by Max Barry

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Shāhanshāh (Governor): The Imperial State of Afsharid Persia

WA Delegate (non-executive): The Imperial State of Afsharid Persia (elected )

Founder: The Imperial State of Afsharid Persia

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Most Nations: 198th Most World Assembly Endorsements: 769th Largest Black Market: 2,293rd
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LinkWelcome to the Greater Middle East!

The Greater Middle East is a role-playing community that started out primarily focused on the Middle East, but has since grown and evolved to include the rest of the world as well.

|| 🗺️ World Map 🗺️ || ⚖️ Rules ⚖️ || Link💬 Discord 💬 || 📌 Guide to a Wiki Style Factbook 📌 || 📰 Roleplay Application 📰 || 📱 Tweet Template 📱 ||

One real-life day corresponds to one roleplay day.

Please fill out the application in a factbook/dispatch and send it to the moderators before roleplaying on the RMB.

Keep OOC messages to an absolute minimum on the RMB, the Discord is for that.

Looking for ideas/concepts for a claim? Check out our Suggested Claims dispatch!

Feel free to invite your friends if you enjoy our region!

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    United Nations | Home

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  3. 3,551

    The Complete List of NSCodes

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Embassies: The Great Universe, Historia Novorum, The Illuminati, International sovereignty pact, Turkic Union, Bus Stop, CISB, Portugal, Commonwealth of Liberty, Imperial Fatherland, The Coalition of Democratic Nations, Union Mundial, The Bar on the corner of every region, nasunia, Official European Union, Island Of Union, and 120 others.Altay, Union of Justice, The New Horizon, The Dawn of Unity, South pacific gyre, The Universal Order of Nations, Urana Firma, Democritus, New World Union, Novus Lucidum, The Democratic Republic, New West Indies, Africa, Sunalaya, Latinoamerica Libre, 404 Not Found, Purgatory, Iranian Islamic Republic, Chicken overlords, Free Market Federation, Rejuvenia, The Reich, Lezra, Fredonia, Samoa, The World Rearranged, Ethiopia, Enadia, United States of America, Turkiye, Mongolia, United Arab Emirates, Wanderlust, The Alterran Republic, Azure Watester Federation, The Allied Republic, Deutschland, Organization of United Sovereign States, Abydos, Salem, United Christian Empires of the West, The Democratic Commonwealth, Krillin, The Border Commune, Cape of Good Hope, Pax Britannia, Oneid, The Monarchy alliance, Tarkin, United League of Nations, Region Name, Zentari, New Coalition of Nations, Universal Pact, First World Order, New Democratic Union, The Meme Must Go On, East Asia, Elvarya, The Arab League, The Embassy, matheo, Alvarez, Home Depot, Guinea Kiribati, Golden Eco Friendly, Placeholder, The Western Isles, Lewisham, Lardyland, Montrandecs Neighbours, North Africa, Regionless, Union de Naciones Latinas e Ibericas, Little Paradise, Declansburg, Crown of Victoria, Blackstar, Asterya, nya Skandinavien, mutual cooperation alliance, Regionistan, Islamic Commonwealth, Liberty Democratic Alliance, Greater Ixnay, Calebs Haven, Raxulan Empire, Archai, CISB Reforged, Veltric Union, Violetia, GOAT, Hurricane 12, Prahltopia, MineKhan Origin Nations, Union of Nova Universo, Consigahrian Imperial Protectorates, One Collective Brain Cell, Allied Nations Treaty Organization, The Ligon Republic, Ardenia, Pacific Western Alliance, Nordic Lands, The Conservative Democracies, Historopolis, Lascandrish alliance, The Islamic Bloc, Kerala, Panjshir Valley, Iran, 001 Alpha Prime, 2022 RP Region, Kaaba, The Sewers on the Corner of Every Region, Kommuland, Kelios, Brebina, Role Player Coalition, Serovski Mir 2022, and Yajib.

Construction of embassies with Old Zealand has commenced. Completion expected .

Construction of embassies with The Accepted Realms has commenced. Completion expected .

Tags: Enormous, General Assembly, Human-Only, Map, Modern Tech, Offsite Chat, Regional Government, Role Player, Security Council, Serious, and Sports.

Regional Power: Moderate

Greater Middle East contains 142 nations, the 198th most in the world.

Today's World Census Report

The Lowest Crime Rates in Greater Middle East

World Census agents attempted to lure citizens into committing various crimes in order to test the reluctance of citizens to break the law.

As a region, Greater Middle East is ranked 11,264th in the world for Lowest Crime Rates.

NationWA CategoryMotto
1.The The Yugoslav Empire of Dvaistic Republic of SerbiaScandinavian Liberal Paradise“Brotherhood and Unity”
2.The Armed Republic of TusausilandDemocratic Socialists“Laissez notre merde brune verser sur le monde!”
3.The Sharia Armed State of MagerastanIron Fist Consumerists“ربنا هو الله ومحمد رسوله”
4.The Imperial State of Afsharid PersiaInoffensive Centrist Democracy“Long Live Persia! | !زنده باد ایران”
5.The Respublikasi Türkestan of KavkazianAuthoritarian Democracy“Туркестанга Шон-Шухрат ~ Glory Turkestan”
6.The Federal Republic of DagcistanInoffensive Centrist Democracy“Лучше умереть свободным, чем в мире”
7.The Islamic Republic of SahuriaPsychotic Dictatorship“Inshallah, freedom or death!”
8.The Federal Republic of Great IsratinNew York Times Democracy“United despite differences”
9.The United States of HanakiiCapitalist Paradise“E Pluribus Unum”
10.The Empire of Central American AllianceAuthoritarian Democracy“Dios Unión Libertad”
1234. . .1415»

Regional Happenings


Greater Middle East Regional Message Board

        the 28th of November, 2023

        The Kremlin remains determined to secure democratic referendums recognized by the West.

      The post-ceasefire negotiations between a post-Putin Russia and Ukraine have played out in the vast stage of international politics — The world is anxiously awaiting these two nations' attempt to stitch together a tenuous but hopeful tapestry of peace after years of strife. The negotiations, chiefed by the Russian and Ukrainian delegations, have taken on a seriousness not seen in earlier diplomatic attempts under the Putin presidency, with Russia reeling from domestic turmoil and Ukraine feeling both confident and cautious. Vladimir Putin collapse, an unexpected and seismic occurrence that established the Presidency of Russian oligarch Roman Abramovich. A final peace agreement that depends on referendums in the Donetsk and Luhansk areas and a complete Russian exit from all territories—aside from the disputed Donbas and Crimea—is at the center of the negotiations. This plan walks a fine line between concession and compromise.

      The Crimean and Donbas issues continue to be a maze. These areas are sovereign territory that Ukraine claims have been unjustly annexed. However, the acquisition of Crimea is not seen by many Russians as a territorial attack but rather as a historical correction. With its self-declared republics, the Donbas region muddies the waters of national sovereignty and international law, further complicating the situation. There are many obstacles in the way of the planned referendums, which aim to provide a democratic settlement to this geographical conflict. These planned referendums are a gamble that might either strengthen peace or widen differences because of issues with legitimacy, concerns about coercion, and the lasting effects of conflict.

      Meanwhile, the world community observes with a mixture of hope and suspicion. In this geopolitical drama, the United Nations, the European Union, and important nations like China and the United States have all contributed in different ways through diplomatic backing, circumspect mediation, and a combination of sanctions. The past begins to loom huge as the conversations go on. The conversations are shrouded in a fog of recollections of the MH17 disaster, the annexation of Crimea, the fighting at Donetsk airport, and the incalculable number of people killed in an apparently never-ending war. However, there remains a ray of hope — that a new era of harmony and collaboration could rise from the ashes of strife. A media opening inside Russia proper has given the Russian populace glimpses into what once was a close-guarded state secret. The path to peace is arduous and full of unknowns. Russia's post-Putin era has brought with it a new set of variables that may help or impede the peace effort. The stakes are equally high for Ukraine. History is waiting to see if this delicate dance of diplomacy will result in a durable peace or if it is just a stopgap in a tragic and protracted tale, as both countries stand at this crossroads.

      "There is no more Putin, Russia looks for a new alignment however that does not abandon our Russian people in terrorists so near to the Russian spirit."

      The chief negotiator, long-time Ministry of Foreign Affairs diplomat, Boris Bondarev, who resigned last May over the invasion stated recently to the Moscovy Times.

TRT Euro

MYP-Led Coalition Announces Policy Reversal on Abortion Timeframe and Adoption, Advocates for Birthrate Increase

    In a monumental move reshaping social policies in Türkiye, the Nationalist Path Party (MYP) led by President Meral Akşener has announced plans to reverse the Republican People's Party (CHP)'s policy on abortion regulations implemented under the previous administration of Özgür Özel. The MYP, in a bold political stance, aims to reduce the timeframe for legal abortions from the extended 16 weeks to 12 weeks, reverting to the earlier legislation. The decision, articulated as a focal point in the new government's agenda, emphasizes a comprehensive approach to address population-related concerns, adoption services, and boost birthrates across the country.

    President Meral Akşener, in a recent statement, labeled the proposed plan as '3 kids at worst 6 kids at best,' outlining the administration's strategic initiative to encourage larger families while ensuring increased support for adoption and child-rearing. The coalition aims to invest significantly in adoption agencies, streamlining processes to facilitate and expedite adoption proceedings for prospective parents. The policy, a divergence from the preceding government's stance, underscores the MYP's emphasis on preserving traditional family values and encouraging higher birthrates as part of the nation's long-term vision.

    Additionally, the administration seeks to allocate substantial resources to enhance prenatal care facilities, maternal health services, and childcare support systems, fostering an environment conducive to family expansion and child-rearing. Critics of the proposed policy shift express concerns regarding potential limitations on women's reproductive rights and the impact of reducing the abortion timeframe. Advocates, however, argue that the emphasis on adoption support and increased birthrates aligns with the government's agenda to bolster family welfare and national demographic stability.

    The MYP-led coalition has it intends to introduce the legislation into the Grand National Assembly tomorrow.



| (KOTA JAKARTA RAJA) -- Pertamina and Garuda Indonesia have successfully conducted their inaugural commercial flight using eco-friendly fuel, Pertamina Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) or Bioavtur. The flight took off from Soekarno-Hatta Airport (Tangerang) to Adi Soemarmo Airport (Surakarta) and return to Jakarta using environmentally friendly aviation fuel, showcasing the contribution of state-owned enterprises (SOE) to reducing emissions and supporting the Net Zero Emission targets achievement. |

| The Ceremonial Flight of Sustainable Aviation Fuel took place at Terminal 3 of Soekarno-Hatta International Airport on Friday, October 27, 2023. Alfian Nasution, Director of Logistics and Infrastructure of Pertamina, stated that Pertamina is committed to supporting Indonesia's Net Zero Emission goals by developing a decarbonization asset roadmap and green business initiatives, including SAF for the aviation sector. "This special flight will be a historic milestone in sustainable aviation. The public will also experience something new, using renewable energy and directly contributing to emission reduction," explained Alfian. |

| The Pertamina SAF journey began in 2010 through Pertamina’s Research & Technology Innovation, which involved research and product development with catalysts. In 2021, PT Kilang Pertamina Internasional successfully produced SAF J2.4 at Refinery Unit IV Cilacap using Co-Processing technology from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO), with a daily capacity of 1,350 kiloliters (KL). Through collaboration with relevant stakeholders, SAF products underwent a series of tests on engines and aircraft units. Testing started from cell tests at Garuda Maintenance Facility (GMF), ground runs, flight tests on CN-235 military aircraft owned by PT Dirgantara Indonesia, to the test flight on Garuda Indonesia's commercial aircraft on October 4, 2023, using a Boeing 737-800 NG owned by PT Garuda Indonesia. Pertamina Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) will be marketed and distributed through the subholding company PT Pertamina Patra Niaga. The results of these tests have shown that SAF J2.4 showcases the same quality as conventional aviation fuel. It demonstrates Pertamina's commitment to providing environmentally friendly aviation fuel and its utilization in today's commercial flights. |

| "We appreciate the stakeholders who have contributed to the SAF product testing, including the Directorate General of New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation (EBTKE) and the research team from ITB as coordinators, BPDPKS as sponsors of the testing activities, PT Garuda Indonesia as the aircraft provider, and others involved in all testing stages. Today's joy flight is one of the most important milestones in the SAF implementation in Indonesia. Therefore, we hope that all activities can proceed smoothly and benefit all parties, as tangible evidence of our commitment to achieving Net Zero Emission by 2060 or sooner," said Alfian. Irfan Setiaputra, President Director of Garuda Indonesia, revealed that today, they conducted their first commercial flight with several passengers from Soekarno Hatta to Adi Soemarmo. "We have successfully used biofuel for a commercial flight. It shows our commitment, and we hope that Garuda Indonesia is perceived as a company that prioritizes sustainability and the future of our children," Irfan said during the Ceremonial Flight event. One of the passengers on this Commercial Flight, Nugie, expressed his hopes for the future of aviation using SAF. "Hopefully, with SAF, flights can become more efficient and provide added value compared to previous fuels," he said. The SAF development is one of Pertamina's efforts in energy transition and achieving the Net Zero Emission (NZE) 2060 target. Pertamina SAF is an eco-friendly fuel that incorporates palm oil components blend in the Bioavtur formula to reduce aircraft emissions. Moreover, palm oil components utilization can stimulate domestic industry and economic development. Pertamina, as a leading company in the energy transition, is committed to supporting the Net Zero Emission 2060 target by continuously promoting programs that directly impact the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) achievement. All these efforts align with Environmental, Social & Governance (ESG) implementation across all Pertamina's business lines and operations.** |

            Eureka Day
            The 169th Anniversary of the Eureka Stockade
            December 3rd

Today is the 169th anniversary of the Eureka Stockade, the most significant revolt against British rule by non-indigenous Australians in colonial history. While the revolt itself only lasted a few hours and resulted in failure, it has played a significant role in the birth of Australian Democracy and Independence. It became a public holiday in the Shire of Ballaarat (sic.) in 1890 and a Victorian Public Holiday from 1920 to 1927 to raise awareness for the Independence Cause. While no longer observed as a public holiday, it has long been considered as the replacement for Australia Day (January 26th) and is something Anthony Albanese has had on his radar as Prime Minister. To understand the importance of Eureka Day, one must first know what it was all about.


In the June of 1851, Victoria seperated from New South Wales to become it's own colony. Convieniently, gold was discovered across the colony over the next month in Ballarat, Beechworth, Bendigo, and surrounding towns. Throughout the 1850s, Ballarat in particular was considered the largest gold field in the world. The gold fields in Victoria had a greater output per year than any other gold rush, on par with that of California a few years prior. As the Californian Gold Rush came to a close, Victoria's was only just beginning.

All the revenue from the Gold Rush went to Melbourne (not Sydney, which would've happened if Victoria didn't become it's own colony. It is widely believed that Victoria held off publically announcing the discovery of gold until after seperation for this reason). Melbourne became the richest city in the British Empire, as well as one of the largest. Ornate buildings from the Gold Rush period can still be seen in Melbourne and the gold rush towns of Ballarat, Beechworth, Bendigo, Clunes, Maryborough, Creswick, and more.

However, the Gold Rush came at a price. People from across the world were flocking to the goldfields, none of them wealthy. Many of them were incredibly poor and were hoping the gold rush was a chance to turn their lives around. They paid for everything themselves, from transport to accomodation to tools. Many lived in tents, some fortunate enough to live in hotels. Then-Governor of Victoria, Charles la Trobe, creating a mining fee that miners had to pay monthly which amounted to 30 shillings a month (1 pound 20 shillings, or over US$20,000).

In 1852, the 35,000 miners on the Victorian goldfields were producing about 5 ounces of gold per head. By 1854 the population had almost tripled while production had dropped to 1.5 ounces per head.

As gold started to run out, miners became more and more unhappy with the tax. Allegations of police extortion, bribery, and imprionment without due course began to grow, though La Trobe was unreceptive (Colonial police at the time, particularly in Victoria, were often "well-behaved" convicts. As such, early police forces were often corrupt and amoral, although that's another story for another day).

It is important to reiterate that the tax was monthly. This meant that miners who had been there the longest paid the most, instead of the more equitable system of taxing based off the amount of gold discovered by an individual. The author of this piece has found unconfirmed reports that fees reached 1 pound, which is US$21,000. Miners could not afford licences and often refused to get them (see: Red Ribbon Rebellion). As a result, police would go "digger hunting," intimidating miners into paying significant fines and taking a large commission for themselves. Police were unforgiving, if a miner lost their licence or it was damaged by water (a common occurance), they would be deemed licenceless and be fined excessively. Police would get a 50% commission from these "digger hunts," which have been described by historians as chaotic and akin to an English fox hunt.

Licence hunts increased in frequency in 1954 after Charles Hotham replaced Charles La Trobe as Governor of Victoria after a severe labour shortage. People were fleeing the city for the goldfields and many industries across Victoria were severely understaffed, and it was thought that these mining taxes and licence hunts would make gold mining unprofitable and force them back into the cities where they once worked in factories, agriculture, and public service.

The relationship between the miners and the authorities were at an all-time high. On 6 October 1854, a Scotsman named James Scobie was killed during an altercation at the Eureka Hotel. He was attempting to enter the bar after hours and the bar owners are believed to have killed him in the process of keeping him out. James Bentley, the proprietor of Eureka Hotel, was not found guilty despite having a strong case against him. The miners sensed a miscarriage of justice, in part because one of the court members, John D’Ewes, was a police magistrate known to have taken bribes from Bentley. On the 17th, 5,000 miners went to the hotel to protest the decision but quickly turned into rioting and looting, including the Eureka Hotel being burnt down. About 13 men were arrested as a result, another thing the miners weren't happy with.

The miners wrote to Governor Hotham to free the men, and Hotham became annoyed that the miners were making demands. As as result, he sent 150 soldiers to assist police and soldiers already in Ballarat. Delegates continued to meet and in November on Bakery Hill, an inner suburb of Ballarat, they unveiled the Eureka Flag for the first time.


On November 30th, miners gathered and marched to Bakery Hill. They were led by Peter Lalor, an Irishman. Here they joined him in oath; "We swear by the Southern Cross, to stand truly by each other, and fight to defend our rights and liberties." They built a stockade (which is commemorated on the corner of Eureka and Stawell Street in Eureka) and spent a number of days within it, preparing for a conflict.

Of course, the authorities did not like this. Commissioner of the Ballarat Golfdields, Robert Rede, called for authorities to destroy the blockade at the dawn of light. 130-150 men and women defended the blockade while 300 mounted and foot troopers attacked the stockade. The event itself only took 15 minutes and at least 22 miners and 5 soldiers were killed. As quickly as it begun, it was over.


113 miners were arrested and detained, and 13 were taken to trial in Melbourne. All were eventually released. The following March, a Commission of Enquiry released a number of recommendations that where then implemented; the licence fee was removed and replaced with by an export duty and a nominal £1 per year miner’s right. Half the police on the goldfields were fired and one warden replaced the multitude of gold commissioners (who had issued the licences), many of whom were corrupt. Twelve new members were added to the Victorian Legislative Council, four appointed by the Queen and eight elected by people who held a miner’s right. One of these elected members was Peter Lalor. It is redarded as the birth of Australian democracy, a key part of the Australian labour movement, and played a role in Australia's eventual independence.


The Eureka Stockade's historical importance has been heavily contested. It has been seen as a revolt against tyranny, taxation, the bourgoise/ruling class, and as an expression of republicanism. Many have stated that in the lack of a conflict akin to the French or American Independence Revolution, the Eureka Stockade has been vastly exaggerated. All agree, however, that it was important.

The Eureka Stockade (the Eureka "myth", if you will) played a small role in indepedence, with stories of the miners rebelling against the British being an example of Australia's determination for self-governance, or at least a form of governance different to that of the British Empire. A strong anti-monarchist and anti-tyranny lense was applied to the rebellion during the indepedence movement.

The Eureka Flag is used as the national flag of Australia after a rederendum back in 1927, as well as by trade unions and (to a far lesser extent) libertarian extremism,

            It's Beginning to Look a Lot Like Christmas
            Victoria's summer begins with cold and floods
            December 3rd

Three days into Christmas and Victoria is yet to see any temperature higher than mid 20s (70s). Instead, the state has been hit by severe floods in the east. Gippsland and NSW's South Coast have received heavy rainfall resulting in floods only a month after the latter experienced severe bushfires.

Moderate flooding has occured in Moe-Norwell-Traralgon and Drouin-Warragul, with more catastrophic flooding further east in and around Sale and Bairnsdale. Mallacoota in Victoria's far east turned into an island this week after being completely cut off from the mainland, an unsettling reminder of a few years ago when the town's only connection to the outside world was cut off by bushfires.

The Cann, Genoa and Bemm River catchments recorded rainfall totals of 50-120mm in the past 24 hours, with more to come. Victoria's north has also fallen victim, with Swan Hill (between Echuca and Mildura on the NSW Border) had it's wettest day in 25 years with 85.4mm on Tuesday.

12 people were rescued in NSW on Wednesday, the worst day of the flooding. NSW SES received over 1,000 calls, most of which in the South Coast Region. There was localised flooding after 200mm of rain hit Sassafras, Moruya and Jervis Bay, and Deniliquin was cut off after having its wettest day in 145 years with 135mm of rain in the Riverina town. The Bega Valley was also heavily hit, having moderate localised flooding in low-lying areas.

This comes after it was declared Australia is set to have its hottest and driest summer on record, with almost the entire country placed at an extreme bushfire risk for the next few months. There have already been bushfires in Perth, southern NSW, and Queensland, which have already cost several lives.

TRT Haber

An open letter by UÇP MPs, 12 TİP MPs, and 44 MYP MPs in regard to the 'dağkondu crisis'

An Open Letter to the Citizens of Türkiye and the Grand National Assembly

Dear Fellow Citizens,

In light of recent events that have deeply shaken our nation's core, we, the undersigned Members of Parliament from the MYP, UÇP, and TİP address an issue of urgent national importance that affects the very essence of our society.

The tragic bombing of the Surp Harutyun Church and ruthless slaughter of 68 of our citizens, the injuring of hundreds, and targeting of a house of worship stand as an unacceptable assault on our values, unity, and the shared harmony that binds us together. Our hearts ache for the victims and their families, and we stand steadfast in solidarity with those effected during this distressing period.

In response to this grave challenge, the passing of the Urban Security Act in the Grand National Assembly was a pivotal step. This legislation, vital for the preservation of our nation's safety and stability, was an essential measure to confront threats that have perilously loomed over our people for far too long.

However, it's incumbent upon us to address the underlying causes that harbor these threats. The dağkondu settlements, a stark reality of what illegal actions and a devoution of an illegal life style can lead to, these settlements have become breeding grounds for criminal activities and havens for those who seek to destabilize our nation. These settlements, Gölgetepe, Kuytu, Çilehane, Umut, Kaderkent, Düşmesin, Kaya, and Çadırları all exist in dire conditions, devoid of basic amenities, and struggle under the weight of neglect. These due to the illegal nature of these habitats, creating a cycle of collapse seeking to spread beyond these settlements,

These settlements are not merely informal habitats, they are symbols of systemic failure, and the incapability of adopting urban life in these settlements. In Gölgetepe, where poverty and crime intertwine, or in Kuytu, plagued by pollution and substandard living conditions, residents face daily challenges that no citizen should endure. Çilehane, Umut, Kaderkent, Düşmesin, Kaya, and Çadırları similarly grapple with neglect, each facing its own unique set of struggles, from sanitation issues to discrimination and economic disparity. These systemic issues exist within these settlements, which were built to ensure that these issues would persist by the generation who first built them, not with the goal of integration into urban life, but to ensure that these settlements can be a springboard for criminal activities to destabilize our nation. All attempts to solve this issue have failed, the Urban Security Act will stop the spread of this third world like horror, but as seen at Surp Harutyun, these settlements have become the largest domestic security concern of our nation.

As representatives committed to the welfare of our nation, we unequivocally call for the dissolution and demolition of these dağkondu settlements. Those residing within these areas, having built their homes illegally, must be held accountable for their actions to the full extent of the law. We propose a systematic relocation to their former dwellings in rural Türkiye, a measure essential to restore order and protect our communities from the threats that fester within these settlements.

This action is not one of punitive retribution but a decisive step toward restoring dignity, enforcing the rule of law, and ensuring the safety of all citizens. It is an imperative stride in our collective journey to build a Türkiye where every individual can thrive without fear or hardship.

We implore our fellow citizens to stand united with us, to support measures that guarantee a safer, more secure future for Türkiye. Together, let us forge a path where justice and prosperity prevail for all.

With our unwavering commitment to a better Türkiye,


(names of all the MPs my guy)

New Factbook on the nations' Railways published
Providing information on the Federal Railways of the UZA

A new factbook outlining information on the national railway network has been published. It includes; history of the network, service information, rolling stock list, and a comprehensive map showing all of the rail routes in the UZA and can be found at

Federal Railways of the Union of Zuid Africa

Above: Light / slow diesel freight locomotive (>90kph)

Above: General purpose diesel freight locomotive (>120kph)

Above: General purpose electric locomotive (>160kph)

Above: New standard commuter train - in production

Above: Express electric intercity train - as shown on the 'Blue Train' (>160kph)

Above: New class of diesel mixed express locomtive (>160kph).

History - Overview

Rail transport in the UZA is an essential element of the country's transport infrastructure, including passenger transport, and has been invested in and promoted by successive governments.

All major cities are connected by rail, and the UZA's railway system is the most highly developed in Africa and one of the most developed in the southern hemisphere. The south African rail industry is publicly owned under the company ZARail.

South Africa
South Africa was early to the railway age due to British influence; with the first railway opened from Cape Town to Wellington in 1859 and the first passenger railway a 3.2km long linking Durban to Harbour Point an opening in 1860. An explosion in railway building began in the 1870s through the Cape Government Railway which moved north out of the Cape and east along the coast. Meanwhile, tracks were being laid in the north of the country to link Pretoria, Johannesburg and the coast in modern day Mozambique.

A national "link-up" between the network in the south and that further north was finished in 1898, creating a link between Cape Town and Pretoria and the network moved to adopt "Cape Gauge", 3' 6" as standard across the network.

Botswana and Rhodesia
The first section of railway track in Botswana was laid in 1896. Mafikeng was then the rail-head and the administrative capital of the British Protectorate and acted as the base for the construction of the railway through Botswana to Rhodesia, as part of the ambition of Cecil Rhodes for a "Cape to Cairo" railway. The section through Botswana was built to connect to Bulawayo in Zimbabwe, a route previously covered by horse-drawn stage-coaches and took a week. The first train arrived in Bulawayo on 19th October 1897.

The first major railway project in Namibia was started in 1897 when the German Colonial Authority built the "Staatsbahn" (state railway) from Swakopmund to Windhoek, completed by 1902. Parallel to this government initiative the Otavi Mining and Railway Company (O.M.E.G.) was established which built a line from Swakopmund to Tsumeb via Otavi between 1903-06, and a branch from Otavi to Grootfontein in 1907-08.

This national network was largely completed by 1910, linking to routes outside of South Africa, as far north as Northern Rhodesia. But, the vision of Cecil John Rhodes, to have a rail system that would run from the "Cape to Cairo", would never materialise.

Various extensions continued in the early twentieth century, often as a result of mining operations but, as in many countries, the network suffered from a lack of investment in the twentieth century as motorcars become more popular.

Post Civil-War
After unification and independence, investment was greatly increased. For example, the Central Railway between Gobabis to Garborone via Ghanzi was built to join up the networks between South Africa and Namibia / Botswana. The section between Grootfontein and Rundu was built in 1984 with a short extension from Ondangwa to Oshakati opened in 1994. Urban rail in the "Jo-toria" conurbation has been steadily improved since the 1970s.

Given the railways importance to mining operations it today benefits from frequent investment and upgrades with track condition very good. Track speeds can reach up to 160km/h (100mph) on many longer and flatter sections.

Two sections of 'highspeed' track (>180km/h) were completed in the early 2000s;

  • A 50km, 160km/h, section between Paarl and Worcester, reducing the journey from 115km on the old alignment via Wolseley.

  • A 360km, 180km/h, section between Beaufort West to Sprinfontein, to allow direct fast services to Bloemfontein.

180km/h is realistically the highest speed that Cape Gauge (3' 6") can handle. Several feasibility studies have concluded that switching to Standard Gauge (4' 8 1/2") is unrealistic.

Large sections of the rural network are are single track with passing loops as rail use is non-intensive. Signalling is physical token on much of the Namibian and Botswanan network with block signalling on the mainline sections with sections of double track.

Current long-distance Intercity Services

  • Cape Town - Kimberly - Gaborone - Francistown - Bulawayo - Salisbury ('The Union') - One daily + one overnight

  • Cape Town - Kimberly - Johannesburg - Two daily + one overnight

  • Cape Town - Bloemfontein - Johannesburg (one; 'The Blue Train) - Three daily + one overnight

  • Cape Town - Port Elizabeth - Five daily

  • Cape Town - Upington - Windhoek - One daily + one overnight

  • Cape Town - Bloemfontein - Durban - One daily + one overnight

  • Port Elizabeth - Bloemfontein - Johannesburg - Two daily + one overnight

  • Durban - Newcastle - Johannesburg - Two daily

  • Durban - Maseru - Bloemfontein - Kimberly - Two daily - with one overnight continuing to Tsabong and Windhoek +

  • Salisbury - Bulawayo - Pretoria - Two daily + one overnight

  • Salisbury - Bulawayo - Francistown - Gaborone - Pretoria - Two daily + one overnight

  • Salisbury - Bulawayo - Francistown - Ghanzi - Windhoek - Walvis Bay - Two daily + one overnight

  • Walvis Bay - Windhoek - Ghanzi - Gaborone - Pretoria / Johannesburg - Two daily + one overnight

TraNS Future Plans

Radio Token Signalling in rural areas and for the the entire network currently still using physical token systems with improvements on mainlines which will have standard block signalling renewed. This will allow improved service frequencies, without physical trackside infrastructure, but with an absolute failsafe to prevent accidents.

Targeted local track diversions are to be made to create more constant speeds. Including:
- most rural sections improved to 160 kph
- a new section between Windhoek city centre and Hosea Tokato Airport. This will increase track speed to 160kph and reduce the distance from c.80km to c.50km. Much of this will be double tracked to allow frequent 'metro' style services to and from the Airport.
- West of Okahandja and around and through Skwakapmund to increase average speed, and reduce track length.
- 'Metro' style services between Gaborone to Kanye at hourly frequencies all day via Thanaga and Moshputa.
- Continued improvements in the 'Jo-toria' area.

Rolling Stock

ZARail manufacturers most of it's own locomotives and rolling stock including

  • Light Diesel Locomotives (NL44) - at $0.8mn, running up to >90 kph, for freight and light traffic services

  • General Purpose Diesel locomotives (NL55) - at $1.6mn each, running up to >120 kph for heavy freight and passenger services

  • General Purpose Electric locomotive (NE22) - at $1.8mn each, running >160 kph for express and passenger services.

  • Express Electric Intercity Train (NE33) - at $2.2mn each, running >160 for express, heavy long distance passenger services.

New Express Diesel Locomotive
The New Express Diesel Project sought a replacement 'general express locomotive' for high speed (>160kph) since 2019 for mainline, longer distance and often fast, passenger and freight operations across non-electrified lines.

This process has culminated in the selection of a cape-gauge variant of the British Rail Class 68 produced by Stadler rail of Schvizzera. At a price of $395.2mn. This will allow much faster passenger services on non-electrified lines.

Overnight Services
10 Overnight sleeper services serve the nation with 'couchette' carriages to allow comfortable sleeping:

- In first class, comfortable seating in 10 compartments will convert into 4 beds, giving a capacity of 40
- In second class, comfortable seating in 10 compartments will convert into 6 bunk beds, giving a capacity of 60.
- Long distance trains will also have seating cars for shorter distances and bistro cars for meals and refreshments.

Read dispatch

AFP News Agency
Reporting the news since 1835
Three months later, Opération Restauration shows little progress and hope for Haitians - AFP INVESTIGATES
5 December 2023

PORT-AU-PRINCE (AFP) - A certain calm has fallen upon the once chaotic streets of the Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince. For months now, Port-au-Prince, once gripped by gang violence, kidnappings, extortion and other crimes has experienced an eerie calm that seems almost unnatural even to the residents of the capital city. But, that’s not the only thing that has changed.

Walking through JJ La Desaline boulevard, which runs through the coastline and into the city proper one can see restorative efforts in the form of new traffic lights, repaved roads and trash cleanup. Nearby, Port-au-Prince seaport has become fully operational after nearly 2 years under gang control. Every day, it receives tons of international aid, mainly from France and the United States. Vaccines, medications, MRI machines, hospital beds, X-ray machines, generators, and more have arrived in huge container ships while others have been delivered through military supply ships, bearing the flag of the French National Republic, Haiti’s former colonial oppressor.

Further into the city, the French army’s Engineering Arm has helped in reconstruction efforts, including re-electrification and replacement of street lights and traffic lights, repavement of roads across the capital, and the reconstruction of essential structures such as hospitals, schools, communications, and essential government buildings. The city’s main power plant was also restored following heavy fighting during the early weeks of the Franco-American intervention. Restoration efforts have even expanded to Port-au-Prince’s airport, which now serves as the primary hub of the ‘Task Force for the Reconstruction of Haiti’ or TFRH for short.

The task force, led by French military logistics General Gaston Girard has been put in charge of all reconstruction and recovery efforts. Coordinating closely with the interim Haitian government, the task force has deployed French and American personnel across the country to advance all efforts toward restoring order and the reconstruction of infrastructure. However, despite close cooperation with the national government and local authorities, the TFRH has run into several issues. Many of which were outlined by General Girard himself who granted AFP a short interview.

“We’ve seen quite a lot of resistance from local authorities and Haitians themselves. A lot of people don’t want us here”, Girard told AFP, adding that while the national government has been open to cooperation and mediation with locals, there have been “unfortunate incidents” between members of the task force, the Haitian government and disgruntled locals. “There’s a lot of speculation about what we’re up to. A lot of distrust,” Girard told us, adding that the problem was not universal, but big enough to “affect our efforts to rebuild Haiti.”

Girard also commented on the state of the Haitian gangs which were reportedly destroyed during the initial weeks of the siege upon Port-au-Prince and various other operations by French and American special forces. While many have been arrested, Girard admitted that some of their leaders have slipped away and have managed to re-establish themselves in the rural interior and other isolated towns. “A lot of these gangs are rebranding as ‘resistance groups’ and attempting to recruit for an ‘anti-imperialist cause’”, Girard said, emphasizing the necessity for the task force to “capture or eliminate gang leaders.” At the end of the interview, Girard described the overall impact of the operation to have been “positive” and a “good change for many Haitians.”

However, while General Girard pointed to the flaws and successes of the Franco-American intervention, further AFP inquiries revealed a less rosy picture. In conversation with many locals and NGO’s operating in Haiti has revealed a disconnect between the needs of local Haitians and the objectives of the task force. There have also been various incidents of abuse against locals by the part of French and American troops and accusations of racism which raise questions about the effectiveness of security personnel on the ground.

60 miles away, in the port city of Gonaives, a local resident who identified themselves only as “Fabien” to conceal his identity said that the city has been rocked by various incidents between locals and French Gendarmes, who have taken up policing alongside Haitian authorities. “Some people have been wrongfully detained and sometimes beaten by the French police”, Fabien told AFP, citing one particular incident where French Gendarmes tackled a 16-year old teenager to the ground and beat him after he was suspected of being a gang member. “The Gendarmes are very paranoid about the gangs. They see gangsters everywhere”, Fabien added, noting that while the city has become safer since the gangs were routed from the city, “many of the previous issues remain.” AFP verified Fabien’s story, discovering that a local teenager was admitted to a local hospital with bruising and missing teeth. The local office of the TFRH refused to comment and directed AFP inquiries to Port-au-Prince, citing task force protocols.

Further north, numerous NGO’s have issued complaints on the presence of Central American troops in various regions across the border. In a joint letter signed by over a dozen NGO’s and humanitarian groups including the French Red Cross urged the French and American governments to place pressure on the Central American government to withdraw its troops back across the border. The letter has yet to be addressed by either members of the task force. According to Central American authorities, the presence of troops across the border is part of an operation to prevent illegal crossings into their side of the border. AFP has reached out to the Central American government for further comment.

Other issues facing the task force is corruption by local officials. Many of the relief and reconstruction operations being carried out by the task force has involved local officials, many of whom have been tasked with the distribution of supplies. However, many have criticized this approach, particularly local aid organizations who have claimed that shipments of aid have ‘disappeared’. Some of these shipments have reportedly been smuggled out of the country for profit, while the rest has been distributed among other officials and wealthy Haitians in the capital. While the task force has confirmed various incidents of Haitian government corruption, they have claimed that the incidents are “rare” and were being “promptly and effectively” tackled. However, an investigation by the AFP points to a very different situation.

According to a month-long investigation carried out in collaboration with Haitian journalists, it is estimated that some $15 million in aid has ‘disappeared’ due to corruption. The investigation also revealed that some of the aid packages may have ended up in the hands of gangs in the rural interior, with officials selling supplies in exchange for money. Even in the capital, AFP discovered that Haitian officials, including some in the interim cabinet led by President Ariel Henry may have been involved in corrupt activities that predate the Franco-American intervention.

While Presidents Macron and Harris have hailed the operation in Haiti as a ‘resounding success’, the situation on the ground is far different from what is being portrayed by French and American leaders. AFP, who reached out to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of the Interior of France for comment has yet to receive a response. The U.S Department of State has also been asked to comment on this article.

This investigative report was done in collaboration with other journalist groups including Libération, Le Figaro, and Balistrad

            A continuation of the 'Alien Invasion' saga
            December 7th

3 weeks after the forced release of over 100 aliens from indefinete detention, four former detainees have already been arrested due to breach of conditions or reoffending. 143 detainees have currently been released, up from the inital 85.

Federal migration laws are still being debated in parliament, but a new law based on Nationals-era counter-terrorism laws were passed by the Senate last night which would apply to non-citizens who have committed serious, violent or sexual offences punishable by more than seven years in jail, giving a judge the power to impose a community safety order. An amendment put forward by the National Party that would require the government to alert the public as to where and when detainees have been released was rejected by Parliament.

The Nationals and Greens have both criticised the Government's response, the former for being too slow and not doing enough, while the latter argue they're doing too much. While the author of this piece seldom praises the words of the Australian Labor Party, he cannot pass the oppurtunity to include this fantastic quote from Foreign Minister Penny Wong; "[Labor has] done more in nine days than those opposite have done in nine years [...] Every single one [of the released detainees] arrived before the election. Every single one was still here because Peter Dutton failed to do his job," that being to deport them.

The Nationals, for reasons barely known by God himself, voted against a second bill to add stricter conditions to the visa held by many of the escaped aliens. Instead, the Nationals criticised Labor for not doing what Nationals had about a decade to do, implement protections against the High Court decision before it was made. The Greens, being the typical self-important pretenious little wankers they are, bitched and moaned that the major parties were "in a race to the bottom to demonise refugees' with 'xenophobic' legislation that 'only applied to foreigners.'

A 65 year old Afghan rapist by the name of Aliyawar Yawari was arrested in Adelaide earlier this week and charged with indecent assault against a woman at the hotel he was kept at. A second man of undiclosed origin and former international drug dealer was arrested in Merrylands, western Sydney, after being found with significant amounts of cannabis on his person. Another Afghan, 33 year old Emran Dad, was arrested and charged with 9 counts of failing to comply with reporting obligations, including a charge of trespass, in Dandenong (south east Melbourne). The man was the former ringleader of a child exploitation ring and a registered sex offender who had preyed on vulnerable children in state care. It is believed the alien was attempting to contact children again, against his visa conditions. A fourth man was arrested yesterday in Melbourne after curfew violations. It is believed the man, of undisclosed origins and background, violated the conditions of his visa by travelling to Melbourne Airport and stealing the luggage of a sleeping traveller.

Four men have been arrested in 3 weeks as new legislation that will mean that people who are thought to be dangerous to the community will be imprisoned for 3 years. While the Greens are crying about how this is like the minority report and being little babies, the author of this peice is inclined to say he's not particularly fond of an illegal immigrant who does terrible unspeakable crimes to children should be allowed in his city, let alone country, and that human rights shouldn't really apply to kid touchers anyway.

This post is entirely true and any inconsistancies with reality are purely due to the author's inability to read and write. Efforts were made to keep this piece unbiased and civil, but that is, to quote the author, "not really [his] vibe today."

            MURDER BLOODY MURDER - Part Four
            An International Conspiracy
            December 7th

On the 22nd of December 2022, two police officers and a bystander were shot in Australia's first Christian fundamentalist terrorist attack and one of the worst massacres in modern day Queensland.

Police went to check a property in Ironbark near Ipswich, Queensland, in response to a missing persons case. There, Brothers Nathanial and Garath Train and the former's estranged wife Stacey opened fire, killing two young police officers and their neighbour in a shoot-out, before being killed by police themselves. It was later revealed that police were set up, and that the Trains had trap doors and camoflauge suits to allow them to ambush police officers. The attack was heavily premeditated and well-planned, with witnesses on the scene saying it felt they were set up for slaughter.

It was later revealed that the Trains had become conspiracy theorists, particularly Garath. During the Coronavirus Pandemic, they had a strong hatred of police and government, as well as being anti-vaccine. They were part of a christian sect called 'premilleniumism,' the belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur before the end of the millenium. It is a literal interpretation of Revelations 20:1-6. While this belief itself is not cultish or a conspiracy theory as such, it has led to a number of conspiracy theories and christian fundamentalist terrorist organisations. Revelations 20:1-6 reads as below:

    Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding in his hand the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain. He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, and threw him into the pit, and locked and sealed it over him, so that he would deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were ended.[/u] After that he must be let out for a little while. Then I saw thrones, and those seated on them were given authority to judge. I also saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their testimony to Jesus and for the word of God. They had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years. (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy are those who share in the first resurrection. Over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him a thousand years.

New information has come to light since the attacks almost a year ago. A U.S. Citizen in the state of Arizona, a 58-year-old Donald Day Jnr., was arrested by the FBI this week. Day was faced with two counts of incitement of violence (must be something in the name), repeatedly sending the Trains online messages containing Christian "end of days" ideology. Day had used social media to spread false and harmful messages, including one instance where he treatened to harm any law enforcement that entered his property following the Ironbark Massacre. The Trains, particularly Stacey and Garath, followed two YouTube accounts run by Day. Garath and the American were also in constant communication. If found guilty, Day will spend 10 years in federal prison.

All information except for the location of the attack is true. It is also incredibly important to state that premilleniumism is not so much a dangerous belief by itself, but that it is action taken on these beliefs and an interpretation of these beliefs (i.e. that we are currently in end times and that the government is run by Satan) that leads to dangerous, terrorist-like, and cultish behaviour. At least within most Protestant circles (and presumably other denominations), the Book of Revelations is widely regarded as predominately figerative and metaphorical


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