Improved school curriculums in highschool and universities.
Improved High School Curriculums for public schools. (Private schools vary)
Mathematics - Mathematics 8, pre-calculus 9,10, calculus 11, and 12.
EH Calculus - Calculus EH 1, EH 2.
General Sciences - General Sciences 8, 9.
Biology - Biology 10,11,12.
EH Biology - Biology EH 1, EH 2.
Chemistry - Beginners Chemistry 9, chemistry 10,11,12.
EH Chemistry - Chemistry EH 1, EH 2.
Gastronomy - Gastronomy 11, 12.
Physics - beginners physics 9, physics 10,11,12,
EH Physics - Physics EH 1, EH 2.
English - English 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
EH English - English EH 1, EH 2.
Social Studies - Social Studies 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
(Optional) EH Social Studies - Social Studies EH 1.
Physical Education - Physical Education 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Physical Education Leadership 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Planning - Planning 10, 11.
Visual arts - Visual Arts 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
EH Visual Arts - Visual Arts EH 1, EH 2.
Drawing and Painting - Drawing and Painting 11 and 12.
Graphic Design - Graphic Design 10, 11, 12.
Literature - Literature 11, 12.
EH Literature - Literature EH 1, EH 2.
Performing arts - General performing arts 8.
Choir - Choir 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Dance - Dance 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Drama - Drama 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
EH Drama - Drama EH 1, EH 2.
Directing - Directing 9, 10, 11, 12.
EH Directing - Directing EH 1, EH 2.
Strings - 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Guitar - 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Physiology - Beginners Physiology 11, Physiology 12.
Psychology - Beginners Psychology 10, Psychology 11, 12.
EH Psychology - Psychology EH 1, EH 2.
Engineering - Engineering 10, 11, 12.
EH Engineering - Engineering EH 1, EH 2.
Motor Engineering - Motor Engineering 10, 11, 12.
Metal works - Metal works 9, 10, 11, 12.
Astronomy - Astronomy 11, 12.
EH Astronomy - Astronomy EH 1, EH 2.
Economics - Economics 11, 12.
EH Economics - Economics EH 1, EH 2.
History - History 11, 12.
EH History - History EH 1, EH 2.
Culture studies - Culture studies 11, 12.
EH Culture studies - Culture studies EH 1, EH 2.
Drafting and Design - Drafting and Design 11, 12.
Urban planning - Urban planning 10, 11, 12.
Environmental studies - Environmental studies 11, 12.
Geography - Geography 11, 12.
EH Geography - Geography 11, 12.
Agricultural studies - Agricultural studies 11, 12.
EH Agricultural studies - Agricultural studies EH 1, EH 2.
Human services - Human Services 10, 11.
First Aid 11, 12.
University level courses (some vary)
Anatomy and psychology
Environmental engineering design
Introduction architectural design
Hazardous industrial waste management
Geo technical engineering
Mechanics of materials
Dynamics and control
Machine component design
Material and energy balance
Molecular physics of biomedical engineering
Ergonomics and Human Factors
Integrated production system and Facility layout
Probabilistics Methods in Operations Research
Production and Inventory Control
Principles of Aeronautics
Introduction to Material Characteristics
Mechanical behavior of Materials
Building Acoustic Fundamentals
Leadership in Building energy efficiency
Work in modern society
International business behavior
Economy and society
Comparative industrial relations in developing countries
Sociology of Organizations
Race and public policy
Sociology of Work
Sociology of entrepreneurship
Families and Work Organizations
Work, employment, Society
Political ecology of food
Interdisciplinary Field Training
Independent field experience
Community Development of Food Systems
University Energy Awareness
Good Energy Use program
And many more...
The Western States
The Western States were bastions of the dwindling democracy at the time. Their borders were pelted with bullets and blood while citizens were used as bait and slaughtered like cattle. However the West Coast remained adamant in their cause, Even united under one republic and sharing resources from coast to coast. At the helm of the Pacifican States of America, California with their massive manpower and resources protects the their borders with intent as well as Baja, Oregon, and Washington. The PSA extends an open invite for anything willing to join under the Pacifican flag as well as sending invites to other nations for trade.
Improved Modern Harbors, Naval Ports, and CEM system established.
The rise of the Federation’s economy gave many problems to an ever growing issue of accommodating towards change, which gave the National Economy and Business Administration and the National Economic Bureau Administration to improve modern harbors and ports given the ability to haul various more produce goods domestically and internationally from other countries, further increasing and sustaining a global economic trade market. Almost all modern ports already constructed within the entire Federation are due in affect to said change in the next month and is stated to be finished in 3 months. A new mode of transporting goods into ships by trucks and rail, was also introduced by the administration, further increasing a higher level of security, transportation capabilities, and better accessibility.
The proposed composite enclosure method uses a plastic composite shell structure with tiny structural struts within layers of the composite, as well as inside the enclosure. Further enhancing the CEM structural strength and durability, and can easily be carried by the port cranes. The CEMs can also be portable by medium sized trucks via roads and freight trains, increasing the capacity of high quality products and other goods transported in and out of the Federation.
An increase higher quality loading cranes within the modern ports are also issued to the Central Government from the Administration of Naval Transportation, as well as reinforced and expanded dry docks and boarding docks, enlarging the capacity of ships to repair and transport more goods and passengers. The estimated funds to improve the ports, harbors, and the full integration of the CEM system approximates to 2.7 billion dollars. The length of construction will be estimated to be 23 RP months.
More roads, higher quality of roads, and efficient parking established in the Federation.
The severe increase of road use among civilians and CEM trucks used widely by many private and public companies and industries in every sector and regions of the Federation, due to its high durability, cheaper use, and easy transportable capabilities. Almost all truck deliveries use the CEM systems, thus significantly improving the growth of the economy, however, the introduction of the new system lead to the wider use of trucks on the road, which then contributed to the recent spike of road injuries and deaths within the Northern regions. Sources from the Central Government revealed by the free press and media, have made the clarity for the reasons to the recent spikes crystal clear. It was widely accepted the modern road qualities, was not enough to ensure safer travels. Some road systems in other sectors lacked the necessary signs, traffic lights, and access to the main roads. Taxes acquired for the past few months, were allocated to the improvement in all of roads by the Central Government, approximately 870 million dollars were spent to finish the expensive project. Generated around 120,000 jobs, and was quickly finished last month on October 4th, 2019.
Industries dedicated to repairing roads, proposed a cheaper and a much more efficient system by replacing some main cement roads with portable plastic roads with enhanced structural strength and durability. The Central Government and Administration of Transportation accepted the proposal, soon created various designs of the new Enhanced Plastic Road Systems (EPRS), by August 30th, 2020, two EPRS designs were chosen specifically for the busy commutes of several vehicles and geography, utilizing both specification requirements. Some main roads were successfully replaced with the new plastic designed roads, while some still utilize cement. The Central Government announced that more main road networks will be replaced with the innovative technology in the near future.
Other systems to ensure the safety and flow of traffic, the industries have installed multiple Traffic lights, parking systems, sidewalks, bus transportation, and strict road laws were established by the CG to be placed within all sectors of the Federation with strict police enforcement to drivers violating any of the important road laws. Thus drastically reducing death or injuries sustained by car accidents by almost 95% and will continue to drop in the latter years to come.
The factbook is nice and clean however you could use a diagram for your parliament to make it clear :
The link is below-
Regional Motto: In varietate unitas - United in diversity
The Regional Diplomacy Act
Preamble: This bill seeks to lower the embassy requirements to allow the creation of more embassies and thus allow for more diplomatic relations to form between TDR and other nations.
Noting That the current embassy requirements severly limit the amount of embassies and relations we could have with others.
Understanding That the embassy requirements must be lowered in order to allow more foreign relations to grow.
Section 1. Forming an official levels of diplomatic relations with regions. Understanding that an embassy with The Democratic Republic does not equal being a formal ally but it is the first step in building formal relations with The Democratic Republic on a diplomatic level.
Section 2. Official regional relations shall only be with regions that have an embassy with The Democratic Republic, with exception of category of "Opposition regions".
Section 3. Regional relations shall be split into four different categories in which official government business will refer to them.
Governorate regions - These are regions who are fully administered by The Democratic Republic and are residents thereof. For a region to become an official colony, it must have an embassy with The Democratic Republic and it needs a majority vote of the Senate to be under the Colony charter of The Democratic Republic and be overseen by the colonial Governor. Regions shall begin with the Governance of.....
Regional allies - These are regions who have proven themselves close to The Democratic Republic with information sharing and mutual defense.
Neutral regions - These are regions who share an embassy with The Democratic Republic.
Opposition regions - These are regions who have repeatedly shown to be a threat to The Democratic Republic.
Regions may be promoted or demoted by the Consul and/or Department of State with exception to Colonial regions needing Senate approval.
Section 4. Formally create a diplomatic system in The Democratic Republic State Department. The Democratic Republic's regional embassies shall be split between an undefined number of Ambassadors who shall represent the government of The Democratic Republic in the respected regions that they are assigned to. The Ambassadors shall be hired by the Consul or the Minister of State and have no term.
Section 5. The Ambassadors may be removed from their posts through impeachment or firing from the Consul or Minister of State. Ambassadors may not serve on the court while serving as an Ambassador.
Section 6. Officially setting up Embassy requirements. The embassy requirements shall be:
1. The region must have an RMB post from atleast 30 days ago.
2. A required population of 30 nations is needed, with 10 of those 30 nations needing to be WA members. The Consul may make an exemption to this rule as long as it benefits the region.
3. The region must have either constitutional articles or laws fostering the application of Human Rights
4. They must have a democratically elected government, with most of their government positions being elected.
5. If a region requests to build an embassy with TDR, they must send a telegram on why they want an embassy with TDR
6. Must not be a puppet or storage region.
7. Can be either raider or defender just as long as they keep TDR neutral in their conflicts.
8. If we close an embassy, the region can appeal to the state department and consul to keep the embassy open.
9. In order for embassies to be constructed, the region must have similar values to TDR, such as democracy, freedom and human rights.
10. The Democratic Republic Consul can change these requirements or update the requirements through a supermajority.
Improved agricultural and agronomy industries and marketing.
Agricultural marketing is inferred to cover the services involved in moving an agricultural product from the farm to the consumer. It is also the planning, organizing, directing and handling of agricultural produce in such a way as to satisfy the farmer, producer and the consumer. Numerous interconnected activities are involved in doing this, such as planning production, growing and harvesting, grading, packing and packaging, transport, storage, agro- and food processing, distribution, advertising and sales. Effectively, the term encompasses the entire range of supply chain operations. However, it's key function is to help direct these services, by providing competent and able market information, thereby linking the other operations into an integrated service with targeted outcomes.
Farmers dedicated to the occupation and studies of agriculture were given business incentives, to improve the soil quality of arable land, transforming some farm companies into many trending soil fertilizer industries, which generated 84,000 jobs for many other farmers and careers related to agriculture and chemistry. Fertilization methods and more enhanced fertilizers, which were strictly regulated by the Central Government and the Administration of Agriculture and Farming, were created, further accumulating crop production each month. Producing over 3 billion worth of food in the last few months and the agricultural industry now worth over 1 billion, set to increase over 3.4 billion in the next 2 years.
More accessible and high quality EPRS roads were established in the farms, directly connecting to several larger and smaller markets that can be easily sold for a cheap price, thus enlarging the supply and demand. An estimated 400 million dollars to build and install more of the new EPRS roads to connect to said markets. However the past month has shown an outstanding rise in the Federation's economic and commerce growth rate, advancing the nation's GDP and GDP per capita.
The quality of the occupation had been improved by the Central Government collaborating with the Administration of Agriculture and Farming. Farmers received incentives and better farming equipment as well as practice, to meet the essential regulations imposed on the industry to prevent over-farming and an over-use chemical or biological substance used to promote faster and healthier crop growth. However, a license to work professionally as a farmer in the agricultural industry is now a necessary demand by the Administration, as well as a limited purchase and development of farmlands were also imposed to prevent any unnecessary damage to sensitive environments, damage to the soil quality, and flooding, by unlicensed farmers, due to lack of knowledge and study of the particular landscape. To compensate for the lengthy process, the occupation was given a more appropriate salary to help agriculturists and agronomists improve the arable land. Furthermore, a compensation fee was added if a disaster such as drought, flooding, and any natural disasters, damages the land and the produced crops, to assist in redevelopment.
Double cropping will only be advised by the Administration, if the location of arable land is sufficient enough in its soil quality and water irrigation systems to maintain the practise.
(WAD) studies and increase women's education.
Gender and development is an interdisciplinary field of research and applied study that implements a feminist approach to understanding and addressing the disparate impact that economic development and globalization have on people based upon their location, gender, class background, and other socio-political identities. A strictly economic approach to development views a country’s development in quantitative terms such as job creation, inflation control, and high employment – all of which aim to improve the ‘economic wellbeing’ of a country and the subsequent quality of life for its people. In terms of economic development, quality of life is defined as access to necessary rights and resources including but not limited to quality education, medical facilities, affordable housing, clean environments, and low crime rate. Gender and development considers many of these same factors, however, gender and development emphasizes efforts towards understanding how multifaceted these issues are in the entangled context of culture, government, and globalization. Accounting for this need, gender and development implements ethnographic research, research that studies a specific culture or group of people by physically immersing the researcher into the environment and daily routine of those being studied, in order to comprehensively understand how development policy and practices affect the everyday life of targeted groups or areas.
the study of gender’s relation to development has gathered major interest amongst scholars and international policymakers. The field has undergone major theoretical shifts, beginning with Women in Development (WID), shifting to Women and Development (WAD), and finally becoming the contemporary Gender and Development (GAD). Each of these frameworks emerged as an evolution of its predecessor, aiming to encompass a broader range of topics and social science perspectives. In addition to these frameworks, the Central Government and Administration of Education and Administration of Social Welfare have implemented policies, programs, and research regarding gender and development, contributing a neoliberal and smart economics approach to the study. Examples of these policies and programs include Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs), outsourcing, and privatizing public enterprises, all of which direct focus towards economic growth and suggest that advancement towards gender equality will follow. Ecofeminist perspectives confront industrial practices that accompany development, including deforestation, pollution, environmental degradation, and ecosystem destruction.
The socioeconomic impact of female education constitutes a significant area of research within international development. Increases in the amount of female education in regions tends to correlate with high levels of development. Some of the effects are related to economic development. Women's education increases the income of women and leads to growth in GDP. Other effects are related to social development. Educating girls leads to a number of social benefits, including many related to women's empowerment.
This individual monetary gain creates an increase in the overall economic productivity of a country. Girls are underrepresented in schooling, meaning that investments aimed specifically at educating women should produce bigger dividends. Looking holistically at the opportunity cost of not investing in girls, the total missed GDP growth is between 1.5% and 1.9%. When looking at different regions, it is estimated that 0.4–0.9% of the difference in GDP growth is accounted for solely by differences in the gender gap in education. Thus the incentives to invest in women's education was prioritized and established by the Central Government. Significantly increasing the percentage of the Federation's GDP and GDP growth rate by almost 4% this year 1901, as tens of millions officially joined the workforce in multiple industries.
In addition to total economic growth, women's education also increases the equitability of the distribution of wealth in a society. Increased women's education is important for achieving this as it targets the impoverished women, a particularly disadvantaged group. There is also evidence that lower gender disparity in educational attainment for a developing country correlates with lower overall income disparity within society.
The WAD paradigm stresses the relationship between women, and the work that they perform in their societies as economic agents in both the public and domestic spheres. It also emphasizes the distinctive nature of the roles women play in the maintenance and development of their societies, with the understanding that purely the integration of women into development efforts would serve to reinforce the existing structures of inequality present in societies overrun by patriarchal interests. In general, WAD is thought to offer a more critical conceptualization of women's position compared to WID.
The WAD approach emphasizes the distinctive nature of women's knowledge, work, goals, and responsibilities, as well as advocating for the recognition of their distinctiveness. This fact, combined with a recognized tendency for development agencies to be dominated by patriarchal interests, is at the root of the women-only initiatives introduced by WAD subscribers.
Community Economic Development Advances in the Federation!
In Asia for the last 2 years the Asian Foundation has supported Asian initiatives to foster inclusive economic growth and broaden economic opportunities.The Foundation designs and implements economic programs in three core areas business environments for private sector growth, Entrepreneurship Development and Regional Economic Cooperation.
Theories and strategies
The most significant aspect of community economic development, aside from the fact that it focuses on economic development in specific localities, is that focuses on the process of community building. This “community” aspect of CED assumes that the community will play a dynamic role in economic development processes and that community development will contribute to sustained economic development and vice versa. In this understanding, the community is considered both as an input and output in this CED equation.
Looking at CED from an economic viewpoint, the initial purpose of such an approach is the creation of local jobs and the stimulation of business activity. Integrally linked to these purposes are strategies to increase access to capital, stimulate asset building, improve the general business climate, and link citywide economic development efforts to specific community development efforts.
Increasing access to capital is an extremely important strategy for community economic development. Historically, residents in poor neighborhoods have experienced great difficulty finding access to capital because they are traditionally viewed as credit risks. In places where banks do offer services, these residents face other structural barriers such as minimum deposit requirements, high service fees, and complex paperwork. To solve these problems, a community economic development approach would develop alternate neighborhood community development financial institutions such as community development credit unions, community development banks, and community development venture capital funds.
Improving the general business climate is also integral to community economic development. Strategies to do so would include improving the infrastructure and physical appearance of commercial areas, the quality of quantity of residential housing, and the transportation systems in a neighborhood. While these may not directly economic activities, they serve to strengthen the economic well being of an area because it encourages businesses to locate there.
More Social Businesses established.
Profits realized by the business are reinvested in the business itself (or used to start other social businesses), with the aim of increasing social impact, for example expanding the company’s reach, improving the products or services or in other ways subsidizing the social mission.
Unlike a profit-maximizing business, the prime aim of a social business is not to maximize profits (although generating profits is desired). Furthermore, business owners are not receiving any dividend out of the business profits, if any.
On the other hand, unlike a non-profit, a social business is not dependent on donations or on private or public grants to survive and to operate, because, as any other business, it is self-sustainable. Furthermore, unlike a non-profit, where funds are spent only once on the field, funds in a social business are invested to increase and improve the business' operations on the field on an indefinite basis. Per Yunus' quote: "A charity dollar has only one life; a social business dollar can be invested over and over again."
The needed social businesses increasingly grabbed the attention of the Central Government as the industry proved to have established better business operations and improving the growth of small and moderately sized communities in both rural and urban areas of the nation. However the needed investments and incentives by the provisional government were highly requested in order to maintain the order of such a profound industry. The central government reported a rather large percent of the nation’s GDP growth rate, GDP per capita, and human development index, as a result of the social businesses hard at work to invest in people’s new businesses, such as farms, manufacturing facilities, and more thus improving overall life and economy.
A proposal by the Speaker of the Senate along with some members within the President’s cabinet was issued to both the Senate and Congress, debating towards the choice of initiating needed funds to expand existing social businesses both domestically and internationally, as well as incentives to create more social business. After a few days of discussions, the solution to pass the bill to nationalize social businesses and provide subsidies is passed!
The social businesses created within the Federation will increase ten fold to serve the people of the F.E.A. It is expected that the GDP and GDP growth rate, along with the GDP per capita will increase by a few percent.
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Automobile Development and Manufacturing Industry booms!
Development of automobiles have skyrocketed in the past several months after the Central Government’s large funding and subsidies to existing automobile companies and auto repair shops across the entire territories of the Federation, except for the smaller pacifican islands. Numerous automobile companies have begun to develop their very own designs of cars, the majority creates conventional and pre-existing designs which are then developed further, while others experiment in unconventional designs that would hopefully one day tackle the problem of creating a more efficient car that would carry greater loads. Truck development were widespread within the civilian and military automobile development and manufacturing sector, mainly within Japan, the Krai regions, Korea, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Cambodia, Siam, and the Philippines. More automobile companies have begun to expand and domestically into other territories of the Federation and planned on an international community of service centers for civilians to purchase cars, such large companies are AiraT, AP, Tomtra, Aegear, and many more unaccounted for. Truck development industries have also taken a mass rise in sales, utilizing new truck designs in the year 2020, for large overhauls of fresh produce, crops, produced goods, electronics, produced metals, and other major resources for refining and into the local and international free markets for purchase. Experimental truck designs have taken a new route to provide the free market sector the needed less expensive goods and services via the Federation’s high quality road infrastructures connecting to almost every large cities, smaller cities, towns, and villages all across the Federation territories. With the large automobile companies such as AriaT and GV Tros, similarly competing to establish new and working designs of reliable trucks, will continue for many years ahead to provide new trucks and improve existing models. Improved wheel designs are also being highly researched and tested within the automotive industry, to improve car performance in rough terrain.
Medical and Biomaterial technology and methods established, anesthesia E widely used.
As the Federation’s advanced medical industries and research rapidly grows, more proposals and an advent newer technological development as well as improved training and methods, were highly issued by the Administration of Health and Administration of National Medical Research and Development. As a result of such issues, the Central Government immediately diverted funds to advance methods as well as technologies for general surgery and Neurosurgery, creating up to 6 different type of neuro surgeries to be practised and performed both effectively and efficiently.
1. Stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, and epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus callosotomy – severing part or all of the corpus callosum to stop or lessen seizure spread and activity, and the surgical removal of functional, physiological and/or anatomical pieces or divisions of the brain, called epileptic foci, that are operable and that are causing seizures, and also the more radical and very, very rare partial or total lobectomy, or even hemispherectomy – the removal of part or all of one of the lobes, or one of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain; those two procedures, when possible, are also very, very rarely used in oncological neurosurgery or to treat very severe neurological trauma, such as stab or gunshot wounds to the brain)
2. Oncological neurosurgery also called neurosurgical oncology; includes pediatric oncological neurosurgery; treatment of benign and malignant central and peripheral nervous system cancers and pre-cancerous lesions in adults and children (including, among others, glioblastoma multiforme and other gliomas, brain stem cancer, astrocytoma, pontine glioma, medulloblastoma, spinal cancer, tumors of the meninges and intracranial spaces, secondary metastases to the brain, spine, and nerves, and peripheral nervous system tumors)
3. Skull base surgery
4. Spinal neurosurgery
5. Peripheral nerve surgery
6. Pediatric neurosurgery (for cancer, seizures, bleeding, stroke, cognitive disorders or congenital neurological disorders)
While general surgeries in the human body required the advent of anesthesia compounds, in which the AoNMRaD has created to the demands, further enhancing the effects of the compounds required for serious surgical operations. Naming it Anesthesia E. Before the advent of anesthesia, surgery was a traumatically painful procedure and surgeons were encouraged to be as swift as possible to minimize patient suffering. This also meant that operations were largely restricted to amputations and external growth removals.
Improved methods of: antisepsis and asepsis when he realised that infection could be better avoided by preventing bacteria from getting into wounds in the first place. This led to the rise of sterile surgery. Lister instructed surgeons under his responsibility to wear clean gloves and wash their hands in 5% carbolic solution before and after operations, and had surgical instruments washed in the same solution. He also introduced the steam steriliser to sterilize equipment. His discoveries paved the way for a dramatic expansion to the capabilities of the surgeon; for his contributions he is often regarded as the father of modern surgery.
Halsted's principles, also known as Tenets of Halsted, are the basic principles of surgical technique regarding tissue handling.
Gentle handling of tissue
Preservation of blood supply
Strict aseptic technique
Minimum tension on tissues
Accurate tissue apposition
Obliteration of deadspace
This includes the advance of many surgical specialties.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery
Biomaterial Tech Development
A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one. As a science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering. It has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science.
Note that a biomaterial is different from a biological material, such as bone that is produced by a biological system. Additionally, care should be exercised in defining a biomaterial as biocompatible, since it is application-specific. A biomaterial that is biocompatible or suitable for one application may not be biocompatible in another.
Biomaterials can be derived either from nature or synthesized in the laboratory using a variety of chemical approaches utilizing metallic components, polymers, ceramics or composite materials. They are often used and/or adapted for a medical application, and thus comprises whole or part of a living structure or biomedical device which performs, augments, or replaces a natural function. Such functions may be relatively passive, like being used for a heart valve, or may be bioactive with a more interactive functionality such as hydroxy-apatite coated hip implants. Biomaterials are also used every day in dental applications, surgery, and drug delivery. For example, a construct with impregnated pharmaceutical products can be placed into the body, which permits the prolonged release of a drug over an extended period of time. A biomaterial may also be an autograft, allograft or xenograft used as a transplant material.
The ability of an engineered biomaterial to induce a physiological response that is supportive of the biomaterial's function and performance is known as bioactivity. Most commonly, in bioactive glasses and bioactive ceramics this term refers to the ability of implanted materials to bond well with surrounding tissue in either osteoconductive or osseo productive roles. Bone implant materials are often designed to promote bone growth while dissolving into surrounding body fluid. Thus for many biomaterials good biocompatibility along with good strength and dissolution rates are desirable. Commonly, bioactivity of biomaterials is gauged by the surface biomineralization in which a native layer of hydroxyapatite is formed at the surface.
Self-assembly is the most common term in use in the modern scientific community to describe the spontaneous aggregation of particles (atoms, molecules, colloids, micelles, etc.) without the influence of any external forces. Large groups of such particles are known to assemble themselves into thermodynamically stable, structurally well-defined arrays, quite reminiscent of one of the 7 crystal systems found in metallurgy and mineralogy (e.g. face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, etc.). The fundamental difference in equilibrium structure is in the spatial scale of the unit cell (or lattice parameter) in each particular case.
Molecular self-assembly is found widely in biological systems and provides the basis of a wide variety of complex biological structures. This includes an emerging class of mechanically superior biomaterials based on microstructural features and designs found in nature. Thus, self-assembly is also emerging as a new strategy in chemical synthesis and nanotechnology. Molecular crystals, liquid crystals, colloids, micelles, emulsions, phase-separated polymers, thin films and self-assembled monolayers all represent examples of the types of highly ordered structures which are obtained using these techniques. The distinguishing feature of these methods is self-organization.
Nearly all materials could be seen as hierarchically structured, especially since the changes in spatial scale bring about different mechanisms of deformation and damage. However, in biological materials this hierarchical organization is inherent to the microstructure. One of the first examples of this, in the history of structural biology, is the early X-ray scattering work on the hierarchical structure of hair and wool by Astbury and Woods. In bone, for example, collagen is the building block of the organic matrix — a triple helix with diameter of 1.5 nm. These tropocollagen molecules are intercalated with the mineral phase (hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate) forming fibrils that curl into helicoids of alternating directions. These "osteons" are the basic building blocks of bones, with the volume fraction distribution between organic and mineral phase being about 60/40.
In another level of complexity, the hydroxyapatite crystals are mineral platelets that have a diameter of approximately 70–100 nm and thickness of 1 nm. They originally nucleate at the gaps between collagen fibrils.
Similarly, the hierarchy of abalone shell begins at the nanolevel, with an organic layer having a thickness of 20–30 nm. This layer proceeds with single crystals of aragonite (a polymorph of CaCO3) consisting of "bricks" with dimensions of 0.5 and finishing with layers approximately 0.3 mm (mesostructure).
Crabs are arthropods whose carapace is made of a mineralized hard component (which exhibits brittle fracture) and a softer organic component composed primarily of chitin. The brittle component is arranged in a helical pattern. Each of these mineral ‘rods’ (1 μm diameter) contains chitin–protein fibrils with approximately 60 nm diameter. These fibrils are made of 3 nm diameter canals which link the interior and exterior of the shell.
Biomaterials are used in:
Intraocular lenses (IOLs) for eye surgery
Artificial ligaments and tendons
Dental implants for tooth fixation
Blood vessel prostheses
Skin repair devices (artificial tissue)
Drug delivery mechanisms
Surgical sutures, clips, and staples for wound closure
Pins and screws for fracture stabilisation
Biomaterials must be compatible with the body, and there are often issues of biocompatibility which must be resolved before a product can be placed on the market and used in a clinical setting. Because of this, biomaterials are usually subjected to the same requirements as those undergone by new drug therapies.
All manufacturing companies are also required to ensure traceability of all of their products so that if a defective product is discovered, others in the same batch may be traced.
In the United States, 45% of the 250,000 valve replacement procedures performed annually involve a mechanical valve implant. The most widely used valve is a bileaflet disc heart valve, or St. Jude valve. The mechanics involve two semicircular discs moving back and forth, with both allowing the flow of blood as well as the ability to form a seal against backflow. The valve is coated with pyrolytic carbon, and secured to the surrounding tissue with a mesh of woven fabric called Dacron (du Pont's trade name for polyethylene terephthalate). The mesh allows for the body's tissue to grow while incorporating the valve.
Most of the time, ‘artificial’ tissue is grown from the patient’s own cells. However, when the damage is so extreme that it is impossible to use the patient's own cells, artificial tissue cells are grown. The difficulty is in finding a scaffold that the cells can grow and organize on. The characteristics of the scaffold must be that it is biocompatible, cells can adhere to the scaffold, mechanically strong and biodegradable. One successful scaffold is a copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid.
Biocompatibility is related to the behavior of biomaterials in various environments under various chemical and physical conditions. The term may refer to specific properties of a material without specifying where or how the material is to be used. For example, a material may elicit little or no immune response in a given organism, and may or may not able to integrate with a particular cell type or tissue. Immuno-informed biomaterials that direct the immune response rather than attempting to circumvent the process is one approach that shows promise. The ambiguity of the term reflects the ongoing development of insights into how biomaterials interact with the human body and eventually how those interactions determine the clinical success of a medical device (such as pacemaker or hip replacement). Modern medical devices and prostheses are often made of more than one material—so it might not always be sufficient to talk about the biocompatibility of a specific material.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms. Cellulose and starch, proteins and peptides, and DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomeric units, respectively, are sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides.] Cellulose is both the most common biopolymer and the most common organic compound on Earth. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose.
For several decades the PRO has been building a massive underground complexes which house production, and warehouse of both military and civilian products, and disaster aid in the event of a natural disaster at home or abroad.
The Complexes will serve as production, storage, and as a staging ground for disaster relief at home and abroad. The complexes are also connected via underground rail and roads, many of them were made from old mines and are completely safe from natural and man made disasters. The complexes also house leasable space which is available for both domestic and foreign companies should they so wish to lease space.
The complexes each feature 3.2 million square feet of leasable space, a wide range of buildings ranging from 1-9 acres and a even temperature of 16 degrees Celsius and the refrigeration areas are well maintained. Each complex features 224 dock doors , well over 10 km of lit roadway as well as ceilings up to 9 meters
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Talks among States
With the rise of the so called 'United States of America' back in the east, Pacifica grew weary of the new massive republic's intents, with the addiction as their military power. Although they were happy to see some form of the United States being reinstated, California, Oregon, and Washington deemed the republic as invasive and not true to values, especially after the vice president took office. The PSA felt as if the US were only catering to their government rather than the individual. Seeming themselves as a viable target in eyes of the new United States, Pacifica extended their hands over the non-aligned states.
Idaho, Nevada, and Utah were invited into the PSA, stating that their rights would not be infringed upon and the PSA will help boost each state's economies with active trade and supplies going in and out from the coast.
Alaska and Hawaii were also were in talks with the PSA. Although Hawaii was less welcoming since the Hawaiian Kingdom was established, the Alaskan Republic were cordial with the PSA since it's formation as the 3 states traded with Alaska for oil. The Alaskan President was adamant in staying independent, but would help out in a war against the USA, if it occurs of course.
Last of the talks were with Texas, promising the Lone Star Republic's independence if civil war does break out. Texas hasn't answered as of yet, but many believe that they would come around eventually.
Still Open For Talks
Although many feel hostile of the new US forming, President Aden Ralphs still believe they can avoid a civil war in America. Fighting another civil war might destroy the natural beauty seen across America, which many PSA delegates agree and are against. The PSA still awaits for the US's response on the matter.
The Chinese National Military has announced its intervention in the Abyssinian-Tanzanian War on the side of the Abyssinian Military. Three divisions, the 162nd Motorized Division, the 195th Heavy Combined Arms Brigade, and the 31st Heavy Combined Arms Brigade have been prepped for the relocation to Africa as part of the new “Africa East Theatre.” Additionally, a squadrons worth of Chengdu J-10’s would be allocated to serve as close-air-support in place of the Qiangjiji-7, which has yet to enter service in the attack aircraft roles of operational front-line service. The goal of the Chinese intervention is to end the indiscriminate killing of civilians on both sides, while helping to end the war and overthrow the Tanzanian socialist government.
The Nanchang Q-5's, a 1970's era attack aircraft that's been modernized various times over the past several decades has received a new operator in the form of the Republic of Abyssinia. 100 Nanchang Q-5's have been sold as part of a "gradual militarization replacement pay-plan", of which the Abyssinian government will gradually pay back the Greater Republic of China over the course of fifteen years. Additionally, China will be funding various projects across the Republic of Abyssinia to improve living conditions, railways, roads and highways.
The Arab-Chinese Deal
Chinese company Norinco will be undergoing the rebuilding of nearly six hundred Union of Arab States tanks to modern standards. The tanks will receive modernized RPG, ATGM, and HEAT protection on the side and frontal armor, as well as an application of the Urbanized Combat Kit. The Urbanized Combat Kit, UCK is the latest urban combat kit designed for tanks meant to provide extra protection and fighting in urban areas, along with the new infrared FS231A tank sight, along with a target tracking and ranging system. The tanks will receive 115mm MS350BC2A cannons which have an optimum firing range of 4,700 meters. Although the price has yet to be determined, Norinco will be delivering twenty tanks free of charge, and modifying ten tanks to test several new weapon systems.
The mastery of Trash Burning
In recent months, the Federation has looked forward more into cleaner energy methods that are far safer to accommodate due to the nation's geographical location. With the Fukushima accident that was caused by an earthquake followed by a tsunami, the government and the energy industry has looked more into the idea of burning trash to produce heat thus producing steam to power turbines and thus producing electricity. So far the nation will receive billions of tons of garbage from approximately 5 nations across the globe. To effectively contain the large amount of trash. The energy industry working alongside with the ministry of energy and subsidized by the government to create a containment unit to store the trash. Improvements in the efficiency of burning little trash to produce more electricity has been progressing, it is expected to take a few more months for a more advanced burning system to be finalized.
Who do you support for Consul?
America JB (Freedom Party)- 52.6%
United Trev (United Independence Party)- 26.3%
Porto Verde (Progressive Party)- 21.1%
Who do you support for Senate?
Freedom Party- 57.9%
Progressive Party- 21.1%
United Independence Party- 21.1%
Do you think TDR is headed in the right direction?
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The South American Union has invited various Caribbean nations to a meeting to discuss future cooperation's among the said nations.
The Union and these islands have shared a close ties since the Liberation war in 1888 and since then and furthered their relationships thru the years.
Many of them disbanded the confederation in 1903 with an attempting to strike it out on their own in a sovereign independence.
However, the 20th century proved to be grueling to most and as Union stayed together relatively strong and united the majority of these islands have found it difficult to coop with their newly found independence and have struggled.
As such the Union has called together the first of many planned new "Confederation" meetings.
The Union has set the example of the South American nations and Caribbean nations to follow and is renewing the fire for a joint confederation among these new world nations to join together during theses times to ensure the prosperity is shared.
One by the one the confederation meeting was going as planned as the island nations once again agreed to join the confederation under the Union's watch.
Some islands, mainly those who not originally Spanish were reluctant to join, but the Union's prosperity and the promises of a joint group working together soon thawed any arguments against.
As the meeting came to a close the last of the islands of the Caribbean have finally deiced to come together to assist and grow in this region of the world, together we are strong and united we all stand against what this cruel world we can be heard and triumph over all.
May the Union stand...