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«12. . .86,50086,50186,50286,50386,50486,50586,506. . .86,83986,840»

:3

        𝐀 𝐍𝐄𝐖 𝐀𝐆𝐄

| YEKENI DIMIṮSI -  የቀን ድምፅ  -  THE VOICE OF THE HORN | Issue No. 1 | APRIL 1997 |

        | THE COUP |

    | EAST AFRICAN CAPITOL COMPLEX, ADIS ABABA, EAST AFRICAN FEDERATION | Crackling of gunfire quickly engulfs the dark night air of northern Addis Abeba. Weapons, all new from Paramountica, both fully automatic and semi-automatic fire off dozens if not hundreds of rounds, sending the civilians in the districts outside of the Capitol Complex into a frenzy. Locals take shelter, the clean streets become littered with shrapnel. As some locals watch they see thousands of soldiers emblazoned with a familiar emblem on their arms - the Crowned Lion of Yehudah - rush towards the Capitol Complex. Before long, the entirety of the complex is surrounded. With Paramerican made weaponry, these, army soldiers rush the Capitol Guard. Before long, gunfire illuminates the steps of the heart of East African democracy. The soldiers make a charge and break down the doors. If one could look careful enough, they would see soldiers on the roofs of nearby skyscrapers. The Capitol was surrounded. |

    | As soldiers poured into the rooms and chambers of the East African Congress, they arrested Congress members
    while shootouts with the Capitol Guard punctuated the night. The soldiers moved swiftly, capturing the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and the First Citizen. The two were in a meeting being briefed on Liberalina's economy, the rude awakening came when three soldiers broke down the door and their military escorts shot. Just then appeared a short woman with graying hair. She was wearing a dark blue pantsuit and limited jewelry. She was both stern and welcoming, a horrifying paradox. As she entered the conference room, the cabinet of the First Citizen followed - in chains. From behind her emerged a Lieutenant, that the Supreme Commander clearly knew. Facial expressions seemed to speak lowder than the commands. The woman began to speak.
    |

      | INTIRAS WODEDA: |

      . . . "Your Excellency, First Citizen Barre, Supreme Commander Andom - your tenures are over. You have let economic mismanagement, corruption, and democratic centralism ruin our culture, reputation, and efficiency. You have denied the people a voice. Rigged elections to an untransparent bureaucracy have made the people of East Africa buy into the allusion of federation and autocracy. This is the end of this failed experiment. The nature of this federation is derived by the heel of a military boot. This is no more. I am the representative of the people of Ethiopia, Governor of Amhara, and I can not allow you to subjugate the history of this state. You have removed and poisoned the voice of the East African citizen and have replaced our historic authority with a military puppet. How dare you defile the office of the executive! While you have been wallowing in "neutrality," the potential partnerships, opportunities, and more have slipped away. I am here, by virtue of the Imperial Progressive Party and the Imperial Household of the Solomonic Dynasty. I am here by virtue of the true and rightful executives of Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti, Oromia, Eritrea, and Socotra: The Emperor of Ethiopia. The Empire is back, and this dirty state is no more." . . . 

    | The First Citizen and Supreme Commander were visibly stunned. They were under the impression that they wiped out the last of the monarchy years ago, following the 1977 Coup. Twenty years later, they were shocked to even here the name "Emperor." Following Ms. Wadeda's soliloquy, the First Citizen resigned and officially dissolved the East African Congress and Government. April 3, 1997, would live in infamy. It was the day that the East African Defense Force seized control over itself and the government that it supposedly propped up, and dissolved it. On April 4, all parties were legalized and the Transitional Council of the Union of East Africa was declared as the only legitimate state. On April 5, news outlets were informed that the Transitionary Council of the East African Union would vote to revert back to the 1960 Constitution of Massawa. Following a watershed vote of 8 to 1, the 1960 Constitution of Massawa was declared the sole legal authority in the East African Union. On April 6, the military was disbanded and the Emperor was reinstalled - for the first time in 20 years - as the Head of State of East Africa. East Africa was then referred to as Ethiopia, signaling a return to an Amharic hegemony over Somalis, Eritreans, and more. |

        | THE IMPERIAL UNION |

    | MANGEST PALACE, ADIS ABABA, IMPERIAL UNION OF ETHIOPIA | Two weeks later the Monarchy retook its formal position, and the Emperor, son to the deposed Amha Selassie, His Imperial Majesty Zerayacob Selassie reogranized the military ad per the Massawa Constitution that his grandfather promulgated. Within weeks national elections were held, and the people were given back their basic human rights. The press was no longer censored, freedom of movement was allowed, and democracy became accessible again. The party that claimed to be the mastermind behind all of these changes was the Imperial Progressive Party, and it was no surprise when they won a supermajority in the newly convened Imperial Diet. The IPP declared their intention to install the governor the former East African Federation's province of Ethiopia as the Chancellor of the Emperor's Crown Council (like the UK's PM's Government). Governor Intiras Wodeda accepted, and she became the first female head of government in Africa. Outside of the Mangest Palace clung various African news stations, all wanting to get a bit of more information of the new age to come. Suddenly Ms. Wodeda was spoted on the front balcony, looking out to the entire city. She began to speak. |

      | CHANCELLOR OF THE CROWN COUNCIL, MS. WODEDA |

      . . . " My fellow citizens, I understand that your confusion is immense and your fears are unbridled, but please understand this. You are free. You have participated in the first free, fair, and open election in our history. This is a new age in African history, one where are we proud of our past and ready for our future. We have reinstalled our ancient system of authority yet in the same breath we have yielded the power back to the people! We are all Ethiopians, for this is our hallowed land. From Mogadishu to Asmara, Djibouti to Adis, Socotra to Oromia - we are one state. Our government has been restructured to allow total direct elections for the Imperial Congress and Union Council. The latter will be represented by the elected Mekwanint (Governors) of the Kifilis (Constituent Realms). In that way the voice of the people is always accounted for. The Mesafint (aristocracy) has been relegated to their position as common peoples, we will no longer allow such transgressions against democracy to occur. It is an honor to be elected by the Imperial Progressive Party, who were in turned elected by the people of Ethiopia. I hereby declare our state whole and sovereign once again, I declare that the reign of our forefathers has been avenged, and I declare the Imperial Union of Ethiopia to be free of the vices of a contrived federation. To the allies and friends of the East African Federation, the Imperial Union will simply replace all said functions. We hope that all deals made can be furthered now that the Ethiopian people are once again in control of the state. We hope to begin an unprecedented era of cooperation and peace, ushered in by the bearers of the Crown of Solomon." . . . 


      The Imperial Union of Ethiopia
      የኢትዮጵያ ህብረት መንገስተ
      Ye’ītiyop’iya Hibereti Mängestä


      Ye’āts’ē Minīliki
      (Imperial Flag)

      Solomīnī Ānibesa
      (Solomic Seal)

      National Motto :

      ዘላለማዊ ግዛት • Gizati Zelalemawī

      Anthem : Ityopp'ya Hoydess Yibelish
      ኢትዮጵያ ሆይ ደስ ይበልሽ
      English: Ethiopia, Resilient

      Link


      Overview

      Capital :
      And Largest City

      Adis Ababa

      Population :

      78,582,855

      Official Languages :

      Amharic • Ge'ez

      National Languages :

      • Amharic
      • Afar
      • Harari
      • Guruge
      • Oromo
      • Tigrinya
      • Somali

      Government

      Government :

      Constitutional Monarchy
      Under a Parliamentary Democracy

      Emperor :

      HIM Selassie
      (Solomic Dynasty)

      Chancellor of the Crown Council :

      Opposition Leader :

      Intiras Wodeda

      Selam Metekeba

      Upper House :

      Lower House:

      The Crown Council

      The Imperial Congress

      Economics

      Currency :

      Birr (ብ)

      GDP :

      GDP Per Capita :

      $231.8 Billion

      $ 3,907

      HDI :

      ▲ 0.636

      Miscellaneous

      Time Zones :

      • EET (UCT+7)
      • EEST (UCT+3)

      Calling Code :

      +962

      Drives on the :

      Right

      Internet LTD :

      .etp

      Introduction


      The Imperial Union of Ethiopia (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ህብረት መንገስተ | Ye’ītiyop’iya Hibereti Mängestä) also known as Ethiopia (Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ | Ītiyop’iya) is a sovereign state located in the entirety of the Horn of Africa bordered by Bomoko II Sudan to its west, the Republic of Yemen to its north, the Arabian Sea to its East, and by Republic of Kenya to its south. The Imperial Union is a unitary state with a high degree of devolution as to ensure a proper and functioning state. Ethiopia boasts one of the oldest monarchies in the world, with the reigning Solomic Dynasty being in power since 1270. Furthermore, it is one of two states that still has an Emperor.

      Since independence harsh and effective policies on economics, immigration, and democracy have created a sustainable developing state who is bent on achieving radical democracy. The Imperial Union, being a product of the devolution of powers following the "East African Federation" fall in an Imperial Coup in 1997, brought back the Imperial family & administration. Ethiopia allows the free market combined with some regulation to guide the nation towards modernity. The Imperial Family as an institution is integral to the core identity of the state. Democracy, as it stands, is a serious and integral part of the Ethiopian state, with the Impeiral Federation having a remarkable degree of the democratic process allowing for a high legitimacy. Currently, the Imperial Union is focusing on economic development through industrialization policies.

      Etymology


      The name Ethiopia is the latinized from the Amharic ኢትዮጵያ or "Ītiyop’iya".
      The Greek name Αἰθιοπία (from Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, 'an Ethiopian') is a compound word, derived from the two Greek words, from αἴθω + ὤψ (aitho "I burn" + ops "face"). According to the Perseus Digital Library, the designation properly translates as Burntface in noun form and red-brown in adjectival form. The historian Herodotus used the appellation to denote those parts of Africa below the Sahara that were then known within the Ecumene (inhabitable world). However, the Greek formation may be a folk etymology for the Ancient Egyptian term athtiu-abu, which means 'robbers of hearts'. This Greek name was borrowed into Amharic as ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā.

      History


      D'mt and Kingdom of Aksum

      Ethiopia's human occupation began early, as evidenced by the findings. It is believed that the ancient Egyptians claimed that Punt, known as gold country, was in Ethiopia in 980 BC. According to the Kebra Nagast, Menelik I founded the Ethiopian empire in the 1st century BC, around when the Axumite Empire was established. In the 4th century, under King Ezana of Axum, the kingdom adopted Christianity (Ethiopian
      Orthodox Church) as the state religion. It was thus one of the first Christian states.

      After the conquest of Aksum by Queen Gudit or Yodit, a period began which some scholars refer to as the Ethiopian Dark Ages. According to Ethiopian tradition, she ruled over the remains of the Aksumite Empire for 40 years before transmitting the crown to her descendants. In 1063AD the Sultanate of Showa describes the passing of their overlord Badit daughter of Maya.

      Makhzumi and Zagwe Dynasty

      The earliest Muslim state in Ethiopia, the Makhzumi dynasty with its capital in Wahal, Hararghe region succeeds Queen Badit. The Zagwe kingdom another dynasty with its capital at Adafa, emerged not far from modern day Lalibela in the Lasta mountains. The Zagwe continued the Orthodox Christianity of Aksum and constructed many rock-hewn churches such as the Church of Saint George in Lalibela. The dynasty would last until its overthrow by a new regime claiming descent from the old Aksumite kings.

      The Solomonic State



      Map of Ethiopia circa 1270 CE

      In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite kings and, hence, from Solomon. The eponymously named Solomonic dynasty was founded and ruled by the Abyssinians, from whom Abyssinia gets its name. The Abyssinians reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 till today, with the most notable being the Interregnum of 1977 to 1997. This dynasty currently governs large parts of the horn of Africa through much of its modern history. The Solomonic State also successfully fought off Italian, Ottoman and Egyptian forces and made fruitful contacts with some European powers.

      Adal Sultanate Invasion

      In 1529, the Adal Sultanate's forces led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim alGhazi invaded the Ethiopian Empire in what is known as the Abyssinian–Adal war. The Adal occupation lasted fourteen years. During the conflict, the Adal Sultanate employed cannons provided by the Ottoman Empire. In the aftermath of the war, Adal annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with territories in what is now Somalia. In 1543, with the help of the Portuguese Empire, the Solomonic dynasty was restored.

      Early Modern Era

      In 1543, Emperor Gelawdewos beat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi armies and Ahmad himself was killed at the Battle of Wayna Daga, close to Wegera. This victory allowed the Empire to reconquer progressively the Ethiopian Highlands. In 1559 Gelawdewos was killed attempting to invade Adal Sultanate, and his severed head was paraded in Adal's capital Harar. The Ottoman Empire, distated by the defeat of its ally Gragn, made another attempt at conquering Ethiopia, from 1557, establishing Habesh Eyalet, the province of Abyssinia, by conquering Massawa, the Empire’s main port and seizing Suakin from the allied Funj Sultanate in what is now Sudan. In 1573 Harar attempted to invade Ethiopia again however Sarsa Dengel successfully defended the Ethiopian frontier.



      Palace of Gondar. Seat of the 1st Crown Council

      The Ottomans were checked by Emperor Sarsa Dengel victory and sacking of Arqiqo in 1589, thus containing them on a narrow coast line strip. The Afar Sultanate maintained the remaining Ethiopian port on the Red Sea, at Baylul. Oromo migrations through the same period, occurred with the movement of a large pastoral population from the southeastern provinces of the Empire. A contemporary account was recorded by
      the monk Abba Bahrey, from the Gamo region. Subsequently, the empire organization changed progressively, with faraway provinces taking more independence. A remote province such as Bale is last recorded paying tribute to the imperial throne during Yaqob reign (1590-1607).

      By 1607, Oromos were also major players in the imperial politics, when Susenyos I, raised by a clan through gudifacha (or adoption), took power. He was helped by fellow Luba age-group generals Mecha, Yilma and Densa, who were rewarded by Rist feudal lands, in the present-day Gojjam districts of the same name. Susenyos reign was also marked by his short-lived conversion to Catholicism, which ignited a major civil war. His son Fasilides I reverted the move. The reign of Iyasu I the Great (1682-1706) was a major period of consolidation. It also saw the dispatching of embassies to Louis XIV's France and to Dutch India. During the reign of Iyasu II (1730-1755), the Empire was strong enough to undertake a war on the Sennar Sultanate, where the emperor leading its army to Sennar itself, was afterwards forced to reatreat upon defeat, along the
      Setit river. Iyasu II also confered the dignity of Kantibai of the Habab (northern Eritrea) after homage by a new dynasty.

      The Wallo and Yejju clans rise to power culminated in 1755, when Emperor Iyoas I ascended to the imperial throne in Gondar. They would be one of the major factions contending for imperial power during the ensuing Zemene Mesafint, starting from 1769, when Mikael Sehul, Ras of Tigray killed Iyoas I
      and replaced him by Yohannes II. The Early Modern period was one of intense cultural and artistic creation.
      Notable philosophers from that area are Zera Yacob (philosopher) and Walda Heywat. The city of Gondar became the capital in 1636, with several fortified castles built in the town and in its surrounding areas.

      The Princes Era

      From 1769 to 1855, the Ethiopian empire passed through a period known as the "Princes Era" (in Amharic Zemene Mesafint). This was a period of Ethiopian history with numerous conflicts between the various ras (equivalent to the English dukes) and the emperor, who had only limited power and only dominated the area around the contemporary capital of Gondar. Both the development of society and culture stagnated in this period. Religious conflict, both within the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and between them and the Muslims were often used as a pretext for mutual strife. The Princes Era ended with the reign of the Emperor Tewodros II.



      Tewodros II reign ended
      Zemene Mesafint

      Reign of Emperor Tewodros II and Scramble for Africa

      In 1868, following the imprisonment of several missionaries and representatives of the British government, the British engaged in the punitive Expedition to Abyssinia. This campaign was a success for Britain and the Ethiopian emperor committed suicide. The 1880s were marked by the Scramble for Africa. Italy, seeking a colonial presence in Africa, invaded Ethiopia and following a successful conquest of some coastal regions, forced the Treaty of Wuchale upon Shewa (an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire), creating the colony of Eritrea. Due to significant differences between the Italian and Amharic translations of the Treaty of Wuchale, Italy believed they had subsumed Ethiopia as a client state. Ethiopia repudiated the treaty in 1893. Insulted, Italy declared war on Ethiopia in 1895. The First Italo-Ethiopian War resulted in the 1896 Battle of Adwa, in which Italy was decisively defeated. As a result, the Treaty of Addis Ababa was signed in October, which strictly delineated the borders of Eritrea and forced Italy to recognize the independence of Ethiopia.

      Beginning in the 1880s, under the reign of the Emperor Menelik II, the empire's forces set off from the central province of Shoa to incorporate through conquest inhabited lands to the west, east and south of its realm. The territories that were annexed included those of the western Oromo (non Shoan Oromo), Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta, and Dizi. Among the imperial troops was Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia. Many of the lands that they annexed had never been under the empire's rule, with the newly incorporated territories resulting in the modern borders of Ethiopia. Delegations from the United Kingdom and France – European powers whose colonial possessions lay next to Ethiopia – soon arrived in the Ethiopian capital to negotiate their own treaties with this newly-proven power.

      Italian Invasion

      In 1935 Italian soldiers, commanded by Marshal Emilio De Bono, invaded Ethiopia in what is known as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. The war lasted seven months before an Italian victory was declared. The Ethiopian Empire was incorporated into the Italian colony of Italian East Africa. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, though not much was done to end the hostility. During the conflict, Italy used sulfur mustard in chemical warfare, ignoring the Geneva Protocol that it had signed seven years earlier. The Italian military dropped mustard gas in bombs, sprayed it from airplanes and spread it in powdered form
      on the ground. 150,000 chemical casualties were reported, mostly from mustard gas. In the aftermath of the war Italy annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with Italy's other colonies in eastern Africa to form the new colony of Italian East Africa, and Victor Emmanuel III of Italy adopted the title "Emperor of Abyssinia".

      On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on the United Kingdom and France, as France was in the process of being conquered by Germany at the time and Benito Mussolini wished to expand Italy's colonial holdings. The Italian conquest of British Somaliland in August 1940 was successful, but the war turned against Italy afterward. Haile Selassie returned to Ethiopia from England to help rally the resistance. The British began their own invasion in January 1941 with the help of Ethiopian freedom fighters, and the last organized Italian resistance in Italian East Africa surrendered in November 1941, ending Italian rule.



      Adis Ababa Menelik International, Circa 1950

      Modern Ethiopia

      Following the Italian Invasion, the Imperial State of Ethiopia tried to begin a process of democratization, but the combined pressure of regional secessionist movements (most notably Eritrea & Somaliland), religious infighting, famine, and competing forces within the Cold War, the Imperial Monarchy faced a major coup in May of 1961, which was easily fought back. Unable to reform, Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed on March of 1977 by a leftist-center coalition led by the African Liberation Council or YANAMBE. The coup removed the Imperial Family and the "Federation of East Africa" was declared.

      Modernizing its political, judicial, and military institutions, the East African Federation introtuced the first National Constitution, and broad standardizations for language, religion, and commerce. The EAF Reforms transformed Ethiopia into a modern and capable state. Until the African Crash of 1995, YANAMBE's stability was ensured. After news leaks of corruption, party infighting, and a lack of transparency, the Supreme Commander of the military supported an Imperial Restoration backed by the Imperial Progress Party. The IPP was easily able to pull of this coup in April of 1997, restoring democracy and Imperial rule to all of East Africa



      The BTS Skytrain in Adis Ababa
      Economy

      The economy of Ethiopia is a mized economy with a GDP of approximately $237 billion (1997) and a GDP Per-Capita of $2,907. In the 1950's Ethiopia experienced a major recession, which led to a significant rise of unemployment in the country. By March 1956, Ethiopia's unemployment rate had reached 9%. However, Ethiopia's regulated energy sector, the government's pre-crisis budgetary surplus, and its long-term policies of lowering the national debt, resulted in a less severe recession compared to early estimates published in 1955. It implemented a series of sweeping industrializing reforms in order to combat excessive poverty.

      The Imperial Monarchs enacted a series of legislation that saw the immediate privatization technology economy, ensured that fair competition was upheld by the Imperial Government. In fact, these series of reforms were widely successful during the early to late 50's- 60's. The energy industry grew to dominate the economy all the while the mining industry, specifically from the Oromo Ducal States, saw a major source of revenue. In the 1970's, the Ethiopian economy has largely stabilized and has seen a modest return to growth, although the country remains troubled by higher-than-normal unemployment rates (about 6%).

      Since the 1970's, the growth of Ethiopia's manufacturing and energy sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanizing, semi-industrial one. The nation has employed a series of major economic incentives that has seen the creation of private-public ventures, the ease of business, and the ability for companies to regularly compete in fields of who can industrialize or build first. State business is limited to the development of infrastructure, defense, and other key industries. The Imperial Union is focused on creating a middle income and middle ranged industrial economy by 2020, which it has greatly achieved.



      The Mangest Palace, home to the Imperial Congress
      Government

      Centered at the Mangest Palace in Adis Ababa, adjacent to the Solomonic Palace, the Imperial Diet of Ethiopia (Amharic, Lit: የምክር ቤት ነገሥት, Yemikri Beti Negëst | "Imperial Assemblies") is the supreme organ of democratic power in the country. They control who will be the head of government within the Imperial Union, meaning that the majority party within the Imperial Congres will chose its most prominent/senior member to become the chief representative to the Monarch. This chief representative is the Chancellor of the Crown Council. The manner in which legislation passed goes as follows: a piece of legislation is introduced in a Council. The Hluttaw has four committees: the Council on Fiscal Prosperity, the Council on Foreign Trade and Relations, the Council on the Issues of Social Peace, and the Council on the Prowess of the State. Following an introduction on the council floor, the legislation either passes or fails in committee. If it passes by a qualified majority it goes to the floor of the Imperial Congress for debate where it is scrutinized by all 500 members of the Imperial Congress. If it passes the Imperial Congress then it goes for verification and scrutiny in the Union Council.

      Each of the diets are consisted of members of houses known as a MID or Member of the Imperial Diet. The members of the Imperial Congress are democratically elected via party candidates in the 5 Constituencies of their respective principality. Because each Principality sends 20 representatives (voted on in their constituency based on party) to the Imperial Congress, there are 500 members. There are five main parties, with the Imperial Progress Party currently comprising the majority and the majority coalition (the Coalition for Imperial Restoration), with four other parties comprising the opposition. The MIDs of the Union are selected by the reigning Monarch based on ethnicity. All selected are made sure to be representing the majority ethnic group of their constituency. This is so that the ethnicities have a direct role in the process of passing legislation meanwhile the Union Councill also serves as a tool of emphasizing ethnic unity and representation.

      The Chancellor the Crown Council of the Imperial Union of Ethiopia is the head of government of Imperial Union, the chief advisor to the Monarch on the Crown Council and serves as the Chairperson of the majority party in the Imperial Congress. The Chancellor and Crown Council (consisting of all the most senior ministers, who are government department heads) are collectively responsible for implementing policies and proposing laws to be debated on the floor of the Imperial Congress. The office of the Chancellor was created by the 1960 Massawa Constitution.



      Topographic map of Ethiopia (excluding Socotra)
      Geography

      At 4,104,300 square kilometres (426,372.61 sq mi), Ethiopia is the world's 17th-largest country, comparable in size to Argentina. It lies between the 3rd parallel north and the 15th parallel north and longitudes 33rd meridian east and 48th meridian east. All of Ethiopia encompasses the entirety of the Horn of Africa. Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. There is a great diversity of terrain with wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation and settlement patterns. Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the gelada, the walia ibex and the Ethiopian wolf ("Simien fox"). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, and this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.

      The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands cover most of the country and have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator. Most of the country's major cities are located at
      elevations of around 2,000–2,500 m (6,562–8,202 ft) above sea level, including historic capitals such as Gondar and Axum. The modern capital, Addis Ababa, is situated on the foothills of Mount Entoto at an elevation of around 2,400 metres (7,900 ft). It experiences a mild climate year round. With temperatures fairly uniform year round, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall: a dry season from October to February, a light rainy season from March to May, and a heavy rainy season from June to September. The average annual rainfall is approximately 1,200 millimetres (47 in).

      Wildlife

      Ethiopia has 31 endemic species of mammals. The African wild dog prehistorically had widespread distribution in the territory. However, with last sightings at Finicha'a, this canid is thought to be potentially locally extinct. The Ethiopian wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.
      Ethiopia is a global center of avian diversity. To date more than 856 bird species have been recorded in Ethiopia, twenty of which are endemic to the country. Sixteen species are endangered or critically endangered. A large number of these birds feed on butterflies, like the Bicyclus anynana

      Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching, and other human factors. A 17-year-long Imperial interregnum and unitereputed, industrialization along with severe drought, negatively impacted Ethiopia's environmental conditions, leading to even greater habitat degradation. Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gases. With carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 of 6,494,000 tonnes, Ethiopia contributes just 0.02% to the annual human-caused release of greenhouse gases.

      template by The Arab-Federation

      Read dispatch



      THE IMPERIAL DIET
      Ethiopia | ኢትዮፒኣ


      Centered at the Mangest Palace in Adis Ababa, adjacent to the Solomonic Palace, the Imperial Diet of Ethiopia (Amharic, Lit: የምክር ቤት ነገሥት, Yemikri Beti Negëst | "Imperial Assemblies") is the supreme organ of democratic power in the country. They control who will be the head of government within the Imperial Union, meaning that the majority party within the Imperial Congres will chose its most prominent/senior member to become the chief representative to the Monarch. This chief representative is the Chancellor of the Crown Council. The manner in which legislation passed goes as follows: a piece of legislation is introduced in a Council. The Hluttaw has four committees: the Council on Fiscal Prosperity, the Council on Foreign Trade and Relations, the Council on the Issues of Social Peace, and the Council on the Prowess of the State. Following an introduction on the council floor, the legislation either passes or fails in committee. If it passes by a qualified majority it goes to the floor of the Imperial Congress for debate where it is scrutinized by all 500 members of the Imperial Congress. If it passes the Imperial Congress then it goes for verification and scrutiny in the Union Council.Each of the diets are consisted of members of houses known as a MID or Member of the Imperial Diet. The members of the Imperial Congress are democratically elected via party candidates in the 5 Constituencies of their respective principality. Because each Principality sends 20 representatives (voted on in their constituency based on party) to the Imperial Congress, there are 500 members. There are five main parties, with the Imperial Progress Party currently comprising the majority and the majority coalition (the Coalition for Imperial Restoration), with four other parties comprising the opposition. The MIDs of the Union are selected by the reigning Monarch based on ethnicity. All selected are made sure to be representing the majority ethnic group of their constituency. This is so that the ethnicities have a direct role in the process of passing legislation meanwhile the Union Councill also serves as a tool of emphasizing ethnic unity and representation.

      CURRENT LAW & PARTY PROPOSAL

      Imperial Restoration Act | IPP

      VOTE

      455 - 5 PASSED



      Union Council - መገሸረቲ - Helesret


      The Imperial Congress - ነገስሪት - Negesret

      Seats
      -- - Maximum Seating: 25
      -- - Current Seating: 25

      Seats
      -- - Maximum Seating: 500
      -- - Current Seating: 500

      Leadership

      Silirets Tewodoros
      President of the Union Council

      Intiras Wodeda
      Vice President of the Ancient Diet

      Chirek Betan
      Corporate Liason

      Timidros Echelezek
      Representative of the IC

      Sutiredet Edadey
      Representative of the Emperor

      Leadership

      Intiras Wodeda
      Chancellor of the Crown Council

      Sinker Thanetar
      Union Council Representative

      Swahsirti Uruweda
      Majority Leader (CIR | IPP)

      Moammed Saheliyy
      Minority Leader (PRF | MYM)

      Linvejiyi Tikire
      Chief of the Councils of the IC

      Parties
      Neutral

      Parties
      Imperial Progress Party - (IPP)
      Mewtani Ye'Minkireset (Meyem) - (MVM)
      Pan African Front - (PAF)
      Green Sovereign Territory - (GST)
      Ethiopian Maoist Party - (EMP)

      Numbers

      Numbers

      Symbol

      Party

      Ideology

      Imperial Progress Party (IPP)



      Coalition: Coalition for the Imperial Restoration

      Seats: 270 [Majority]

      Ethiopian Nationalist, Monarchist, Socially Liberal, Fiscally Liberal, Constitutionalists, The Center Right, Pro-Paramountica

      Mewtani Ye'Minkireset (Meyem) Party - (MYM)



      Coalition: People's Republican Front

      Seats: 100

      Fedealists, Neutral Monarchy, Economically Open, Socially Progressive, Pro-Socialism

      Pan African Front (PAF)



      Coalition: Coalition for the Imperial Restoration

      Seats: 20

      Democratic Fascism, One Party State, Socially and Fiscally Conservative, Capitalist, Far Right, Pro-US

      Green Sovereign Territory Party (GST)



      Coalition: People's Republican Front

      Seats: 70

      Internationalism, Green Socialism, Syndicatism, Progressive Nationalism, Social Liberal, Economic Liberal, Far Left, Anti-US

      Ethiopian Maoist Party - (EMP)



      Coalition: People's Republican Front

      Seats: 40

      , Communism-Marxism, Industrialism, Neo-Liberalism, Economic Communism, Anti-Monarchists, One-Party State, Paramilitarism, and Communism, Pro-China

      Issue

      Legality

      Legalized

      Prohibited

      Participative Democracy *

      Fully secured

      1880

      ----

      Freedom of Speech *

      Legal

      1880

      ----

      Freedom of Assembly *

      Legal

      1880

      ----

      Freedom of Opinion and Expression *

      Legal

      1880

      ----

      Freedom of Religion and Belief *

      Illegal

      ----

      1880

      Freedom of the Press *

      Legal

      1880

      ----

      Freedom to Strike *

      Legal
      (Except Armed Forces)

      1880

      ----

      Women's Suffrage *

      Fully secured

      1846

      ----

      Labour Laws *

      Fully secured

      1846

      ----

      Abortion

      Legal

      1846

      ----

      Same-sex marriage

      Legal

      1988

      ----

      Public Drinking

      Legal

      1846

      ----

      Public Smoking

      Legal

      1846

      ----

      Military Enlistment

      Mandatory

      ----

      1899

      Flag burning

      Illegal

      ----

      1846

      Firearm ownership

      Illegal

      ----

      1846

      Hunting

      Illegal

      ----

      1698



      Read dispatch

    Alzarikstan wrote:l President Adi Godrej l: "Joint naval exercises? As the Raj's military is weak currently, I believe there is no harm in participating in naval exercises. You have an agreement that the Raj shall become part of these exercises."

    | Prime Councillor Adaku Emetitiri | Excellent, Indian ocean or the Atlantic?

    | Golestan Palace |

    Three years have past since the feral meeting between Roah and Cherlynn, and for the past three years despite many tragic events and ups, the two became a couple. A couple which was was brought up upon lies and deceive. However, it was today that for the first time Roah was to meet the Empress of Iran, and hopefully to be accepted for becoming the fiance of Cherlynn and her possible husband.

    So far, everything has been going the way Joanna has planned it. Roah got himself extremely close to the next Empress of Iran, Hans - Roah's real boyfriend - has found himself quiet through money, and Zarafan was able to recruit a maniac to murder Her Imperial Majesty, Empress Shahnaz Pahlavi. Joanna is on her way to realising her ultimate plan.

    Sitting in the Royal Gardens of the Golestan Palace, Roah, Cherlynn, Farah and Cherlynn's father, Nasfar smiled with silence spreading. All of them have their own agendas at stake, and all of them are wary of each other, especially of Roah. Farah with a sudden sigh would turn towards him, as she took her sunglasses off.

      Farah "You know, Roah. Cherlynn hasn't said a lot about you. What do your parents do?"

    Startled by her question, Roah would shake his head slightly.

      Roah "I never really got to meet my father and my mother is...dead."

      Farah "Oh, I'm so sorry, Roah. May I ask what happened to her?"

      Roah "She died in a car accident."

      Farah "Goodness me! And was she German?"

      Roah "No, she was Iranian."

      Farah "Well, may Ahura bless her. You're Zoroastrian I imagine?"

      Roah "No, ma'm. I'm a Christian."

      Nasfar "Hm."

      Roah "Is there a problem with that?"

      Nasfar "I'd rather my daughter marry a Zoroastrian man."

      Roah "Oh...well..."

      Cherlynn "But it's my choice who I wish to marry."

      Farah "Hm. Anyway, Roah. Are you going to stay for dinner tonight?"

      Roah "If I may."

      Farah "Oh! Well, of course you may."

      Cherlynn "And what about the blessing?"

      Farah "What about it?"

      Cherlynn "Will I get it?"

      Farah "Well...darling, that's up for your father to decide. Not me."

      Cherlynn "But...I thought...dad..."

    Nasfar giving a cold look at Roah would leave the table with Cherlynn quickly following him as Farah sipping tea would smile at Roah.

      Farah "Do forgive. So, how did you two meet?"

      Roah "Uhm...we met...uhm through the school."

      Farah "Oh! That's lovely! School Romance, I see. But Cherlynn only had a month or so of that school and yet you still kept contact for so long. Dedication, I see."

      Roah "I just love her very much."

      Farah "You do. That's good. And did you have any previous girlfriends?"

      Roah "No."

      Farah "A pretty...may I say, Semi-God looking man like you and no girls? Hm."

      Roah "I was never good with women."

      Farah "I see. Men then?"

      Roah "Excuse me?"

      Farah "I'm tolerant, Mr Roah. Any men in the past?"

      Roah "Well...no. Neither."

      Farah "Interesting! Such a beautiful man and no partners in the past. Seems almost unbelievable."

    Glancing at him looking down, she would jump up slightly.

      Farah "But who am I to judge! Go get yourself ready for dinner, Mr Roah."

    Standing up quickly and bowing, he would leave off. Sitting for a moment, she'd snap her fingers as one of the guards would come up.

      Farah "Tell Irene that I want to know everything about that man. Go."

    Bowing, the guard would leave off. In the meantime, Cherlynn was trying to catch up with her father as he stormed through the gardens.

      Cherlynn "I don't understand why you're getting so angry about this."

      Nasfar "Because there is plenty of Zoroastrian men out there. And you had to go for a Christian boy like the last fool!"

      Cherlynn "Does it matter if he's Christian or not? Not to me dad!"

      Nasfar "Of course it does!"

      Cherlynn "Why though?!"

    Stopping for a moment, he'd shake his head.

      Nasfar "If he marries you, he will become the next Shah of Iran. He can't be Christian. We cannot have a Christian Shah, we have not fallen that badly yet as a country."

      Cherlynn "So you won't give me the blessing?"

      Nasfar "No. I won't."

      Cherlynn "What if he converts?"

      Nasfar "To Zoroastrianism?"

      Cherlynn "Yes."

      Nasfar "Then...I will give you my blessing."

    Shaking her head, she'd look away.

      Cherlynn "Mum would of never allowed this."

      Nasfar "Your mother wouldn't allow you to meet with a Christian boy in a first place. Dig deeper into your history, Cherlynn. Christians are not liked in this family."

    He would walk off quickly as Cherlynn taking a deep breath would return back to the table.

    Turbat, Hamare Raj
    1345
    Imam Khadim Hussain Rizvi Establishes the Shura Council of South Asia, formally known as:
    The Consultative Council of Guided Righteousness & Direction (المجلس الاستشاري للبر الاسترشاد والتوجيه, راہنمائی حقائق اور سمت کے مشاورت کونسل, परामर्शी परिषद निर्देशित धर्म और दिशा)

      The Hamare Raj is not just the home of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.  The Raj is home to approximately 80,000,000 Shi'ite Muslims, making it the largest Shia country in the world, and over 200,000,000 Muslims across the Empire.  With the copious levels of growing Muslims within the Raj, the Empire has positioned itself as part of the Greater MENA (Middle East North Africa) region as well as a member of the Muslim World, despite being majority Hindu for the foreseeable future.  The institutions of the Raj are rather unique as under President Adi Godrej, a separate Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been constructed primarily to cooperate and negotiate with the Muslim and Arab World due to the high interconnection between the Muslim dominated Western Raj and the Middle East and Muslim countries.  However, for some Muslims, that was not enough as there is a belief that due to the high presence of Muslims across the Raj, Hamare Raj should take an increased step in Muslim affairs.  In Turbat, Western Raj, an individual by the name of Imam Khadim Hussain Rizvi is one of these individuals.  Known as a visionary, yet a fanatic for Shi'ites across the Muslim World, he has the reputation of being outspoken during his preaching at mosques about the need of the Raj to return to its former glory but for the betterment and representation of Muslims.  With his close colleagues Fazlur-Rahman, Syed Sajid Ali Naqvi, and Arif Hussain Hussaini, a new idea to establish a global network among Shi'ites for the agenda of promoting more Shi'ite uniformity but advocacy of the importance of the Raj within the Muslim World became a reality with the creation of The Consultative Council of Guided Righteousness & Direction (المجلس الاستشاري للبر الاسترشاد والتوجيه, راہنمائی حقائق اور سمت کے مشاورت کونسل, परामर्शी परिषद निर्देशित धर्म और दिशा), or the Raj Shia Ulema Shura Council (مجلس راج شليم العلماء الشورى, راج شیعہ علماء شورا کونسل, राज शिया उलेमा शूरा परिषद)(RSUSC).

      Throughout the entirety of the month of March, Khadim Hussain Rizvi, through his mosque members and connections to various Shi'ite organizations, militant and institutional, to attend his rally and become members of the CCGRD.  In mid-March, the Consultative Council launched the plan to allow for the Consultative Council to establish the Tehrik-e-Jafaria under the leadership of Imam Agha Syed Hamid Ali Shah Moosavi  as well as the Islamic Awakening Movement to be led by Hujat tul Islam Allama Syed Jawad Naqvi. The dreams of Hussain Rizvi would come true when the first rally for the Consultative Council in Turbat commenced on April 15, 1997.  In Turbat, 10,000 Shi'ite Muslims were in attendance at the first speech and view of Central Guide Imam Khadim Hussain Rizvi of The Consultative Council of Guided Righteousness & Direction.  At 1:45 PM precisely, Imam Khadim Hussain Rizvi and the High Ulema Committee appeared in front of the gathered audience, who became silent as they sat on the floor and their shoes off.  Dressed in their garbs, Imam Khadim Hussain Rizvi and the Ulema Committee would nod as they walked toward their floored cushions.  Sitting in the front, Imam Khadim Hussain Rizvi would take a moment before beginning his speech that would be recorded and smuggled across the Raj and around the Muslim World:

    l Imam Khadim Hussain Rizvi l:

      "La illaha illallah, Muhammad'u Rasullullah, Alian Walliyullah. Allah is truly pleased in the gathering that has bestowed upon us this afternoon. We have come together as a Family of faith and a commitment to be continually faithful here on earth and in Paradise. By the good graces and infallibility of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon Him, and Allah, we come together in service and fortitude. All things are due to Allah, the Most Merciful. Let us not forget this. We have come together this afternoon on the embarking of a new code of understanding and initiative. In this country...Hamare Raj, Allah has granted an opportunity of voice and influence to represent the small snowflake to cause the promised coming avalanche. There is much evil that continue to plague the world and prohibit our brothers and sisters from becoming conscious of their jihad toward becoming awoken. The world is heading not toward a Paradise but destruction because of the blatant disobedience demonstrated against Almighty Allah and his only Prophet that he sent to deliver the Good Word. Asia. The Middle East. Africa. The center nodes of Islam are under attack by a globalized world. Our brothers and sisters in Paseo are socially engineered to live abnormally according to the tenets of Western liberal universalism, Western moralities, Western civic attitudes, and over-excessive desires of wealth and affluence. This is hazardous to the mind, body, and soul. Western Europe, the European Union, Paramountica are the Great Satans of the world derived from supported hedonism, debauchery, and lack of civility and humanity. Their concept of choice is derived from selfishness, ignorance, arrogance, and blissful gluttony. The government of Ranponian, although not excessively materialistic, has demonstrated a crusade against the people of Allah in the Caucasus, which is unacceptable and one of great hurt and grievance to the Muslim world. The continually oppressive European remnant of Valijun heavily oppresses our brothers and sisters for not only being native to their lands but for being Muslim...for actively seeking to become closer to Allah the right way...through teachings, practice, lifestyle, studying the words and texts of our scholars and Allah himself through the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, in the Qu'ran. There is a brewing war my brothers and sisters that we must prepare for as the Muslim world must reawaken and remind the world of our power, our contributions to society, and the size of our population.

      Here, in the Raj, the Muslims are heard and we are legitimized but the same cannot be said to our neighbors who exploit our brothers and sisters for manual labor and the profit accumulated from said labor. We cannot say the same for the Muslims in the United States, Western Europe, and elsewhere who are made to believe falsehoods and illegitimate realities of how the world truly is. We cannot say the same for the suffering Muslims around the world, who are killed, imprisoned, prosecuted, and persecuted extrajudicially because of their religious faith. As I quote Qu'ran 2:191: slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter... and fight them until fitnah is no more, and religion is for Allah. My brothers and sisters, this is validated by Allah in Quran 22:40, where it states that And were it not that Allah checks the people, some by means of others, there would have been demolished monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which the name of Allah is much mentioned. And Allah will surely support those who support Him. As the children of Allah, Allah supports us in our journey, in our mission, in our works of mercy and unity to protect, provide, and support our fellow brothers and sisters not just here in the Raj but around the world. We must strengthen ourselves to strengthen others...to provide the tools, ways, teachings, and methods. Muster against them all the men and cavalry at your disposal so that you can strike terror into the enemies of Allah and of the believers and others besides them who may be unknown to you, though Allah knows them. And remember whatever you spend for the cause of Allah shall be repaid to you. You shall not be wronged."

    The world better help the African Abolitionist Corps when war breaks out 😤

    "Let us be clear, Bokoronians love Europeans, we love their cities, their women, their money - but we don't want them in Africa - just like they don't want African's in Europe - consider it mutually respectful racism" - Oba Nneka, leader of the Nationalists

    Liberalina wrote:"Let us be clear, Bokoronians love Europeans, we love their cities, their women, their money - but we don't want them in Africa - just like they don't want African's in Europe - consider it mutually respectful racism" - Oba Nneka, leader of the Nationalists

    lmao

    Let me make something real clear now!

    It's the West that takes from Iranian liberalism and not the other way round!

      APRIL 1997
      The Militarization of the East Timor

    THE PRESIDENTIAL OFFICE, BELÉM PALACE, LISBON, Philanialle — MORNING

    | President Mário Soares, is in his office, analyzing many draft laws until his Secretary knocks on the door and says that Minister of National Defense, José Veiga Simão, has just arrived at the Palácio de Belém to talk. The President came down the stairs and went to see him. |

      | MÁRIO SOARES, President of Portuguese Republic | “Well, what brings you here?”

      | JOSÉ VEIGA SIMÃO, Minister of National Defence | “Well . . . Mr President, we have an enemy on our doorstep and it is a danger, especially for our overseas province, we need to militarize the borders of East Timor with Amstewald with a maximum of 30,000 to 35,000 soldiers.”

      | MÁRIO SOARES, President of Portuguese Republic | “Let's do this, Amsterwald can invade East Timor, our duty is to protect everyone living in Portuguese territory.”

      | JOSÉ VEIGA SIMÃO, Minister of National Defence | “Now I'm going to have to go Mr. President, I'm going to order the soldiers to go to East Timor, have a good afternoon.”

    | The Minister left the palace and got in his car going straight to the barracks. |

    Antillian wrote:Madagascar invites Italian Representatives
    In order to promote foreign investments, the Madagascan government has invited foreign investors from Pontianus

    After the Madagascan invitation, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs decided to sponsor a forum between Italian investitors along politicians and entrepreneurs of the African nation.

    Erarwati wrote:
          𝐀 𝐍𝐄𝐖 𝐀𝐆𝐄

    | YEKENI DIMIṮSI -  የቀን ድምፅ  -  THE VOICE OF THE HORN | Issue No. 1 | APRIL 1997 |

    Excellent read!

    | Spreading Beninism! |

    | Elysia Benin, the former Prime Minister of Iran, and the icon of Iranian politics, Iranian feminism and Iranian democracy, has just landed in Bokoro, the rapidly developing state of Africa. Elysia Benin most known for her reform of the Iranian Military, Iranian Economy and titled the "Golden Lady", is credited for expanding the Iranian military forces, rapidly expanding Iranian economy and for standing ground in times of problems. Many of her policies came under the now called "Beninism."

    However, Elysia Benin is also known for her activism, especially that in terms of Right-Wing Politics and Feminism. Her books and conferences are widely attended and created around the world. Her most recent book, "Women in Politics; Hope or Problem?" became a political sensation in Iran. Now, it seems that Elysia Benin is out to support women in other countries.

    Landing in Bokoro, Elysia Benin made it clear why she has made her way to the African country that many Iranians are still not familiar with. "I'm here above all to aid the women of Bokoro. To show them that their hope is education, and that education gives them power and power gives them ability to change. Change their country for better and not only for them but also for their husbands and their children. Women are the driving force of every nation, and they must realise their potential. I will do all I can to help the women of Bokoro in their struggle further." |

    How's everyone doing?

    Philanialle wrote:
      APRIL 1997
      The Militarization of the East Timor Frontier

    THE PRESIDENTIAL OFFICE, BELÉM PALACE, LISBON, Philanialle — MORNING

    | President Mário Soares, is in his office analyzing many draft laws until his Secretary knocks on the door and says National Defense Minister José Veiga Simão came to the Belém Palace to talk. The President came down the stairs and went to see him. |

      | MÁRIO SOARES, President of Portuguese Republic | “Well, what brings you here?”

      | JOSÉ VEIGA SIMÃO, Minister of National Defence | “Well . . . Mr President, we have an enemy on our doorstep and it is a danger, especially for our overseas province, we need to militarize the borders of East Timor with Amstewald with a maximum of 30,000 to 35,000 soldiers.”

      | MÁRIO SOARES, President of Portuguese Republic | “Let's do this, Amsterwald can invade East Timor, our duty is to protect everyone living in Portuguese territory.”

      | JOSÉ VEIGA SIMÃO, Minister of National Defence | “Now I'm going to have to go Mr. President, I'm going to order the soldiers to go to East Timor, have a good afternoon.”

    | The Minister left the palace and got in his car going straight to the barracks. |

    the nation of Amsterwald has never even wanted to invade East Timor.

    if i even did want to take the time to do so, nothing would stop me lmao

    Valijun wrote:the nation of Amsterwald has never even wanted to invade East Timor.

    if i even did want to take the time to do so, nothing would stop me lmao

    Not saying you would, but if you ever did, NATO would stop you o>o

    Paramountica wrote:Not saying you would, but if you ever did, NATO would stop you o>o

    i doubt it honestly. nato is so far away and timor is so close to me.

    and it'd be pretty rarted for an organization that supposedly protects peace and democracy to uphold colonialism and imperialism but who cares.

    its not like Timor is worth anything anyway. it costs more money to keep than it makes, i learned that as Portugal. The nations that care about imperialism can liberate it if they want to.

    The President of Iran said the White House was “suffering from mental disability” 💀

    A historic decision is coming your way

    Victoria Harbor wrote:The President of Iran said the White House was “suffering from mental disability” 💀

    The president of Iran is literally going to turn Iran into an iraq 2.0 if it keeps ups it’s actions lol

    The Lagos Times: 65,000 Women march on Lagos, led by Iranian Feminist leader Elysa Benin (Paseo) - Prime Councillor Adaku Emetitiri promises action on Women's education.

    Full Article soon.

    Antillian wrote:The president of Iran is literally going to turn Iran into an iraq 2.0 if it keeps ups it’s actions lol

    It's not really the President that rules in Iran, it's the Ayatollah

    And secondly, its not like America is a saint in this, they too are just as much provoking Iran as Iran is provoking them

    FIRST BUDGET POST-ELECTION AT STAKE

    February 1997

    The new minority government of Mandrake wasn’t prepared to face such intense opposition to the new budget. Per the new reformed democratic laws, the budget is an important decision and must be passed by 75 out of 100 seats of the Chamber. The Justicialist Party only holds 49 seats, so it means lobbying campaigns must be made on the opposing parties. The Social-Democratic Coalition would surely support most of the budget goals, as the liberalized corporatist ideology followed by the Justicialist Party is watered down by the Economy Minister Macri who openly follows a more liberal approach than its Nevronist predecessors. The Social-democratic ideology of the Coalition of the same name wishes a good social net for its citizens, but also more economic freedom.

    The next Coalition to court is the Christian-Democratic Coalition. This group is surely the most homogenous and prepared Coalition of the Chamber, with the same ideology shared between the Chilean and Argentinian Christian-Democrat parties. They would support interventionist policies, but also a rethinking of the overall budget allocation, like more funds to schools and healthcare and less to the military. Their support is therefore volatile.

    The Justicialist Party must turn to the Conservative Coalition to make sure enough seats will be secured. This Coalition is in fact the most popular party of Chile with its conservative stances. Their economic ideology is a liberal market economy system, which is against the Justicialist stance. But, both parties share a strong military rhetorics and their support is needed to make sure the military doesn’t get lower funds.

    The last Coalition is the hardest: The National-Decentralist Coalition is a group of parties from the three Members of the Federation who view the Union as a strong provincial power with less centralisation. They are also more nationalist economically and they support more protectionist ideas and a stronger protection of the local economy by governmental measures.

    Finally, this year’s budget was thought to include every parties and coalitions in the decisional process.

    The military will see no further increase in its funds and the 4% threshold is lowered to 3% of the GDP, keeping the same amount of money since last year. New acquisitions will be negotiated, but none are in order as of now. The military will need to decommission material in order to respect the budget. Nevertheless, the amount of money allocated to R&D is slightly increased, with future increases planned. The plan discussed is less “hard” material upkeep for more “soft” acquisitions like new technologies and upgrades to the already built equipment. The Knowhow in the military complex must be increased, but the manufacturing of the subsequent models must not absolutely follow.

    The most important decision taken was made by Minister Macri himself. It concerns the trade and international investments in and out of La Plata. The Platinian government will officially abandon its Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) philosophy to the Export-Oriented Industrialization (EOI) philosophy.

    This decision was made easier with the recent decisions to welcome foreign investments in the nation and allow a more liberalized competition with foreign companies. With the accession to NATO and the normalization of the relations with the West, the nation doesn’t need anymore to produce everything nationally and can now concentrate more on its comparative advantage in the mining or agricultural sectors. This shift will also give the government a rest in the investments and subsidies that cost alot the government. In fact, the national debt reaches 80B$ this year with all the Justicialist investments in the economy. Those measures were needed to kickstart the economy, but now it is enough solid to compete internationally. The “Invest Now, Pay later” policy of Mandrake reaches its limits and it is possible some corporations or state-owned companies might be partly privatized in the next years in order to help pay back the national debt.

    Despite such “austerity” measures, an Investment Fund was created with the goal to kickstart industries and economic sectors deemed important nationally. Also, this Fund will help companies from La Plata to acquire installations in foreign countries. The nation’s growth cannot continue without the growth of other markets according to the new trade oriented policy followed by the government.

    Furthermore, the government gives more power to the Central Bank for the control of interest rates and the monetary compression measures it will take. The inflation was controlled years ago, but with 23% inflation this year, it is clear the measures taken previously were only short-terms bandages on a structural problem.

    In overall, this budget announces major changes in La Plata, the most important being a freer economy for local initiatives and international investments in the nation. The R&D will also take a greater place in the budget than before, with fewer funds allowed to military hardwares. The civilian economy sees now more interesting ventures without the shadow of the military industrial complex.

    Paseo wrote:It's not really the President that rules in Iran, it's the Ayatollah

    And secondly, its not like America is a saint in this, they too are just as much provoking Iran as Iran is provoking them

    Iran screaming death to America isn’t exactly making anyone at home feel to great. It’s not like there’s healping there case by shooting down our drones, and disrupting trade.

    Amsterwald wrote:
      JIANG ZEMIN, PARAMOUNT LEADER: “It gladdens me to hear that you too embrace economic cooperation. With your approval, we can arrange for the collaboration of our trade ministers on such a goal.”

      [ Empress Farah Pahlavi ]: "Oh yes, for sure. Now, is there anything else you wish to discuss?"
    «12. . .86,50086,50186,50286,50386,50486,50586,506. . .86,83986,840»

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