during a refit, the elevation was increased to 16 degrees, for an increased range of 19,100 m (20,900 yd). One turret, was located fore, two aft super firing over one another, and two, were wing turrets mounted en echelon. The guns fired armor-piercing and semi-armor-piercing shells, which both weighed 302 kg (670 lb). The guns could fire at a rate of 3 rounds per minute, and had a muzzle velocity of 895 m/s (2,940 ft/s). A total of 810 of these shells were stored aboard the ship.
The ships' secondary armament consisted of twelve 15 cm (5.9 in) (classification) cannon, mounted in the (classification) mounts. The guns had a total of 1800 shells, at 150 per gun. The 15 cm guns had a range of 13,500 m (14,800 yd) at construction, although this was later extended to 18,800 m (18,373 yd). Initially, twelve 8.8 cm (3.5 in) guns were also fitted to defend the ships against torpedo boats and destroyers, but these were later retrofitted to serve better in an anti-aircraft flak role.
The Arranoa-class ships were also armed with four 50 cm (20 in) torpedo tubes; one fore, one aft, and two on the broadside, with 11 torpedoes stored. The torpedoes were of the (classification) model, which weighed 1,365 kg (3,010 lb) and carried a warhead weighing 195 kg (430 lb). The torpedoes had a maximum range of 9,300 m (10,200 yd) at 27 knots (50 km/h), and 4,000 m (4,400 yd) when set at 37 knots (69 km/h).
The ships were equipped with cemented armor. The level of armor protection for the Arranoa class was designed to 10 cm (3.9 in) in the forward main belt, 27 cm (10.6 in) in the citadel, and 10 cm (3.9 in) aft. The casemates were protected by 15 cm (5.9 in) vertically and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) on the roofs. The forward conning tower was protected by 35 cm (14 in), and the aft tower had 20 cm (7.9 in) of armor. The turrets had 23 cm (9.1 in) on the face, 18 cm (7.1 in) on the sides, and 9 cm (3.5 in) on the roofs. The deck armor and sloping armor were both 5 cm (2 in), as was the torpedo bulkhead around the barbettes. The torpedo bulkhead was 3 cm (1.2 in) in other, less critical areas. As with new ships of the fleet, the armor was cemented and nickel steel.
It's still under construction but if you're interested in some naval history, especially with WWI type stuff here you go. The start of the Estral obsession with Battlecruisers
That’s very interesting, don’t know if anyone’s done that in TWI
Nice nice nice
Independence or IW?
I need to finish up my work on Arvan, which at this point is the fall of the Sartin regime, the start and end of the League mission in Arvan, and the transition to the current system. Plus I need to get a news post about Arvan celebrating the start of their new government because (almost unintentionally) the new state was proclaimed five days ago.
After Arvan, I should probably work some more on Dormill and Stiura during the Imperial War and the start of the Division Era.
Speaking of that dispatch:
Carneath State Aviation CSA.27 Kittyhawk
A classic icon of post-war Alteran aviation
The Carneath State Aviation CSA.27 Kittyhawk, also known simply as the Kittyhawk, was designed at
Ludlum by Crosse Huchen using the geodetic construction principles developed by CSA engineer, Keird Bridson. The prototype first flew
at Ludlum in 1936, and over 15,000 Kittyhawks were produced, serving many nations across the Commonwealth. Its geodetic structure
was able to absorb heavy damage and its flexible design made it the only multi-engined aircraft to see service throughout the Imperial War.
Carneath State Aviation CSA.27 Kittyhawk
Photo of the Kittyhawk Mark II. The geodesic
construction is evident through the Perspex
windows along the aircraft's side.
Carneath State Aviation
March 9th, 1936
December 1st, 1938
1937 - 1953
The Carneath State Aviation Kittyhawk was a Alteran twin-engined, long-range medium bomber. It was designed during the mid-1930s at Ludlum in Carneath, Altera. Led by Carneath State Aviation's chief designer Crosse Huchen; a key feature of the aircraft is its geodetic airframe fuselage structure, which was principally designed by Keird Bridson. Development had been started in response to Council for Defence requirement, issued in the middle of 1932, for a bomber for the Alteran Air Defence Force.
This specification called for a twin-engined day bomber capable of delivering higher performance than any previous design. During the development process, performance requirements such as for the tare weight changed substantially, and the engine used was not the one originally intended.
The Kittyhawk was used as a day bomber in the early years of the Imperial War, performing as one of the principal bombers used by Bomber Command. During 1943, it started to be superseded as a bomber by the larger four-engined "heavies" such as the CSA Keystone. The Kittyhawk continued to serve throughout the war in other duties, particularly as an anti-submarine aircraft.
It holds the distinction of having been the only Alteran bomber that was produced for the duration of the war, and of having been produced in a greater quantity than any other Alteran-built bomber. The Kittyhawk remained as first-line equipment when the war ended, although it had been increasingly relegated to secondary roles.
A larger heavy bomber aircraft designed to later Council for Defence requirement, the Carneath State Aviation Kittyknight, was developed in parallel with the Kittyhawk; the two aircraft shared around 85% of their structural components. Many elements of the Kittyhawk were also re-used in a civil derivative, the Carneath State Aviation Kittydawn.
During September 1932 the Council for Defence which required an aircraft with a range of 720 miles and a bomb load of 1,000lb. CSA design, initially known as the CSA.27 would compete with a number of other designs. CSA entry would be built using the geodetic construction method, power would be supplied by a pair of Rowlands Goshawk engines. This enabled a range of 2,800 miles and a bomb load of 4,500lb. More than four times the amount called for in the specification.
The prototype Kittyhawk was ready by May 1936 and featured a modified fin and rudder and instead of Rowlands engine engines, a pair of 915-hp Hemmingway 'Glory' Mk.I engines were installed. The 15th June 1936 would see the new aircraft prototype made its maiden flight. Later than month, with the nose and tail cupolas of the aircraft covered, the aircraft appeared at the Ludlum Air Display. This was followed two months later on the 15th August by an order for one hundred and eighty Kittyhawk Mk Is by the Council for Defence. These aircraft would be produced under a modified specification, which required a more angular fuselage, the tail unit to be revised and hydraulic powered turrets in the nose, ventral and tail positions.
Testing of the new aircraft was initially done by CSA before being flown to Arcmond so the Council for Defence could conduct official trials. However as these trials concluded the prototype crashed on the 19th April 1937. The cause was found to be elevator overbalance in a high-speed dive. Despite this set back, development of the Kittyhawk continued and before the year was out, on the 23rd December 1937, the first production Mk I flew. Although originally fitted with the Hemmingway 'Glory' Mk.III engine, April 1938 would see the 1,050-hp Rowlands Goshawk II engine become the engine of choice for Kittyhawk Mk I aircraft produced.
The CSA Kittyhawk was a twin-engined long-range medium bomber, initially powered by a pair of Hemmingway 'Glory' Mk.V radial engines, which drove a pair of de Havilland two-pitch propellers. Recognisable characteristics of the Kittyhawk include the high aspect ratio of its tapered wing, the depth of its fuselage, and the use of a tall single vertical stabiliser on its tail unit, which reportedly aided in recognition of the type.
The Kittyhawk typically had a crew of five, with the bomb-aimer was located within the aircraft's nose. The Kittyhawk could be fitted with dual flight controls, and specialised dual-control conversion sets were developed for the purpose of performing training upon the type. The cockpit also contained provisions for heating and de-icing equipment, which was introduced on later models of the Kittyhawk. The Kittyhawk Mk I had a maximum offensive bomb load of 4,500 lb (2,000 kg), more than one-fifth of the overall aircraft's 21,000 lb (9,500 kg) all-up weight. Additional munitions and an expanded bombing capacity were a recurring change made in many of the subsequent variants of the Kittyhawk developed during the war, including the carrying of ever-larger bombs.
Defensive armaments comprised the forward and tail turret gun positions, along with a retractable revolving ventral turret. Due to the high cruising speeds of the Kittyhawk, it had been realised that fully enclosed turrets, as opposed to semi-enclosed or exposed turrets, would be necessary; the turrets were also power-operated in order to traverse with the speed and manoeuvrability necessary to keep up with the new generations of opposing fighter aircraft. Due to the specialised nature of increasingly advanced turrets, these were treated as ancillary equipment, being designed and supplied independently and replacing CSA' own turrets developed for the aircraft. The turrets initially were equipped with a pair of .303 in (7.7 mm) Alteran National Armouries (ANA) machine guns. On many Kittyhawk variants, the ANA-built ventral turret of the Mk I was replaced by a CSA-built counterpart as standard.
A key innovation of the Kittyhawk was its geodesic construction, devised by aircraft designer and inventor Keird Bridson. The fuselage was built from 1,650 elements, consisting of duralumin W-beams which formed into a metal framework. Wooden battens were screwed to the beams and were covered with 'Ludlum Linen'; the linen, treated with layers of dope, formed the outer skin of the aircraft. The construction proved to be compatible with significant adaptations and alterations including greater all-up weight, larger bombs, tropicalisation, and the addition of long-range fuel tanks.
The metal lattice gave the structure considerable strength, with any single stringer able to support a portion of load from the opposite side of the aircraft. Heavily damaged or destroyed beams on one side could still leave the aircraft structure viable; as a result, Kittyhawks with huge areas of framework missing were often able to return home when other types would not have survived, leading to stories of the aircraft's 'invulnerability'. The effect was enhanced by the fabric skin occasionally burning off leaving the naked frames exposed.
A further advantage of the geodesic construction of the wings was its enabling of a unique method for housing the fuel, with each wing containing three fuel tanks within the unobstructed space provided between the front and rear spars outboard of the engines. A disadvantage of the geodesic fuselage structure was its insufficient lengthwise stiffness: when fitted with attachment for towing cargo gliders, its structure "gave" and stretched slightly. While the airframe continued to be structurally sound, the forces in the long control runs of cables and push-pull rods to the empennage grew considerably, affecting controllability of the aeroplane.
The Carneath State Aviation CSA.27 Kittyhawk stayed in service until 1953, when it was deemed obsolulete in all roles and phased out of service.
Mk.I (1937 - 1939)
Initial production variant. Fitted with a defensive armament of six .303 inch AMA machine guns and a capacity for 4,500lb bombload.
Mk.IT (1937 - 1941)
Transport version of the Mk.I. Capable of carrying up to eighteen passengers.
Mk.IIT (1937 - 1941)
Modified version of the Mk.IT. New nose. Capable of carrying up to eighteen passengers.
Mk.II (1938 - 1941)
Improved version of the Mk.I, with a new front turret, control systems and instruments.
Mk.III (1940 - 1945)
New aircraft variant. Improved Rowlands Goshawk Mk.X engines fitted. Fitted with a defensive armament of eight .303 inch AMA machine guns and a capacity for 5,000lb bombload.
Mk.IV (1943 - 1953)
Most common and last pure bomber variant of the Kittyhawk. New underbelly defensive position added. Fitted with a defensive armament of ten .50 inch AMA machine guns and a capacity for 6,000lb bombload.
Mk.IVM (1943 - 1950)
Maritime patrol variant of the Mk.IV. Capable of carrying an array of anti-submarine weaponry and detection systems.
Mk.V (1946 - 1953)
Modified Mk.IV with early onboard radar systems. Used in a variety of roles, including the detection of night fighters during night bombing raids.
Air Defence Force - Alteran Republics (retired in 1950)
Maritime Defence Force - Alteran Republics (retired in 1953)
Merito non pareret. | By merit, not birth.
GOV.ALT service is designed and maintained by HORIZON Inc.
on behalf of the Alteran Council of Information, Altera.
I will update the banner graphic when I get home; but another IW aircraft complete!