WA Delegate (non-executive): The United People's Republic of Scotatrova (elected )
Founder: The Chairman of CAS Revival
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Regional Power: High
Today's World Census Report
The Most Inclusive in Confederacy of Allied States
WA analysts ranked nations based on whether all citizens were commonly treated as equally valuable members of society.
As a region, Confederacy of Allied States is ranked 1,872nd in the world for Most Inclusive.
|1.||The National Conservative of Mes||Liberal Democratic Socialists||“Country above indivdual”|
|2.||The Autechnocratic Republic of Equalsun Empire||Democratic Socialists||“You're special, just like everybody else”|
|3.||The Dictatorship of Outsider Land||Father Knows Best State||“Ave Mechanicum”|
|4.||The Moderate Democracy of NewHez||Liberal Democratic Socialists||“victoria concordia crescit”|
|5.||The United Republic of Bering||New York Times Democracy||“Brotherhood and Unity”|
|6.||The Great Confederation of Everhall||Left-Leaning College State||“A leader doesn't deal pain, they share pain”|
|7.||The Galactic Democracy of Apocalyism||Liberal Democratic Socialists||“We will not be here forever, make the most of it.”|
|8.||The Danubian Federation of Vahn||Civil Rights Lovefest||“Fiat Justitia Ruat Caelum”|
|9.||The Constitutional Republic of Ithra||Liberal Democratic Socialists||“Ηλιοβασίλεμα Έθνος”|
|10.||The Her Imperial Bitchiness of Du Vin||Civil Rights Lovefest||“Fabulous.”|
- : Helskaven ceased to exist.
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- : The Republic of Ciorstag arrived from Balder.
- : The Imperial Vaelian Union of Righteous Swords arrived from Lazarus.
- : Embassy cancelled between Universal State League and Confederacy of Allied States.
- : The Community of Gay Baby Land arrived from The Rejected Realms.
Confederacy of Allied States Regional Message Board
saying Hi is illegal in CAS, to the GULAG!
Nah, I don’t feel like it.
During the last ice age, some 30,000 years ago, the ancestors of Native Amauritans migrated from Siberia into North America via the Alaska Land Bridge, following sources of food as they migrated from Asia to the Americas. Following the end of the ice age, and the sinking of the bridge beneath the sea level, future migrations would be prevented, and the Americas would become isolated for thousands of years. During this large expanse of time, Native Amauritans would develop complex civilizations following the spread of agriculture from Atzlana into the rest of the Americas. Such civilizations included the Iroquois Confederacy in Holland, Anasazi Civilization in the south west, and the Mississauga River Valley civilizations across the Mississippi River, many of which were still in a state of prosperity when contacted by outsiders during the Age of Contact.
A depiction of the Cahokia Civilization, Circa 1200
The Americas would remain uncontacted for centuries, until the arrival of the Viking explorers in the 11th century. Under the command of Leif Ericson, the Vikings landed in Greenland in 1054, then in the Americas proper in 1056 A.D, in what is now the U.S State of Manicuoaga. The Vikings founded a settlement in Saint Augusta at the mouth of the Montreal River. There is evidence, however, that the Vikings ventured deeper into the mainland and down the Atlantic coast of Amaurita, as evidenced by the 2016 discovery of a Viking burial site in the rural districts of Westmoreland County, Alleghania, and the 2013 discovery of a Viking burial site in Gloucester County in Pavonia. The Viking settlements in Manicuoaga, however, where short lived, as conflict with the Amauritan Indians coupled with frequent shortages of colonists and supplies led to the collapse of the Viking Colony by the year 1100. For the following three centuries, the Americas would remain isolated from Europe.
As the medieval period came to a close in the latter half of the 15th century, Western Europe was faced with a dilemma. Trade with the east was controlled by the Ithran and the Osfenari merchants that dominated the Mediterranean Sea. As such, many in Western Europe sought an alternative route to the east that could bypass the Ithrans and Osfenaris. In 1485, the Ithran merchant and explorer Emmanuel Giordano theorized that the east could be reached by sailing west, and therefore creating a solution to the Osfenari and Ithran monopolies on trade with the Orient. Giordano brought his proposal before the King of Scotatrova, Eric I, who promptly rejected the idea. Giordano brought proposal before the King of Holland, who also rejected his offer. As Giordano considered bringing his proposed voyage to the ears of the Aelvanian King, the King of Evestland, Reynard III, agreed to finance a voyage westward. Therefore, on on July 1st, 1485, Giordano set sail from Martleburgh with three vessels.
Eight weeks after departure, on August 26 of 1485, Giordano landed in what he perceived was Sagaria, or what is now the U.S State of Guanahana.The local Taino Indians greeted Giordano and his fleet, offering gifts. Giordano accepted, and took the Taino gifts as well as several Taino slaves back with him to Evestland. This first encounter between Europeans and the Amauritan Indians following over three centuries of isolation would lead to ultimate destruction and colonization of former Indian lands.
The King of Evestland, impressed by the discovery of the new lands, declared that they belonged to Evestland, and requested Giordano continue to explore the region. In 1488, Giordano sailed to Guanahana per the request of the King, and ventured northwest of the Island chains, and consequently discovered what was perceived to be a large island to the northwest of Guanahana, but which was later revealed to be the southern tip of Flaurita. During his expeditions in the north, Giordano founded Fort Tekesta, a settlement of 58 people named for the local natives, which would become the oldest inhabited city in Amaurita. News of the discovery of new lands reached across Europe though, as the Dutch sent several expeditions to map the lands to the north starting in 1508, and the Scotatrovians began colonization of the south starting in the mid-17th century.
The expansion of European colonies in Amaurita was rapid, as the Tekesta Colony was expanded north to Lake Maiyami and renamed the Colony of Flaurita, after Captain Juan Flaurito, a mercenary in the service of the Evestish Army. After the Evestish laid claim to the lands south of Lake Maiyami in 1521, the local Seminole Indians refused to cede the land to the Evestish, sparking the First Seminole War, the first major conflict between European settlers and the Amauritan Indians. The war carried on for three years, with the Evestish struggling to master the swamplands and extremely humid climate. Likewise, the Seminoles struggled to counter Evestish firearms, heavy armor, and horses. The Treaty of Tekesta, which was signed in 1524, ended the conflict, forcing the Seminoles to recognize the legitimacy of the Evestish claims. The following peace that ensued was uneasy, and after seventeen years, the Evestish expanded the colony of Flaurita again in 1551, this time absorbing the seminole tribe into the colony and bringing the seminoles under Evestish rule.
Beyond Flaurita, the Evestish expanded their control of the Carribean. Reaching Jaimaca by 1592, the Evestish discovered the island's near perfect growing conditions for sugar and other cash crops, and quickley established plantations to harvest the island's natural advantages. A similar pattern ensued in Guanahana, with vast sugar plantations established to generate wealth on the islands. However, as time marched on, the labor provided through the indians and indentured servants brought into the system did not suffice and were quickly replaced with slave labor imported from Africa to expand the plantation systems in both colonies.
In the north, the Conston Company chartered the Charlesburg Colony in Pavonia in 1602, seeking to create a profitable venture to compete with the Colony of Flaurita further south. In Pavonia, it was discovered that tobacco was easily grown early into the colony’s history, which quickly transformed the colony into a major cash crop exporter. This, however, did not come without consequence. The Charlesburg Colony was the first colony to import slaves from Africa to the Americas in 1619, and Evestish colonists waged war against the Powhatan Indians for control of additional land. The spilled blood went unnoticed, however, as the profits yielded from tobacco allowed the colony to boom, and was consolidated into the Colony of Pavonia in 1629.
Rotterdam, the capital of Dutch America, 1690
Further north from Pavonia, the Dutch also established their claims in the New World. The purchase of Manhattan from the local Manhattan Indians in 1612 solidified the Dutch presence in the New World, and would later expand their colony across the State of Holland. At the turn of the 1640s, the Dutch had extended their control from the Delaguerre River in the west to the Lenape Mountains in the north to the Connecticut River in the east, as well as Long Island. Simultaneously, puritan refugees seeking refuge from persecution in Evestland founded a colony at Weymouth Bay in 1621, to be a haven for puritans fleeing persecution from Europe. Following a year of hardship and famine, the first successful harvest in Weymouth Bay was seen in 1622, and the subsequent festival became known as Thanksgiving, which is now a federal holiday in the United States.
The Evestish, unphased by the cold, pressed further northward, beyond Weymouth Bay, reaching the Gulf of Montreal in 1609. Venturing down the Montreal River and encountering the local Algonquin and Iroquois Indians, Evestish hired explorer Cristoforo Colombo had explored the Great Lakes and had established contact with the Sioux Indians in Minnesota's coast on Lake Superior by 1611. Evestish settlers soon followed the explorers, founding the city of Montreal in 1619 along the Montreal River. By the 1640s, the Montreal Colony had expanded to control most of the northern banks of the Montreal River and had reorganized the settlement into the Colony of Manicuoaga in 1648. The Evestish Colony of Manicuoaga, seeking to expand southward, came into conflict with the Netherlands' territory in North America, as it sought to control the lands between the Lenape Mountains and Montreal River, or the region that would become the U.S State of Saratoga.
The Evestish did not have territorial disputes with the Netherlands, however. The Scotatrovian Crown had rapidly expanded its dominion in the Americas since its subjugation of the Yoxuma Empire in the 1640s, and had tightened its grip around significant regions of Atzlana, Whitmore, and Maragua. To tighten its grip, the Hescettgovian Crown eyed the Evestish Colony in Flaurita, and in 1663, the King of Scotatrova ordered an invasion of the colony. Amassing an army of 30,000 soldiers and an Armada of 50 warships, the Scotatrovians besieged and captured Tekesta in 1664, and quickly advanced and captured the whole of Flaurita by 1665. The Evestish colonists, many of whom had lived for many years in Flaurita, resisted fiercely, and overthrew the Scotatrovian installed Governor of Flaurita with the help of arriving Evestish reinforcements in 1668. Furious, the Scotatrovian Crown vowed to retake Flaurita, and in September of 1672, declared war on Evestland for control. The Scotatrovian Crown, this time, had compiled an army of 80,000 soldiers and 100 warships, and sailed to Tekesta.
Since the retaking of Tekesta, the Flauritan settlers had expanded the city's defenses, constructing Fort Augusta at the mouth of Tekesta's harbor, as well as Fort Martleburgh and Fort Conston on the outskirts of the city to protect from overland attack. The Flauritan settlers, however, could only amass a defending force of 28,000 soldiers and enough artillery to ensure all three forts were operational. The Scotatrovian Armada arrived in the waters outside Fort Augusta during the evening of October 12th, 1672, demanding the unconditional surrender of the Fort. The defenders refused, and the ensuing exchange of artillery fire between the Armada and Fort Augusta's defenders lasted well into the morning hours of the following day. At daybreak, the Admiral of the Armada, Admiral Daniel Carbolla, was bewildered to see the flag of the Flaurita Militia still defiantly waving over Fort Augusta. Infuriated and with a dozen of his vessels damaged in some degree, Admiral Carbolla ordered a tactical withdrawal and instructed his fleet to land the Army several kilometers south of the city. Following the withdrawal of the Armada, however, powerful winds blew the Armada off course, and into the wrath of the Hurricane of 1672, which sank the damaged vessels and ran others aground onto the southern coasts of Flaurita. The Qad Mateo, the flagship of the Armada, was presumed lost, along with the Admiral, who was later found on the beaches in present-day Key West, after which the Flaurita Militia ransomed the Admiral back to Scotatrova.
In the aftermath of the Battle of the Armada, the Scotatrovian Crown lost 29,000 soldiers and well over 36 warships between the bombardment and the Hurricane, as well as disease, starvation, and soldiers killed in minor skirmishes to reclaim any beachheads made by surviving Armada sailors and soldiers. On Christmas Day in 1672, the Scotatrovian Crown signed a peace treaty with the Evestish, ceding any claims had on Flaurita. Following the Christmas Treaty in 1672, the Scotatrovian Crown never again challenged the Evestish claims on North America, securing the Amauritan Colonies from Scotatrovian aggression.
Following civil war and political instability in Evestland, the Amauritan colonies become more self-reliant and expanded further. The Waughsylvania Colony was chartered in 1682 by Joseph Waugh, a Quaker who wished for his colony to become a utopian society in which all religions and ethnicities could co-exist. In 1683, Waugh signed a treaty of goodwill with the local Indians and gained control of a small plot of land at the mouth of the Delaguerre, which he named Tolpayhocking. In 1692, the colony was expended to control the entire western bank of the Delaguerre River, and was renamed Waughsylvania, after Joseph Waugh’s father. Such a claim fell in conflict with the Dutch colonies in North America, however, as the Dutch sought to expand their control to the western reaches of the Delaguerre. The conflict was resolved with the Treaty of Conston, signed in 1694, which solidified the border between Waughsylvania and Dutch America as the Delaguerre River. Six years later, in 1700, King Frederick’s son, King William IV, signed a treaty with the Dutch purchasing the colony of Rotterdam, in exchange for several territories in the Caribbean.
The History of the United States: Chapter I (1484-1700)
This is non-canon btw. : P
Sonchen: Blut allein bewegt die Räder der Geschichte
English: Blood alone moves the wheels of History
Männer von Goldritter
Men of Goldritter
Kaiser Wolfgang Ponitus Wilhelm Von Hohenzollern XII
Pompous and flamboyant, Kaiser Wolfgang is a vainly extravagant and Machiavellian man, deeply disliked by other members of the royal family for his immeasurably exaggerated self-confidence and a brash desire to show off… A boisterous believer in the 'survival of the fittest' in domestic as well as foreign politics … Highly traditionalist and aggressive, Wolfgang is almost never seen without his ceremonial armor nor without his rapier and main gauche at his side; covering his weaknesses with swagger and intimidation tactics…
Nicknamed “City Of A Thousand Castles” for its colorful baroque buildings, large gothic churches and castles. Filled to the brim with surviving medieval and renaissance architecture; citadels and massive cathedrals line the streets of Wihel Vontaine.
Sonchen, Evetish, and Osphenian
St. Rheingold’s Order Of Recusantry
74% St. Rheingold
13% Imperial Orthodox
Mixed economy, a mostly Laissez-faire capitalist system with some socialist properties.
Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy. The Kaiser appoints the Chancellor, the head of government and chairman of the Gericht der Adligen, the council of representatives of the Goldritterian states made up of nobles. Laws were enacted by the Bundesrat and the Diet of the Empire elected by Goldritterians above the age of 25 years. Imperial laws were enacted, with the simple majority, by both the Diet of the Empire(parliament) and the Gericht der Adligen. These laws took precedence over the laws of the individual states. Article 13 of the Goldritterian constitution requires the annual convocation of both bodies. The Gericht der Adligen could be called together for the preparation of business without the Diet of the Empire, but not the converse. The Kaiser, himself, has the power to declare war (and make peace), represent the Empire abroad, conclude treaties and alliances, and accredit and receive ambassadors. In the case of a non-defensive war being declared, consent of the Gericht der Adligen is required. Both chambers of parliament has to approve a treaty and also has to approve laws for it to be ratified. He also can convene the Gericht der Adligen and the Diet of the Empire, propose Imperial laws, and appoint Imperial officials.
The Golden Reichsthaler
Bronze Goliath Seal
A species of very large pinnipeds that are only native to the shores of Goldritter, however, some vagrant Goliath Seals have been spotted close to the shores of Kaiserlike, though this is very rare. It is the third largest pinniped and the second largest seal, by far the largest seal in Europe, though the title for largest European pinniped goes to the walrus. It feeds on a wide range of prey including cephalopods, sharks, crustaceans, marine mammals, birds and fish. It is one of the two species in the genus Hydrurga. Its closest relatives are the leopard seal, Ross seal, the crabeater seal and the Weddell seal, which together are known as the tribe of lobodontini seals.
The study of surviving dedicated technical treatises or martial arts manuals date to the Late Middle Ages and the early modern period. For this reason, the focus of HEMA is de facto on the period of the half-millennium of ca. 1300 to 1800. This sport is similar to the modern sport of Olympic Fencing in the sense of points are scored by hitting the opponent with the weapon, except dulled historical reproductions of weapons are used and their techniques are put into play. The weapons used in HEMA vary quite often; being several different types of swords and polearms.
My updated overview book
Following the purchase of Rotterdam from the Netherlands in 1700, King William IV charted the Duke of Cuir the administration of Rotterdam, which was renamed Holland, after the Dutch Province in the old world, and the city itself was renamed Miedesburg, after the rolling meadows north of the city. The Governor of Holland would later decide to consolidate the settlements along the southern regions of the Connecticut River Valley and Weymouth Bay, which had become known as Massachusetts Country, whose largest city was Ethelmund, into the Colony of Massachusetts. The colonial government then set up a system of indentured servitude, which encouraged Dutch citizens to migrate to the American colonies with the promise of land and greater economic opportunity. Such systems were implemented across the colonies, although African slavery [introduced by Dutch merchants in 1619], caused indentured servitude to be phased out in the south by the 1700s.
Furthermore, increased settlement along the Connecticut River led to the formation of the Colony of Hamtunshire in 1721, which connected the Colony of Manicuoaga further north with the colonies of Massachusetts and Holland further south. Disputes were had, however, over the lands that stretched between the Lenape Mountains, the Great Lakes, and the Montreal River. The Colonies of Holland, Manicuoaga, and Waughsylvania all laid claim to the region, and in 1724, the Duke of Martleburgh, as the King’s representative to Waughsylvania, was called forth to settle the dispute. In the Duke’s solution, the borders of all three colonies were adjusted so minor tracts of land were ceded, and the remaining region was chartered as the Colony of Saratoga in 1725, linking the Great Lakes with the eastern seaboard of Holland. However, outside of the upper Orange River Valley and the established colonial towns at Fredonia, Kenmore, and Tonawanna along Lake Niagara, the region remained sparsely populated.
Fredonia, Saratoga, 1749
During the early 1700s, two new colonies were founded, the Colony of Georgia [names for King George of Ergonia] in 1705 and the Colony of Carolina [names for King Charles of Ergonia] in 1723. The Colonies in Georgia and Carolina, in addition to linking Flaurita with the remainder of the Amauritan Colonies, also functioned as cash crop producing colonies, primarily yielding tobacco, indigo, and other crops that yielded vast profits. Expansion in North America was not limited to Evestish and Dutch colonization, however, as Scotatrovian settlers from Atzlana and the Scotatrovian Caribbean migrated north and settled Saint Theresa in 1709 and Saint-Denis in 1712, where rogue colonists and runaway slaves from the Amauritan colonies would settle, and later becoming an epicenter for Scotatrovain settlement of the Mississauga and Missouri River Valleys from the 1720s to the 1800s.
In the colonial era, the Ergonians relied upon a policy of salutary neglect to govern their colonies, essentially allowing the colonies to bypass navigation laws and taxes for the Ergonian government, which would allow the colonial economy to flourish under a mercantilist system. Due to this, colonial governments became increasingly important, as colonial assemblies or town hall meetings often created policies the colonies would follow. The colonial era, in addition to seeing local governments in the colonies, also witnessed the formation of the philosophy that all humans had certain rights, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion. Waughsylvania became the first region under Ergonian control that enacted laws defending the practice of all religions, whereas the freedom of the press was defended in the Zinger Trial between the newspaper publisher of the New Ely Times and the Governor of Holland.
As Europeans flooded into North America, the Native Amauritans suffered to a great extent. Upon contact, Europeans inadvertently spread diseases not seen by natives beforehand, causing massive epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and measles, which wiped out a huge percentage of the native population by 1700. Additionally, Native Amauritans were also pushed out of the eastern seaboard, an forced to migrate into the interior, creating a divide along Allegheny Mountains, between the Ergonian and Dutch populated East and the Native populated west. However, the sanctuary of the lands west of the Alleghenies was soon interrupted, as English and Dutch settlers continued migrating westward, settling in the Allegheny River Valley in the 1730s and 1740s. The Ergonian and Dutch settlement of the northern banks of the Allegheny River later led to the birth of the Colony of Allegheny in 1746, the last major colony to be chartered by the Crown. Ergonian settlers later settled on the southern banks of the Allegheny, founding the colony of Cumberland in 1752, a colony that was not legally recognized by the Crown to avoid conflict with the Amauritan Indians. The Amauritan Indians, dissatisfied with Ergonian settlement in the southern valley, challenged Ergonian rule on the southern banks of the Allegheny River, culminating in the Three Year's War in the 1750s.
As a direct result of Ergonians and Dutch settlers migrating westward into the Allegheny River Valley, Native Amauritans became actively resistant to European expansion in the 1750s. Such resistance culminated into the Three Years War between the Ergonian Government and the Native Amauritan tribes in 1754. In the early stages of the conflict, the Native Amauritans successfully routed their Ergonian and Colonial governments, with the Battle of Fort Waltkins being a major setback in the Ergonian campaign. The Ergonian demeanor changed in 1755, however, with the rise of Henry Tyrell to the role of Ergonian Prime Minister. Tyrell approved the Ergonian Army hiring German and Scotatrovian mercenaries, as well as bringing Dutch colonial troops in from the Caribbean, and ordered the Ergonian commanders to suppress resistance, regardless of cost. At that point, the Ergonians began an aggressive campaign against Native Amauritan tribes, and following the decisive British victory at the Battle of Running Creek in December 1757, Native Amauritan leaders surrendered in 1758.
Amauritan Indians ambush the Ergonians, 1754
Following the surrender of Native Amauritan leaders, the Ergonian Government implemented the Treaty of Tolpayhocking, under which the native lands east of the Mississauga were outright annexed, and the native peoples subject of the Ergonian crown. At first, colonists were allowed to migrate into the newly controlled lands, yet this changed with the 1759 Colonial Organization Act, which barred colonists from migrating west of the Allegheny Mountains, with the exception of Alleghania, which was already granted colony status by the Crown prior to the enacting of the law. Later, in 1761, the Ergonians would invade Saint Theresa and annex it to Mississauga, provoking the rest of the rouge Scotatrovian settlements to form the Louisiana Republic. Although colonists were outraged, the Ergonians followed up the Act with a series of new taxes placed on the colonies that the Ergonians needed to pay off the immense war debt accumulated from the war on the frontier. Outrage became the new norm, and the phrase "no taxation without representation" became a colonial motto.
As a result of dissent in the Colonies, the Ergonian Government approved sending additional soldiers to guard the eastward side of the Alleghenies, as well as enforce the new taxes and laws in the coastal cities. Colonists, in the face of this new force, harassed the Ergonian soldiers, jeering and throwing both insults and objects at their ranks. Tensions rose to a new level, however, when Ergonian soldiers opened fire on a crowd in Ethelmund in July of 1763, killing eight people. The colonists responded in December of the same year, by boarding Ergonian tea vessels and dumping the entire cargo into the sea, in protest of the Ergonian tea tax. Proceeding the Ethelmund Tea Party came the Unbearable Acts, which punished the colonies for their dissent against the Ergonia government.
Under the Unbearable Acts, the Port of Ethelmund was closed until the damaged goods were paid off. Furthermore, Ergonian soldiers were granted quarter in civilian houses without the consent of the residents, and the taxes placed Ethelmund were harshly elevated. The final straw came in March of 1769, when the Ergonian Army attempted to confiscate armaments and ammunition stockpiled in Lexington, a small town outside Ethelmund, where local militias trained. In the ensuing standoff, the Amauritan Militia engaged elements of the Ergonian 17th Regiment of Foot in the town square, both sides losing an unknown number of soldiers, and the Ergonians failing to confiscate the arms of the militia.
The Standoff at Lexington set the colonies ablaze. Infuriated with Ergonian policies, several Colonies quickly amassed their militias, and the citizens of Mecklenburg County in Carolina even dared as much as declaring independence from the Ergonians. As both Amauritan and Ergonian prepared for the ensuing showdown, delegates from all ten colonies convened in Tolpayhocking to create a resolution to the conflict. After days of debate, the Congress of States moved to draft a declaration, separating the Amauritan Colonies from the Ergonian Crown. Selecting Thomas Geofferson to write the document. On August 1st, 1769, the Proclamation of Sovereignty was signed, declaring the Amauritan colonies were now the United States of Amaurita, an independent nation of ten states, sovereign and free from the grasp of the Ergonian Crown.
The birth of the United States quickly escalated into the Amauritan War for Independence, as the United Kingdom refused to recognize the existence of the new country. The Ergonian Army, with assistance from Dutch and Hessian mercenaries, engaged the poorly trained Amauritan Continental Army, now under the command of a Pavonia plantation owner, Frederick Markington. Although the Ergonian Army won early victories, such as the capture of Miedesburg and Tolpayhocking, Amauritan forces were able to wear out the Ergonians and their allies through unconventional warfare, and won several engagements such as Trisanton, Black Creek, and Thalkford.
Revolutionaries tear down a statue of King William, 1769
While fighting in the north was still raging, a southern campaign had begun when Ergonian forces under the command of General Sir John Hearnsbury landed in Carolina and captured the port city of Chatham in 1772, a catastrophic loss for the Amauritans. The Ergonians would go on to assault cities in neighboring Carolina, forcing the Amauritans to withdraw to the countryside. Amauritan forces, under the command of General Franklin Brown, waged a successful guerrilla war against the Ergonian forces in the south, launching surprise attacks on Ergonian forces before melting back into the wilderness of Carolina and Georgia. In 1773, the Ergonian forces under Hearnsbury were forced to march north to link up with Ergonian and Dutch reinforcements from New Ely, and Amauritan militias pursued closely behind. The final nail in the coffin for the Ergonia occurred in 1775, when General Hearnsbury and his now depleted army was cornered and besieged in Jorvickstown, Pavonia, during the southern campaign. After a humiliating defeat, despite the King of Ergonia's desire to keep the war going, the United Kingdom agreed to peace talks with the Amauritans. That same year, in December, Amauritan troops arrived at the gates of Miedesburg, forcing the Ergonia and their allies to withdraw from the port in January 1776.
In the Treaty of Conston in 1776, the Ergonian Empire was mandated to cede all Ergonian territory on the mainland of North America, and recognize the United States as a sovereign nation on the North American eastern seaboard. Furthermore, the Ergonians were mandated to cease their policy of arming native tribes on the frontier, cede the port of Saint Theresa, and recognize the right of the United States to access trade in the Caribbean. Upon the arrival of the news that the treaty was signed, celebrations were held throughout the nation, as the United States was at last free from Ergonian and Dutch rule.
After the Treaty of Conston was signed in 1776, delegations from the twelve former colonies, now states, were dispatched to a Congress in Tolpayhocking to re-frame the United States Government. The previously written Articles of Union, which had governed the country since implementation in 1770, had proven to decentralize the government to a dangerous extent, as the federal government was obsolete before the Articles, and states held virtually all authority. During the 1776 Constitutional Convention, a new system of government was designed, called federalism, as it split power between federal, state, and local governments, whilst reserving any powers not explicitly given to the federal government to the states. Elsewhere, the framers of the constitution divided federal powers between three major branches, the executive branch (which the President would be head of), the legislative branch (which comprised of the legislative body), and a Federal Judiciary (which would interpret laws). Furthermore, the Convention deemed necessary that two houses of legislation would be created, a Parliament of Representatives, whose delegations were selected by the people of a state and determined by population, and the United States Senate, a body comprising of two senators from each state, selected by the legislative body of the state they represented. The last notable compromise in the Convention revolved around slavery, as southern states wished for their slaves to count as people when choosing representatives, despite their servitude, whereas northern states wanted only the free population to count. Therefore, northern and southern delegates came to the conclusion that each slave would count as one half of a freedman, in addition to delaying any change in policy in regards to slavery by twenty years.
The constitution was published in January of 1778, after a two year convention wrote the document. By rule of the convention, nine of the eleven States were required to ratify the document before it could become the supreme law of the land. Many on both sides expressed concern over the importance of the document, with those opposing ratification (anti-constitutionalists) argued that the constitution did nothing to preserve individual liberties. On the other hand, those who favored ratification (constitutionalists) argued that the proposed Constitution would strengthen the central government so that political turmoil would cease as an issue. To defend the ratification of the constitution, writers William Lamarton, George Madison, and Henry Gray wrote and published eighty five essays titled the Federalist Papers, a series of essays defending the federal government and the constitution. Waughsylvania became the first state to ratify the constitution, ratifying it on February 7th, 1778. Holland followed three days later on February 10th, 1778, followed by Saratoga (February 14th, 1778), Massachusetts (February 17th, 1778), Carolina (March 2nd, 1778), Manicouaga (March 17th, 1778), Alleghania (April 1st, 1778), Flaurita (April 3rd, 1778), Georgia (May 23rd, 1778), Cumberland (June 1st, 1778), and Hamtunshire (June 21st, 1778). Pavonia was the last state to ratify the constitution, being admitted to the Union on June 25th, 1778, and henceforth the constitution was adopted as the supreme law of the United States.
Liberty Hall, where the Constitution was written, 1778
Following ratification, the legislative bodies of each state, most of whom were created previous to the constitution, selected their delegations to the United States Senate, which first convened on January 1st, 1780. Simultaneously, the first federal census was conducted to determine how many representatives were needed for the Parliament, and by doing so revealed a population of 6,553,700, a majority of whom were concentrated between Pavonia and Massachusetts Referring to this census, the Senate created 131 electoral districts between September 1st, 1779 and October 21st, 1780, on which date the elections for the Parliament and Presidency were held. Frederick Markington, the war hero and plantation owner from Pavonia, was elected first President of the United States in a unanimous vote, making him the only President in Amauritan history to be elected as such. President Markington served two four year terms between January 4th of 1781 and January 4th of 1789, and established three major precedents nearly every President following him would follow: President Markington established that a President should only serve one term in office (a transition made law by the McCully Term Limits Act), create a body of advisors heading varying government departments (known as a cabinet), and that the President should address a joint session of the legislative houses on an annual basis in a "Condition of the Union" address, as well as delivering a farewell address to the people the day before leaving office. Furthermore, President Markington also secured an unstable peace in the west with the Native Amauritans, and squashed a chain of revolts in western Waughsylvania over taxes on whiskey production.
In addition Markington's accomplishments as President, his administration also gave birth to the two party system that still exists in the United States. The division began the day the cabinet was created, as Markington appointed William Lamarton to be Minister of Finance, and appointed Thomas Geofferson as Minister of Foreign Affairs. The two clashed over policy and interpretation of the Constitution, as Lamarton and his followers believed in a strong central government, a strong industrialized economy, ties to Evestland, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Geofferson and his followers, on the other hand, advocated for a weak federal government, an agrarian economy, ties to Scotatrova, and strict interpretations of the Constitution. One of the many disputes between the two occurred in 1784, when Lamarton proposed his financial plans, which included the creation of a Federal Bank modeled off that of Evestland. Although Geofferson initially opposed Lamarton's financial plans, he eventually compromised with Lamarton, allowing his plan to be ratified in exchange for Lamarton agreeing to push for the capital to be relocated in the south. Giordano County, as the capital was dubbed, underwent construction in 1788, and was completed twelve years later, in 1800.
Although Lamarton and Geofferson were able to compromise on the issue of the national bank, the two once again came head to head over foreign policy and possible expansion by the United States. After this final collision, Lamartonites formed the Federalist Party in 1786, a party that supported a strong central government, industrializing the economy, having ties with Ergonia, and loosely interpreting the constitution. Geoffersonites, on the other hand, formed the Democratic-Republican Party in 1786 as well, a party based upon a weak central government, an agrarian society, holding strong relations with Scotatrova, and having strict interpretations of the Constitution. As President Markington prepared to leave office in 1788, Markington warned that nation that party politics would divide the nation. Regardless, this warning did not bear much, as both parties continued to be active, especially in the process of choosing Markington's successor. The Federalist Party nominated John Adtkins, Markington's Vice President, whereas the Democratic-Republicans nominated Thomas Geofferson, Markington's Minister of Foreign Affairs. John Adtkins won the election, carrying 59 of the 113 electoral votes, with Thomas Pinckney being appointed Vice President.
Under the Adtkins Administration, President Adtkins followed the foreign and economic policy prescription proposed by the previous President, although his administration was not without scandal. In 1790, The Adtkins Administration passed the Thompson Laws, a series of legislation that increased the difficulty for immigrants to acquire citizenship, as well as outlawing any criticism of the President, with punishments for violating the law being as harsh as a severe fine or even time incarcerated. The Democratic-Republican Party attacked Adtkins for such a move, citing violations in the freedom of speech, and renominated Geofferson for the Presidency in 1792, at the same time the Federalist Party renominated John Adtkins for the Federalist nomination for President. Geofferson won a historic victory against the Federalists, carrying 65 electoral votes and establishing a generation of Democratic-Republican rule in the United States. The Election of 1792 also established the precedent of peaceful transition of power between opposing parties, as Federalist President John Adtkins transferred power to President Geofferson without blood being spilt, a tradition that would only be disrupted following the election of 1868 and the onslaught of the Amauritan Civil War.
With the ascension of Thomas Geofferson to the Presidency in 1792, the United States began a path of expansion and growth unprecedented in Europe. By the mid-1780s, colonial authorities in Scotatrovian Atzlana threatened war upon the Louisiana Republic, the rogue state created by Scotatrovian colonists in the 1770s following the Ergonian annexation of Saint Theresa, that stretched from the Mississauga River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west to the Rio Granze in the south. In 1793, President Juan Ramoros of Louisiana went before the Parliament in Markington, requesting for the Republic to be annexed by the United States, and visited again in 1795. President Geofferson was heavily conflicted by this request, as no where in the Constitution did it explicitly say the President had the authority to annex land. After much debate in his mind, Geofferson concluded that Louisiana could be annexed by the President, provided that it technically fell under the Presidential Authority to negotiate treaties. In 1796, therefore, the United States Army marched peacefully into the Louisiana Republic, and raised the Amauritan flag alongside that of Louisiana. Apart of increasing the land area of the United States by twofold, Geofferson's decision set a long lasting precedent of interpreting the Constitution loosely, as opposed to the strict interpretation advocated for by the Democratic Republican Party.
Harter and Williams, by Francis Calhoun,
With a new swath of land extending from the Mississauga to the Rockies and the Rio Granze, President Thomas Geofferson dispatched the Harter and Williams Expedition to map out the new lands annexed by the United States. Departing Saint Alois on the western bank of the Mississauga River in 1796, departing for the Missouri River with 38 army soldiers and 70 local volunteers, most of whom were native born Hescettgovian settlers or Native Amauritan. Between 1796 and 1800, the expedition traveled from the Midwest to the pacific coast near Seattle documenting new species of animals and plants, making contact with Native Amauritans, and mapping the land. Using pre-existing Louisiana maps of the region, Harter and Williams remapped the country, was utilized later by the Frontier Act of 1798. Under the 1798 Frontier Act, the Louisiana Republic was mandated to partition itself into several territories under the supervision of the federal government. Additionally, the Frontier Act mandated that such territories, or any territories created in the future, may be entered into the Union as states, so long as they ratified the Constitution and had a population of 100,000 residents. This law was later called forth when the Louisiana Territory, comprising of the counties between the Sabine River and the Arkansas River, ratified the constitution in 1809, which later ceded its northernmost counties to the state of Arkansas, admitted in 1829. Further, the Saint Theresa area was allowed to hold a referendum in 1812, which saw it break away from the State of Louisiana and form the State of Lemoinarea.
While Harter and Williams explored the new western frontier, President Geofferson's attention was needed on multiple fronts. In 1796, the Barbary States of the North African Coast demanded tribute from the United States in exchange for their pirates to not harass Amauritan ships, a demand which Geofferson rejected, and later forced him to declare war on the Barbary States in 1797, following the capture of the U.S.S Liberty, an Amauritan merchant vessel. The brief conflict saw the deployment of three frigates to the Barbary Coast, which then bombarded Tripoli, forcing the Barbary states to release the Amauritan sailors and cease their aggressions in December of 1797. On the frontier, British agents secretly armed and trained Native Amauritans and the Hescottgovian Republicans, breakaway militias bent on restoring the Louisiana Republic. As a result of raids on frontier towns in Cahokia Country and Mishigana Country, President Geofferson deployed six thousand regular troops and one hundred cannons to the region, ordering the construction of Fort Amherst, Fort Illimouck, and Fort Lansing in the spring of 1798. At home, Geofferson and the Democratic-Republicans in Parliament passed the Slave Importation Ban Act of 1796, the National Debt Reduction Act of 1797, and gradually dismantled whiskey taxes and other unpopular taxes after cutting "useless offices and wasteful spending."
President Geofferson left office in 1801, after eight years of service to the United States and having filled the role of President of the United States, the young and peculiar position any citizen could arise to, in the fires of the revolution that forged the newly born United States.
The History of the United States, Chapter II (1700-1800)
1800-1900 will be done eventually. :P