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Serpens Land wrote:How much different from English is Nyssic?

Just wait until you see Alteran ...





Language
Verbal, Written and Numerical Systems

Monitored and maintained by the Alteran Council for National Statistics,
the Alteran Council for Culture and Education and the Alteran Border Office,
this section of the GOV.ALT site enables quick, easy access to information
and services relating to language and numerical systems used in Altera.

Lingua Franca
Alteran Republic

Ethnicity
Alterans

Era
Vulgar Alteran developed into Reformed Alteran
(~600 to ~900 C.E.)

Language Family
Argusian
> Alteran
-- Vulgar Alteran
-- Reformed Alteran
-- Modern Alteran

Writing System
Runic (Vulgar Alteran)
Latin (Reformed and Modern Alteran)

Numeric System
Runic (Vulgar Alteran)
Arabic (Reformed Alteran)

First Recorded
~200 B.C.E.

Regulation
Before 1740 C.E. - Alteran Grammar and Rhetoric Schools
1740 - 1910 C.E. - [Alteran] School of Enlightenment and Knowledge
After 1910 C.E. - Alteran Council of Culture and Education

    Alteran are the names given to the language spoken and written by ethnic citizens of the Confederation of Altera. Whilst it is the language of most citizens, it is not the primary language taught - Noronican Nyssic is the defacto language; though education reforms since the mid-1910s has reintroduced Altera as a primary language in the curriculum. Many citizens are bi-lingual, with an increasing number speaking both Alteran and Nyssic.

    The language was first recorded around 200 B.C.E., where it eventually evolved into Vulgar Alteran and later in its modern iteration Reformed Alteran.

    The alphabet and numeral system used by Alterans are identical to most western-style languages; however, earlier versions of the language used runes to depict numbers and characters.

    Similar to the Nyssic languages, the Alteran style of writing is largely based on the use of characters to represent letters and numbers.

    Like most western languages, Alteran is written and read from left to right with. However, Vulgar Alteran was more chaotic and less uniform in its presentation.

    Since its first creation, there have been two types of Alteran, Vulgar Alteran and Reformed Alteran.

    Vulgar Alteran was used by the Alterans from 200 B.C.E and was the more common spoken variety used by the Alterans until around 1,100 C.E.. Vulgar Alteran was the most important language in the region in the between 900 and 1,200 C.E.

    Reformed Alteran first appeared around 600 C.E., but did not come into common use until 950 C.E. As the language evolved through its use, interaction with other cultures and new words added to the language, the language eventually evolved into its current form; known as Modern Alteran.

    It was taught in many Alteran schools until Reformed Alteran and the secondary teaching language in Altera with the establishment of the Alteran School of Enlightenment and Knowledge. Some written literature, such as road signs, food labels and television adverts; are bi-lingual - written in both Alteran and Nyssic; though this tends to be less commonplace in the south of the country.

    After 1910, the Alteran Government set up a central organisation to monitor and regulate Modern Alteran, in a bid to give concessions to the growingly irate ethnic Alteran community.

    Vulgar Alteran was a very complex language compared to the Reformed Alteran. There were seven classes of strong verbs and three of weak verbs with their ending changing in many situations. Nouns had three different genders that could inflect up to five cases and adjectives could have eleven forms. It seems completely different from the Reformed Alteran language but once the pronunciation and spelling rules are explained, the current Alteran does not look so different from the old one.

    By the 12th Century, the region began to gain more and more visitors from both Gael and the Nyssic speaking work. The visitors spoke a rural dialect of Nyssic with Gaelic influences that mixed with Altera, became the language of the high nobles in Altera for over 300 years. This form of Altera would push the development of Reformed Alteran. The lower classes kept speaking Vulgar Alteran.

    The Noronican Nyssic influenced the Alteran language with many words and important changes. The words castle, crown, prince, parliament, city, judge, court, appeal, verdict, army, soldier, peace, obedience, mansion, beauty, many, literature among others, were included in the Alteran language during this period. Some Alteran words were the composition of Alteran and a Nyssic word, for example, dryhtbearn (gentleman).

    One of the greatest influences from the Noronican Nyssic at this time was the spelling changes. Vulgar Alteran letter patterns, such as hw changed to wh, so words like hwaer and hwil became where and which. Additionally, words related to medicine, literature, law and religion, such as legal, private, history, library, tolerance, infinite, solar, recipe were included in the vernacular.

    Two historical moments during this period were important for the Reformed Alteran language renascence. The first one was the Freogan Wars (Liberation Wars) against both Angevine and the Hangates and the second moment was the 1432 plague, known as the Red Plague, that killed hundreds of thousands of the Vulgar Alteran population including a high number of the clergy. After the plague, Reformed Alteran grew in importance - gaining status as the official language by the end of 1456; barring the use of any other language in legal documentation.

Alphabet (Vulgar Alteran)



In its rune form, Vulgar Alteran first translated itself into its written form.
Similar to our early languages, its crude format allowed it to be easily carved into
clay, wood and rock; but did not translate onto ink and parchment well.


Alphabet (Reformed Alteran)



Based upon idea imported from overseas, most notably from traders
and religious clerics from Noronica, Reformed Alteran was far easier to transcribe.


Sample text in Alteran (Reformed Alteran)


Dugu lode orgilde Altera gnian geon uppan time corsnd ah hwere fandung, hwt swah, wiufan d forhenan unl d hire of h fend mp, hearra lodweras canne on wrdan hwre fullgrwanm st beorht orgilde dugu Bylda.

Sample text in Alteran (Modern Alteran)


S peple oft Altera hwaet waes throah manie corsnd ond fandung, ac nuw, apoun s diefeatus oft hire foes, hire peple caen nowe growe ond flors yn s light oft s Bylda.

Sample text translated (Standard English)


The people of Altera have gone through many trials and tribulations, but now, upon the defeat of her foes, her people can now grow and flourish in the light of the Architect.


Merito non pareret. | By merit, not birth.



GOV.ALT service is designed and maintained by HORIZON Inc.
on behalf of the Alteran Council of Information, Altera.



Read factbook

Alteran Republics wrote:Just wait until you see Alteran ...




Language
Verbal, Written and Numerical Systems

Monitored and maintained by the Alteran Council for National Statistics,
the Alteran Council for Culture and Education and the Alteran Border Office,
this section of the GOV.ALT site enables quick, easy access to information
and services relating to language and numerical systems used in Altera.

Lingua Franca
Alteran Republic

Ethnicity
Alterans

Era
Vulgar Alteran developed into Reformed Alteran
(~600 to ~900 C.E.)

Language Family
Argusian
> Alteran
-- Vulgar Alteran
-- Reformed Alteran
-- Modern Alteran

Writing System
Runic (Vulgar Alteran)
Latin (Reformed and Modern Alteran)

Numeric System
Runic (Vulgar Alteran)
Arabic (Reformed Alteran)

First Recorded
~200 B.C.E.

Regulation
Before 1740 C.E. - Alteran Grammar and Rhetoric Schools
1740 - 1910 C.E. - [Alteran] School of Enlightenment and Knowledge
After 1910 C.E. - Alteran Council of Culture and Education

    Alteran are the names given to the language spoken and written by ethnic citizens of the Confederation of Altera. Whilst it is the language of most citizens, it is not the primary language taught - Noronican Nyssic is the defacto language; though education reforms since the mid-1910s has reintroduced Altera as a primary language in the curriculum. Many citizens are bi-lingual, with an increasing number speaking both Alteran and Nyssic.

    The language was first recorded around 200 B.C.E., where it eventually evolved into Vulgar Alteran and later in its modern iteration Reformed Alteran.

    The alphabet and numeral system used by Alterans are identical to most western-style languages; however, earlier versions of the language used runes to depict numbers and characters.

    Similar to the Nyssic languages, the Alteran style of writing is largely based on the use of characters to represent letters and numbers.

    Like most western languages, Alteran is written and read from left to right with. However, Vulgar Alteran was more chaotic and less uniform in its presentation.

    Since its first creation, there have been two types of Alteran, Vulgar Alteran and Reformed Alteran.

    Vulgar Alteran was used by the Alterans from 200 B.C.E and was the more common spoken variety used by the Alterans until around 1,100 C.E.. Vulgar Alteran was the most important language in the region in the between 900 and 1,200 C.E.

    Reformed Alteran first appeared around 600 C.E., but did not come into common use until 950 C.E. As the language evolved through its use, interaction with other cultures and new words added to the language, the language eventually evolved into its current form; known as Modern Alteran.

    It was taught in many Alteran schools until Reformed Alteran and the secondary teaching language in Altera with the establishment of the Alteran School of Enlightenment and Knowledge. Some written literature, such as road signs, food labels and television adverts; are bi-lingual - written in both Alteran and Nyssic; though this tends to be less commonplace in the south of the country.

    After 1910, the Alteran Government set up a central organisation to monitor and regulate Modern Alteran, in a bid to give concessions to the growingly irate ethnic Alteran community.

    Vulgar Alteran was a very complex language compared to the Reformed Alteran. There were seven classes of strong verbs and three of weak verbs with their ending changing in many situations. Nouns had three different genders that could inflect up to five cases and adjectives could have eleven forms. It seems completely different from the Reformed Alteran language but once the pronunciation and spelling rules are explained, the current Alteran does not look so different from the old one.

    By the 12th Century, the region began to gain more and more visitors from both Gael and the Nyssic speaking work. The visitors spoke a rural dialect of Nyssic with Gaelic influences that mixed with Altera, became the language of the high nobles in Altera for over 300 years. This form of Altera would push the development of Reformed Alteran. The lower classes kept speaking Vulgar Alteran.

    The Noronican Nyssic influenced the Alteran language with many words and important changes. The words castle, crown, prince, parliament, city, judge, court, appeal, verdict, army, soldier, peace, obedience, mansion, beauty, many, literature among others, were included in the Alteran language during this period. Some Alteran words were the composition of Alteran and a Nyssic word, for example, dryhtbearn (gentleman).

    One of the greatest influences from the Noronican Nyssic at this time was the spelling changes. Vulgar Alteran letter patterns, such as hw changed to wh, so words like hwaer and hwil became where and which. Additionally, words related to medicine, literature, law and religion, such as legal, private, history, library, tolerance, infinite, solar, recipe were included in the vernacular.

    Two historical moments during this period were important for the Reformed Alteran language renascence. The first one was the Freogan Wars (Liberation Wars) against both Angevine and the Hangates and the second moment was the 1432 plague, known as the Red Plague, that killed hundreds of thousands of the Vulgar Alteran population including a high number of the clergy. After the plague, Reformed Alteran grew in importance - gaining status as the official language by the end of 1456; barring the use of any other language in legal documentation.

Alphabet (Vulgar Alteran)



In its rune form, Vulgar Alteran first translated itself into its written form.
Similar to our early languages, its crude format allowed it to be easily carved into
clay, wood and rock; but did not translate onto ink and parchment well.


Alphabet (Reformed Alteran)



Based upon idea imported from overseas, most notably from traders
and religious clerics from Noronica, Reformed Alteran was far easier to transcribe.


Sample text in Alteran (Reformed Alteran)


Dugu lode orgilde Altera gnian geon uppan time corsnd ah hwere fandung, hwt swah, wiufan d forhenan unl d hire of h fend mp, hearra lodweras canne on wrdan hwre fullgrwanm st beorht orgilde dugu Bylda.

Sample text in Alteran (Modern Alteran)


S peple oft Altera hwaet waes throah manie corsnd ond fandung, ac nuw, apoun s diefeatus oft hire foes, hire peple caen nowe growe ond flors yn s light oft s Bylda.

Sample text translated (Standard English)


The people of Altera have gone through many trials and tribulations, but now, upon the defeat of her foes, her people can now grow and flourish in the light of the Architect.


Merito non pareret. | By merit, not birth.



GOV.ALT service is designed and maintained by HORIZON Inc.
on behalf of the Alteran Council of Information, Altera.



Read factbook

Yea, like you said, it's pretty much old English. Nyssic grammar, atleast from what I remember and from what I checked earlier today, is also very close to English.

The main difference in Nyssic and English is the vocabulary

I'm considering pursuing a much more originalist approach to my NS nation - creating my own language and the sorts - after watching a YouTube video on it. Is this a good idea or am I dooming myself?

The Federal United Republic wrote:I'm considering pursuing a much more originalist approach to my NS nation - creating my own language and the sorts - after watching a YouTube video on it. Is this a good idea or am I dooming myself?

It's both. I originally used conlanging to further my knowledge regarding linguistics and it can be very helpful in that.

Then again, it's an endless hole. There's always something that you don't like, something that needs to be changed. Severik, Aprosia's federal official language, is on its 2nd iteration and I still need to get a ton of things for it. Not to mention that I have slowly worked on a proto-Aprosiatic language that I would eventually use to further flesh the entire language family

EDIT: If you want help or ideas, you can DM me in Discord or TG, I just prefer DMs. Linaviar and Nhoor, who've also done conlangs in TWI, might also be able to help.

New Aapelistan wrote:It's both. I originally used conlanging to further my knowledge regarding linguistics and it can be very helpful in that.

Then again, it's an endless hole. There's always something that you don't like, something that needs to be changed. Severik, Aprosia's federal official language, is on its 2nd iteration and I still need to get a ton of things for it. Not to mention that I have slowly worked on a proto-Aprosiatic language that I would eventually use to further flesh the entire language family

EDIT: If you want help or ideas, you can DM me in Discord or TG, I just prefer DMs. Linaviar and Nhoor, who've also done conlangs in TWI, might also be able to help.

I was looking at my neighbours and noticed it might be perhaps a better solution for the Union of Central Argus to be a melting pot of different ethnicities. Magarati folk, people from Bauscland, San Montagna, all combined with natives from my general area. I'm really not sure though. i know Nhoor is in the process of making me a map, and I'd feel incredibly guilty asking him to rename all the major cities etc.

The Federal United Republic wrote:I was looking at my neighbours and noticed it might be perhaps a better solution for the Union of Central Argus to be a melting pot of different ethnicities. Magarati folk, people from Bauscland, San Montagna, all combined with natives from my general area. I'm really not sure though. i know Nhoor is in the process of making me a map, and I'd feel incredibly guilty asking him to rename all the major cities etc.

I mean, you having your own language or dialect of French doesn't prevent you from maintaining French as an official language. Diglossia is a thing

New Aapelistan wrote:I mean, you having your own language or dialect of French doesn't prevent you from maintaining French as an official language. Diglossia is a thing

I just am at a bit of a creative block on NS entirely. I have no idea what culture or linguistic family I want to persue.

The Federal United Republic wrote:I was looking at my neighbours and noticed it might be perhaps a better solution for the Union of Central Argus to be a melting pot of different ethnicities. Magarati folk, people from Bauscland, San Montagna, all combined with natives from my general area. I'm really not sure though. i know Nhoor is in the process of making me a map, and I'd feel incredibly guilty asking him to rename all the major cities etc.

Don't feel guilty about that; with the number of names that are currently on the map that would take about ten-fifteen minutes I guess - unless you adopt a language with unusual characters and complicated diacritical marks (such as Nhoor; the commas that can appear under the vowels are easily made in e.g. Word but Inkscape says 'no' to that so I have to add them separately...).

Nhoor wrote:Don't feel guilty about that; with the number of names that are currently on the map that would take about ten-fifteen minutes I guess - unless you adopt a language with unusual characters and complicated diacritical marks (such as Nhoor; the commas that can appear under the vowels are easily made in e.g. Word but Inkscape says 'no' to that so I have to add them separately...).

I think I have an idea to both keep the French naming and dialect without resulting me sticking to pure-French routes.

I was looking a lot into the history of Asia - and more specifically, south-East Asia - and began reading up on the United States of Indonesia (1949-1950) and it gave me inspiration to create a Turkic/Asiatic/Majapahit-themed republic which suffered under the burden of French colonialism, hence the French names.

Athara Magarat wrote:Having Nyssic as your official language is tight :)

Going to do that as well soon. It would be the second official language after Oster. Getting rid of English-related references is one of my last significant obstacles to full TWI-sufficiency.

Serpens Land wrote:How much different from English is Nyssic?

Alteran Republics wrote:Just wait until you see Alteran ...

And Oster -

A Quick Guide to the Oster Language

The National Library of Ostehaar, in Porohare; where the Supreme Institution for Scholarship on the Oster Language sits



Modern Oster (presented in this guide) is a Linkmixed language - The result of a several-hundred-year fusion of Old Oster (also called First Oster, which is a proto-gaelitic language native to the area) and Nyssic influence since the 17th century.

By law, official documents are written in Oster, road signs are written in English, Oster, and Nyssic, and the three languages are learned in school. High-class events are sometimes held in Oster. The Supreme Institution for Scholarship on the Oster Language sits today in the National Library of Ostehaar, in Porohare.

In 2014 a poll presented Osters with the question: "In which of the languages you use in your daily routine?" - around 61% responded Oster, and the remaining 39% responded Nyssic or English. Most respondents to the poll said that when speaking to a foreign citizen, they would use English or Nyssic and not Oster. Another question was: "How well do you speak Oster?" - The results showed that almost all Osters were adequate Oster speakers (64% responded "Fluently" and 26% responded "well enough"; the remaining 10% were divided roughly equally between the options "partially", "not so well", and "not at all").

For quick lessons in Oster for self-teaching, go here.

For information on Oster names, read here.

For Oster lexicon, go here.



Phonology:
Consonants | Vowels
Grammar:
Nouns and articles | Pronouns | Verbs | Aspects and tenses | Adjectives | Adverbs | Prepositions and conjunctions
Negation | Sentence structure | Questions | Imperatives | Conditional sentences
Conversational Oster:
Oster Numerals | Days and Months | Meeting | Tourism | Literature | Swear words



Phonology

Consonants

Unlike the vowels, consonants in Oster are mostly similar to English, with only a few exceptions. The following table shows the 22 consonant phonemes found in most dialects of Oster, and their respective phonemes in English, if there are.

Consonant

Similar English consonant

Notes

B

B

-

C

TS

Almost not used

D

D

-

F

F

-

G

G

As in "green", not as in "cage"

H

H

Used also to extend vowels (see below)

J

~ZH

Similar to the Russian ZH, see Linkhere

K

K

-

KH

~KH

Similar to the German KH, see Linkhere

L

L

-

M

M

-

N

N

-

P

P

-

R

R

Similar to the Dutch "tap", see Linkhere

S

S

-

SJ

~SH

Similar to the Russian SH, see Linkhere

T

T

-

TH

TH

Only the ~T sound, not the ~D

V

V

-

W

W

Almost not used, pronounced Linkthis way

Y

Y

Almost not used

Z

Z

Almost not used


In recent years, and especially among youth, the unique Oster SJ and J are sometimes pronounced similarly to the English SH and the simple ZH (without taking the tongue a bit more backwards).

Vowels

The vowels of Oster differ very little between dialects, so it can generally be summarized into the following table. Diphthongs in Oster can be created by adding the letter "H" after the vowel, thus extending it a bit.

Vowel

Examples from other languages

Sound

A

The German tag

Linkhere

AA

The English law

Linkhere

E

The English bed, but more open

Linkhere

I

The English free, but shorter

Linkhere

O

The British accent thought

Linkhere

U

The German fuss

Linkhere

Diphthong

Examples from English

Notes

AH

die, fly, fight

-

EH

stay, made, bait

-

IH

greed, lean

A longer sound, with an almost silent E in the end

OH

goat, alone

-

UH

boot, suit, mute

A longer sound


There is a single special-case diphthong which uses the consonant Y - The diphthong EY, which is pronounced the same as EH in Oster. It is very common in words containing the syllable EYE, which is therefore pronounced similarly to the AYA in the phrase bay area or the AYI in the phrase say it.

The Diphthongs AU (loud), IA (yard), and IE (yes) don't exist in Oster, and are sometimes pronounced as AAV, JAA, and JE (respectively) by Oster speakers.


Grammar

Nouns and articles

Like in English, Oster nouns (excluding the pronouns) do not have grammatical gender. In Oster there is also no distinction between countable nouns and uncountable nouns, and no distinction of case - Meaning all nouns (again, excluding pronouns) remain in their original form in all kinds of sentences.

There are no indefinite articles in Oster (like the English "a" and "an"). Identifiable nouns are indicated by the articles nakh or na, with no difference regarding singular or plural forms. Nakh is used more often, although both form are correct in every sentence. Na is mostly used when the definite article follows a preposition ("to the", "over the").

Pluralization in Oster is achieved by the suffixes ir or er for nouns ending with a consonant or a long vowel, and sir or ser for nouns ending in a short vowel..

Pronouns

Oster inflects pronouns into three grammatical cases: Nominative (subject), genitive (possessive), and dative-accusative (object, direct or indirect).

Subject ("I see")

Possessive ("my book")

Object ("see me")

1st sg. (I)

Sjer \ Sje

Her

Fehr

2nd sg. (you)

Na

Hant

Fas

3rd sg. masc. (he)

Ran

Saad

Ahfer

3rd sg. fem. (she)

Rene

Sahde

Ehfir

3rd sg. neut. (it)

Sart

Bru

Ehses \ Ehs

1st pl. (we)

Ja

Jethis

Jehes

2nd pl. (you)

Nohr

Nethis

Nehes

3rd pl. (they)

Rihne

Sant

Fihre

The possessive pronoun form ("mine") is exactly the same word as the possessive determiner ("my"). So the phrase "my book" would be her fruhm, and the phrase "the book is mine" would be nakh fruhm khoht her.

Verbs

The basic form of a verb in Oster is the Infinitive, and it is the same as the form of the verb in third-person singular past tense (for example the English wrote or reached). Forms of verbs in Oster are:

Third-person singular past tense; Infinitive (English: wrote, reached) - Called Fohdem in Oster

Third-person singular present tense (English: writes, reaches) - Called Kesjdem in Oster

Present participle (English: writing, reaching) - Called Eterund in Oster

Gerund form (in English, unlike Oster, the last two are the same form) - Called Maalit in Oster

Regular Oster verbs are divided into three types, and for each type they have the same prefixes or suffixes indicating one of the four forms. There is also an irregular type of verbs, which have different prefixes or suffixes.

Regular type 1

Regular type 2

Regular type 3

Irregular (varies, examples)

3rd sg. past; Infinitive

dar, esjt

faal, khaab

johesj, sjobar

zohlt, brokhe, gaardi, drovast

3rd sg. present

darst, esjtist

faalt, khaabit

johesjte, sjobarte

zolst, brakht, gvart, drovaste

Present participle

sedar, sehesjt

sefaal, sekhaab

sehejohesj, sehesjobar

sejolt, sebrakh, segaard, sedrehv

Gerund

darna, esjtehna

faalen, khaaben

johesjna, sjobarna

zolten, brokhen, gaarden, drovahna

Aspects and tenses

Aspects (what is usually called "tenses") are created in Oster using the auxiliary verbs "be" and "do".

3rd sg. past; Infinitive (was)

3rd sg. present (is)

Present participle (being)

1st sg. (I)

Jo

Jost

Sihd

2nd sg. (you)

Jeht

Jehst

Sehde

3rd sg. masc. (he)

Ejt

Est

Sant

3rd sg. fem. (she)

Ejt

Est

Sant

3rd sg. neut. (it)

Kho

Khoht

Sokht

1st pl. (we)

Vart

Varst

Svart

2nd pl. (you)

Varte

Varst

Svart

3rd pl. (they)

Khad

Khast

Sekhad


3rd sg. past; Infinitive (did)

3rd sg. present (does)

Present participle (doing)

1st sg. (I)

Vat

Vast

Sevat

2nd sg. (you)

Vaht

Vahst

Sevaht

3rd sg. masc. (he)

Vehet

Vehest

Svehet

3rd sg. fem. (she)

Vehte

Veste

Svehte

3rd sg. neut. (it)

Oft

Ohst

Ohet

1st pl. (we)

Vihd

Vihst

Svihd

2nd pl. (you)

Vad

Vost

Sevad

3rd pl. (they)

Vard

Vorst

Sevard


The verb "has" is not an auxiliary verb in Oster.

The aspects of the Oster language are created using the following formulas.

Formula

Example

Simple past

(3rd sg. past)

Na faal sihen (You ate an apple)

Simple present

(3rd sg. present)

Na faalt sihen (You eat an apple)

Complex past

(conjugated past "do") + (3rd sg. past)

Na vaht faal sihen (You were eating an apple)

Complex present

(Present participle)

Na sefaal sihen (You are eating an apple)

Perfect

(conjugated past "be") + (3rd sg. past)

Na jeht faal sihen (You've been eating an apple)

Simple future

(to) + (Present participle)

Na to sefaal sihen (You will eat an apple)

Complex future

(tehe) + (Present participle)

Na tehe sefaal sihen (You'll be eating an apple)

The passive voice is formed using the verb "be" with present participle of the verb in question. As there is no future form for verbs in Oster, the future form of the verb "be" is created using the simple future formula ('to' + present participle of "be").

  • An apple was eaten by you - Sihen kho sefaal du fas

  • An apple is eaten by you - Sihen Khoht sefaal du fas

  • An apple will be eaten by you - Sihen to sokht sefaal du fas

Notice that the verb "be" in the examples above refers to the apple (it), as the subject of the sentence, and not to the person, and accordingly the pronoun is in an object (dative-accusative) form.

Adjectives

Adjectives in Oster have no distinct form, but can be sometimes created from nouns by the addition of a suffix, such as -mar/ar (ardekastar, meaning defensive), -tes (brontes, meaning harmful), etc.; or from other adjectives using a prefix: ihb- (ihbardekastar, meaning indefensive), etc.

All adjectives in Oster can be used both attributively, as part of a noun phrase, or predicatively. Meaning, the adjectives in phrases such as "a drunken sailor" and "the sailor was drunk" would be the same.

Many adjectives, especially the short ones, have comparative and superlative forms in -em and -em dan, such as jenem and jenem dan (taller and tallest). Others require the Oster words equivalent to more and most - The words pehd and pehen.

Adverbs

Many Oster adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding the suffix -feht/eht, as in brontesfeht and rokheht (meaning harmfully and slowly). There are also many adverbs that are not derived from adjectives.

Adverbs indicating the manner of an action are generally placed after the verb, before its objects (for example, in English it would be said as We considered carefully the proposal instead of We considered the proposal carefully), although other positions are sometimes possible (We carefully considered the proposal). This also applies to adverbs of frequency, degree, certainty, etc. (such as often, always, probably, usually).

Prepositions and conjunctions

A single preposition may have a variety of meanings, often including temporal, spatial and abstract. Examples of common Oster prepositions are:

ast (of)

je (of \ for)

ent (in)

ihm (on)

imer (over)

maath (under)

bra \ braha (to \ towards)

fehkh (from)

lit (with)

du (by)

The principal coordinating conjunctions in Oster are:

Non-contrasting: as (and)

Alternative: raa (or)

Contrast or exception: fehe (but \ yet)

Non-contrasting negative: sje (nor)

Rationale: khaa (for \ because)

consequence: sith (so \ therefore)

The common correlatives in Oster are:

ehl X ehle Y (either X or Y)

ehl X ehle Y sind (neither X nor Y)

X as Y jehem (both X and Y)

sji X fehe Y (not X but Y or not only X but also Y)

Some common subordinating conjunctions in Oster are:

Conjunctions of time, including meher (after), egrekh (before), caal (since), khesj (until), veneht (while), and esjaal (when)

Conjunctions of cause and effect, including ekhaa (because) and saaz (as)

Conjunctions of opposition or concession, including agos (although) and omad (though)

Conjunctions of condition, including ihsj (if) and vehr (unless)

The conjunction ne (that or this), which may produce content clauses

Negation

A finite indicative verb (or its clause) is negated by placing the word ihnt after that verb. Unlike in English, no "do-support" (I go - I do not go) is needed in Oster, as the negation can be placed after any kind of verb (I go not instead of I go).

Few examples, using sentences mentioned above:

  • You didn't eat an apple - Na faalt ihnt sihen

  • You were not eating an apple - Na vaht ihnt faal sihen

  • An apple will not be eaten by you - Sihen to sokht ihnt sefaal du fas (remember that to is not the equivalent to the English will - to sokht is)

Other elements, such as noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs, etc., are negated by placing the word sind after them: ardekastar sind (not defensive), nakh jenem dan sind (not the tallest), etc.

Sentence structure

A typical sentence contains one independent clause and possibly one or more dependent clauses, although it is also possible to link together sentences of this form into longer sentences, using coordinating conjunctions (see above).

Oster syntax is essentially of SVO (subjectverbobject) type; the verb precedes its object in the verb phrase, and the subject of the clause precedes the verb.

Questions

Unlike modern English, Oster allows questions to be formed by inverting the positions of verb and subject, and again no "do-support" is needed.

  • did you eat an apple? - Faalt na sihen?

  • Were you eating an apple? - Vaht na faal sihen?

  • Will an apple be eaten by you? - To sokht sihen sefaal du fas?

The above concerns yes-no questions, but inversion also takes place in the same way after other questions, formed with interrogative words:

dehe (where)

dehthe (when)

dehne (how)

dehem (why)

dahm (which)

daher (whose)

erde (who)

ehre (what)

Imperatives

In an imperative sentence (one giving an order), there is usually no subject in the independent clause, and the simple 3rd sg. present form of the verb is used:

  • Eat an apple! - Faalt sihen!

Conditional sentences

Unlike in English, conditional phrases in Oster don't have a fixed grammatical formula, but are rather a result of using the different verbs which are relevant for this kind of sentence, along with the "base" verb of the sentence in their gerund form.

For example, I can find in Oster is sjer thalt zolten (lit. I can finding). The verb thalt is the 3rd sg. present form of thal. Therefore to say I could find in Oster, one would use the 3rd sg. past form and say sjer thal zolten.

The same applies to the verb lehn (would): The English sentence I would (in the past) find will be in Oster sjer lehn zolten, and the meaning of the Oster sentence sjer lehnt zolten is I would (now) find.

A more complicated example would be the English sentence if I knew you would come, I would have come - In Oster it will be ihsj sjer khaab na lehn horten, sjer jo lehn horten.


Conversational Oster

Oster Numerals

Cardinal:

0| naal
1| ehn
2| te
3| dreh
4| khaar
5| sjej
6| siht
7| soht
8| oht
9| neh

10| dek
11| ehndek
12| tehek
13| drehek
14| khehek
15| sjehek
16| sihtek
17| sohtek
18| ohtek
19| nehdek

20| tehen
21| tehen ehn
22| tehen te
23| tehen dreh

30| drehen
40| khehen
50| sjehen
60| sihten
70| sohten
80| ohten
90| nehen

100| braan
101| braan as ehn
110| braan as dek
111| braan as ehndek
200| tehebraan
300| drehebraan

999| nehbraan as nehen neh
1000| falsj
2000| te falsj
3000| dreh falsj
9999| neh falsj nehbraan as nehen neh

Ordinal:

0th| naalar
1st| ehnar
2nd| temar
3rd| drehar
4th| khaamar
5th| sjejar
6th| sihtar
7th| sohtar
8th| ohtar
9th| nehar

10th| dekar
11th| ehndekar
12th| tehekar
20th| tehenar
30th| drehenar
100th| braanar
101st| braan as ehnar
999th| nehbraan as nehen nehar


Days and Months

Days of the week, starting Sunday:

  • Dothern, Hefern, Madern, Vethern, Venern, Valtern, Jedern (ern functions as the word day)

Months of the year, starting January:

  • Janevar, Fehvar, Marsj, April, Mehe, Juhne, Juhle, Avgust, Septembar, Oktobar, Novembar, Decembar

Meeting

Translation

Heh! Dehne rohst?

Hello! How are you? (lit. How (it) goes?)

Sihl. As hant?

Fine. And you? (lit. And yours?)

Ehre khoht hant enam?

What is your name?

Her enam khoht Johan.

My name is Johan.

Dehe hort na fehkh?

Where are you from? (lit. Where came you from?)

Sher hort fehkh nakh Maasj Gohstir.

I'm from the Western Isles. (lit. I came from the Western Isles.)

Ehre khoht hant jehl?

How old are you? (lit. What is your age?)

Her jehl khoht drehen.

I'm 30 years old. (lit. My age is 30.)

Ehre vehst na?

What do you do? (lit. What do you?)

Sher jost estaad je fiskehe

I am a student of physics


Tourism

Translation

Dehe thalt zolten sjer blihm fendorir?

Where can I find nice hotels? (lit. Where can find I nice hotels?)

Ent nack Hehr Miden

In the City Center.

Khast mat fuhlerar danvehcir ent Porohare?

Are there interesting attractions in Porohare?

Veh, nack Fihd Hehr as Merkht, nack Blaht, as pehd.

Yes, the Old Town and Market, the Wharf, and more.

Sjer esjtist vud Oster. Thalt esjtehna na rokhem soveht?

I speak a bit Oster. can you please speak slower? (lit. I speak few Oster. Can speak you slower please?)

Veh fal. Na esjtist Oster khuhe joneht.

Of course. You speak Oster very well. (lit. Yes sure. You speak Oster very well.)

Dehthe khoht nack jonem dan lohsj je drovahna nack Khaabarist Sjohordir?

When is the best time to visit the Khaabarist Mountains? (lit. When is the best time for visiting the Khaabarist Mountains?)

Rihne khast blihm ahr nack jaar.

It is nice there all year long. (lit. They are nice all the year.)


The Prologue from "War of the Worlds"

English:

No one would have believed, in the last years of the nineteenth century, that human affairs were being watched from the timeless worlds of space. No one could have dreamed that we were being scrutinized, as someone with a microscope studies creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water. Few men even considered the possibility of life on other planets and yet, across the gulf of space, minds immeasurably superior to ours regarded this Earth with envious eyes, and slowly and surely, they drew their plans against us.

Oster:

Nehth kho ihnt lehn sjovahna, ent nakh lund jaarir ast-na nehdekar braanse, ne grister je mohd khad serun fehkh-na lohsjin haarir je rohc. Nehth kho ihnt thal fohen ne ja vart sebihnte, vin ehn lit mikroskohp estaht nwirter ne khusjt as troht ent but je vaaser. Vud mohd lahte nakh thaltes je dehm ihm-na kolum plaanetir imerahr as fehe, imer nakh pihul je rohc, brenir ne khast ihbesohtemeht jonem dan pehen bra jethis aalur ne ost lit fehurtes ruhnir, as rokheht as faleht, rihne brim sant haalir nohte jehes.

Literal translation to English:

(A) soul would-not have belived, in the last years of (the) 19th century, that affairs of people were (being) watched from (the) timeless realms of space. (A) soul could-not have dreamed that we were (being) scrutinized, like one with (a) microscope studies creatures that swarm and multiply in (a) drop of water. Few people considered the possibility of life on (the) various planets over-all and yet, over the gulf of space, minds that are immeasurably better-most to ours regarded this earth with envious eyes, and slowly and surely, they drew their plans against us.

Swear words

The most common swear word among Osters is a local adaptation of the English f*ck, which is pronouced fek or fak. This word is not used to describe any aexual acts (and the Oster words describing sexual acts are usually not used as swear words), it is only used as a swear word, or as an adjective or adverb to enhance certain phrases (feken and fekd instead of f*cking and f*cked), the same way it is used in English. Usually it is used in the following forms:

Fek fehr, meaning f*ck me

Fek ehs, meaning f*ck it

Fek fas, meaning f*ck you

Fek lokh, meaning f*ck off

Another English word that is widely used today in Ostehaar as a curse is sh*t, which is pronounced with a longer 'i' sound, sjiht.

Local swear words:

Khuhr - Hell; normal use would be khuhr lit fehr\fas\ehs, meaning hell with me\you\it

Behen or Beyen - C*ck

Gest - C*nt; as a result of this, the English word guest can make some Osters feel uncomfortable

Jilt - B*tch or slut

Sjket or bluhk - Stupid, idiot, moron, or dumb

Read factbook

Dirty Nyssic everywhere

The Federal United Republic wrote:I was looking at my neighbours and noticed it might be perhaps a better solution for the Union of Central Argus to be a melting pot of different ethnicities. Magarati folk, people from Bauscland, San Montagna, all combined with natives from my general area. I'm really not sure though. i know Nhoor is in the process of making me a map, and I'd feel incredibly guilty asking him to rename all the major cities etc.

You can add a few hundred Chuuṣoostee people if you want :))

Also the nice thing about my language is that our people have been historically isolated enough to where we have our own language family, technically speaking, but small enough to where there are few dialect differences

Take the D&D route and just use Common as the default language

Shidei wrote:Take the D&D route and just use Common as the default language

Druidic.

Speaking of languages, I started to translate the Constitution of TWI into Nhoor a while ago. I haven't come very far yet...


This is a (so far incomplete) Nhoor translation of the Constitution of the Western Isles.


BARH PW CWRD JAN GEHERMHACH PW BAJWRAJ


DURSARUNTA

Vada apw ese̦yƨese̦m nwqwrhdar, qarhasytwnoch pw onhws enuchimha s orsoja jan regīo̦ s rholasemaj, och pw Barh pw Cwrd sōty eqese̦se̦m sō̦t sw̦nōnhunnōā̦ grādusoch pw cwrdosy jan Gehermhach pw Bajwraj.


MĪSO̦

Sō̦t mīso̦ s ɵƨenosy sɵn regīo̦sin, aranhwtw̦rā imitwrwrā osilā herastochā benno pw roptansana ontiqwsa jan tuqisoch pw lɵstanaj.


1CH PW ARTĪCƟL : RHOLASOCH PW RHWSA

1ch pw Chochōb : Rholasoch pw rhwsa (eqi ochiqi sas rholas evil rhwsa) orossaqcae̦se̦m sō̦t rhwsasy, ws oso̦nhie̦se̦m jon cartajen s mey regīo̦mhi.

2so pw Chochōb : Jan Rholasoch pw rhwsaj ōgil pw so̦de emheste̦se̦m:

1. Cwstērha im esa mey regīo̦mhi uriscom NationStatesoch pw statīstīc, polītīcoch pw canhore, onhānhoc pw assaphire s amocā cusɵ̦ƨ pw sacuu̦rem;
2. Cōrwnoch pw goctanhōb illarmhonha s so̦nhi pw bascarne̦ƨy illegostwsa;
3. Meycore hargamha, qa im culstochast, urso̦ loq garacoliq sɵn ursophirrwch pw heydere qa uruntayphoch pw bwswcare jan rhwsaj ereswltae̦se̦m sw̦nh meycoresw̦n;
4. Jē̦nas pw lɵa̦, statws s cedechire hargamha;
5. Jē̦nas pw mitwrhire gil regīo̦nhoch pw zumeqhanagil hargamha, uriscom tɵpic evil redem;
6. A̦syta hōr esa ola urtergahast pw janheyderela amogdar pwr rholas;
7. Valwsire gil cōrwnille culstocha canh iltaqwsirec nho cwrdanan;
8. Polītīcoch pw cāmpeyn jeygunha jan jomh evil amoc pw gerchaj;
9. Lɵa̦sa im esa mey Aa̦nhoch pw Rerhatiremhi;
10. Och pw Barh pw Cwrd balisa s ilgota eqi cwstorhananwchā imitwrwr pw rerhatire s lɵa̦sōbiqi rholasoqhdar pwr rhwsa, zumeqh pw Barh pw Cwrd hunsarune̦se̦m aqqhar wnho lwrnanno cu anh sw̦nōcenhonha 3/4icu.

3ch pw Chochōb : Mitwrh nho regīo̦n hwrune̦se̦m sw̦nh ur-rholasoch pw rhwsasw̦n, nhā so̦de cu och pw Barh pw Cwrdicu ur eserdie̦ jan meqhaj.

Read dispatch

Remodio wrote:You can add a few hundred Chuuṣoostee people if you want :))

Also the nice thing about my language is that our people have been historically isolated enough to where we have our own language family, technically speaking, but small enough to where there are few dialect differences

Sure, why not!

Let's throw in the Nyssics, Osters and Aprosians to create the most culturally diverse country in the Western Isles (/^>^)/

The Federal United Republic wrote:most culturally diverse

That will be interesting. Athara Magarat

Speech by Aizcona

Good Morning/Afternoon/Evening my fellow TWIslanders!
Given this is my twentieth or so election speech you all know I'm not artistic enough for anything fancy. Nonetheless though I have announced my candidacy for the presidency as it is not a good look for the Isles to not have a President. With no one stepping up I find that one has to take that next man up mentality and as the person in TWI government with the most experience this is something that I should do. Nonetheless I've already been filling in the role in some spots.

My experience in TWI government is clear, I have now been the SoRP (Previously SoI) on three occasions and I have been the president of the region prior to this. I have been in a government position for the majority of TWI's existence. I am always here to help people and I have always wanted to do what I can for TWI. As the second oldest residing resident of the region I've been a part of and seen everything TWI has had to offer.

At this point TWI has been in a bit of a skid for a little while and I believe that I have come to my conclusion on what needs to be changed after talking to Ainslie a bit. Ainslie has been important to the region since he joined, especially with what he did in the SoRP role so I am inclined to agree with him. TWI needs more younger people in the region, preferably high schoolers. We also need to find a way to get them from the beginning interest stage to the stable member stage and guide them through that middle ground in between that is so difficult to navigate. This is something that has eluded us for some time. Now that many of the members of TWI are in college I believe that we need to get back that energy and enthusiasm that used to permeate the region.

Thus here is my plan for my presidency. We will have stability at this position. A vacant presidency does not look good on us and I will not allow that to be the case. I will have the government provide a unified front which has not often been the case, I want more cooperation between the people in it, I believe that has been lost, especially with the void in this role. I want to find a new TWIslander to take up the SoRP role, someone who will have energy and will add more interest to RP and focus on getting more and more people involved. Along with that I want to shake up the Secretary of Recruitment, I believe that it is too much to fully put that on one person. I want to have it be a more collaborative effort between more of us, especially those not in government and have the Secretary lead those efforts rather than be the sole maker of efforts. The more people we get in here the more chances we have to hit on new energetic people. As for the SoInfo, I have loved what they have been able to do and I believe that they will be able to and want to do more if the government is fully functioning and working together.

Altogether I ask you to vote me in. I have confidence in myself that I have not had in awhile, especially since my first go as president. I want to stabilize and focus on the government and have it work cohesively together to provide the stepping stones for this region to not go back to what we had but to go beyond that. To a region that produces quality RP in a collaborative effort in such a way that we all feel good with what we've done.

As always Much Love From Polar <3 (Although many now know me as Aizcona)



Speech by Shanzie

Hello, I'm Shanzie, also known as Thuzbekistan.

I am running for president in order to help boost activity in the region by helping ensure a fresh flow of new members in the region, ensuring officers communicate with one another, and aiding where I can in their duties.

Twi government has systems to ensure these things are done correctly and, as president, I will ensure these systems are running to the benefit of roleplay in the region. As we all know, activity has slumped due to IRL complications as the world deals with coronavirus. Ensuring our officers are active and aiding them when they are not is one of the more important jobs of the president as these officers are key to keeping our region healthy, active, and fun.

Vote Shanzie, 2020 :)



Speech by San Montagna

I'd like to put my name forward for the Presidential election.

Read dispatch

The Federal United Republic wrote:Sure, why not!

Let's throw in the Nyssics, Osters and Aprosians to create the most culturally diverse country in the Western Isles (/^>^)/

G R E A T E R A P R O S I A

Eyyyyy its election time. Please vote for me, Im super excited about this and theres so much I want to do as president again. Lets work together for a better time in TWI

The Federal United Republic wrote:I just am at a bit of a creative block on NS entirely. I have no idea what culture or linguistic family I want to persue.

May I introduce you to the Ipachi?

Ainslie wrote:May I introduce you to the Ipachi?

Why does it sound like youre peddling drugs to teenagers?

Post self-deleted by Ainslie.

Hi there guys, how are you.
Just for curiosity purposes, where my nation is located in our map?!

Aqtabau wrote:Hi there guys, how are you.
Just for curiosity purposes, where my nation is located in our map?!

You have to apply for a spot on the map. Read the map rules before applying, then telegram Vancouvia to apply.

Map Rules

The map is key to developing relationships between our nations and engaging in role-play. As it has limited space, it is therefore reserved for nations who actively engage in RP and new nations (who have a fair probability of engaging in RP in the future). Please do not request a map spot unless you plan on being active for a long time.

For new nations in the region, you must do ALL of the following to receive a map spot:

1. Have a realistic nation name, as in something reasonably similar to a real world state (but not actually a real world country name or extremely similar), and use this as your name that you role-play with.
2. Have at least one nation-building factbook (i.e. relating to your nation's government, culture, economy, etc.) AND one forum post (of any kind, on any thread). We use the forums for role-play so it is important that you know how to post on them.
3. Have been active sometime in at least the last three days. For example, if you send me the request on Monday, stop logging in after Tuesday, and I check the request on Saturday, I will not add you, because it appears you are no longer active.
4. Be in the World Assembly on the nation you're applying with.
5. Send me, the Founder, a telegram that answers the following questions:

Standard Application for Map Spot

  • Nation name:

  • How did you find the region/why did you choose The Western Isles:

  • How long have you been active on NationStates:

  • Is this nation a puppet or side project:

  • List your other nations, if any:

  • Do you plan on being active (participating in regional role-play), and what are you interested in:

  • Are you in the WA:

  • Have you read the welcome guide "A Welcome and Introduction Dispatch for New Nations":

  • Have you read, understood, and agree to the map rules located in the regional rules dispatch:

  • Where exactly do you want to be on the map (describe the location in relation to other nations' locations):

  • If that spot becomes no longer available, what is your second choice for location:


The map is updated at least once a week, usually on Sundays. My goal is for there to be an average turnaround of less than five days. I will let you know when you have been added, usually by replying to your telegram with "Added." I will most likely not respond to your telegram until such time as I have added you or messaged you back seeking clarification if there's a problem.


In order to stay on the map, you must post on any regional in-character role-play thread at least once a month AND you must also do at least one of the following every ten days or less:

1. Publish or significantly and clearly add to a nation-building factbook entry.
2. Post on any regional role-play thread (including but not limited to the news, tweets, citizens, or League threads).


If you're going to be on an extended vacation or unavoidable absence, telegram the current Secretary of Role-Play and me and I will likely hold your spot for you if you have shown in the past to be an active member.

No puppets. No nation on the map may serve in any capacity in any foreign region's government.

All players must use a single nation name for all of the region's affairs. Creating and using a new nation to RP as a territory or province is heavily discouraged.

See also additional rules for specific instances: page=dispatch/id=426501

In General

1. Treat others how you want to be treated.
2. Be friendly, welcoming, and supportive of everyone, but more so to the new nations of the region.
3. Don't sabotage, harass, or annoy anyone, in the region or elsewhere.
4. Don't engage in one-sided role-playing, for example by invading a nation that does not want to be invaded.
5. Keep your military strength conservatively realistic.
6. Everyone is equal! Elitism isn't welcome here.
7. Alts/puppet accounts cannot vote. If caught voting, you face expulsion from the region.
8. Follow the NationStates rules.

RMB Rules

The RMB is used for:

1. Communicating with the region as a whole, for announcements either on personal matters or about your nation.
2. Welcoming new nations.
3. General conversation about news or other non-controversial topics.
4. Advice on national issues.
5. Help on anything concerning NationStates itself.
6. Campaigning, once an election poll has gone up.
7. Advertising a regional news article or paper, only once per 12 hours.

The RMB is NOT used for:

1. One-on-one conversations. These should occur through telegram.
2. Role-playing events. These will occur in threads on the NationStates forums that will be linked to on the regional world factbook entry. This is so they do not get lost in a sea of other messages on the regional message board.
3. Controversial discussion. These should occur in public threads on the forums.
4. Spam, inside jokes, troll language, memes, etc. Each message should be at least a full sentence and be either helpful, informative, or evoke conversation.
5. Non-English conversation. Use English.
6. Incredibly long posts, particularly those copy-pasted from something else.

Telegram Rules

1. No regional telegrams can be sent out by non-officers, for any reason, including to campaign
2. Officers can only send out regional telegrams if absolutely necessary, such as in order to conduct their duties or conduct elections
3. Residents may, of course, still telegram any other resident privately for any reason, including to campaign

Breaking the Rules

Upon violating the rules, the following events are likely to happen:

1. Suppression of RMB posts
2. Telegram/post asking to stop
3. Kick from the region
4. Ban from the region

These events may occur in a different order depending on the severity of the offense(s). The telegram/post may come from any nation; if someone warns you that you are breaking the rules, that counts as a warning.


Read dispatch

«12. . .22,75922,76022,76122,76222,76322,76422,765. . .22,77422,775»

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