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The Republic of Irian Barat

The Republic of Irian Barat


Flag



Coat of Arms


Motto: "Izokod Bekai, Izokod Kai" (One People, One Soul)


National Anthem: Hai Tanahku Irian Barat (Oh My Land, Irian Barat)



Location


Population: 6.000.000 (2013)
-Density: 0.03 People/Km2


Capital: Manokwari
Largest City: Port of Sorong


Official Language: Bahasa Irian Barat



National Language: Bahasa Irian Barat


Demonym: West Irian Baratn

Government: Presidential Republic
- President:
- Vice President:
- Speaker of the House:
- Chief Justice:


Legislature: Irian Baratn People's Council
- Upper House: District Representative
- Lower House: People Representative


Establishment: from Republic of Irian Barat
Independence: 1 July 1973


Land Area: 97.407,61 km˛
Water Area: 64.938,41 km˛
Water %: 40%


GDP (nominal): 315.000.000 Rupiahs
GDP (nominal) per capita: 52.561 Rupiahs per person


Human Development Index (NS Version): 52.57


Currency: Rupiah


Time Zone: UTC + 9


Drives on the: Left


Calling code: +62


Internet TLD: .ib


The Republic of Irian Barat

The Republic of Irian Barat commonly called Irian Barat, is a Presidential Republic in Southeast Asia. It is bordered on the north by Pacific Ocean, on the south by Arafura Sea, by the east by Papue New Guinea and on the west by Netherland Indies (Hindia Belanda). Irian Barat covers 97.407,61 square kilometers and has has an estimated population of 6 million (2013). Irian Barat comprises of 9 Provinces and 2 Special Administrative Region.

The Republic of Irian Barat is a fledgling, safe nation, notable for its frequent executions, compulsory military service, and state-planned economy. The hard-working, democratic, devout population of 6 million West Irian Baratns enjoy a sensible mix of personal and economic freedoms, while the political process is open and the people's right to vote held sacrosanct.

The enormous government juggles the competing demands of Welfare, Spirituality, and Law & Order. The average income tax rate is 64.7%.

The West Irian Baratn economy, worth 315 billion Rupiahs a year, is driven entirely by a combination of government and state-owned industry, with private enterprise illegal. The industrial sector, which is broadly diversified, is led by the Information Technology industry, with significant contributions from Trout Farming, Beef-Based Agriculture, and Tourism. Average income is 52,561 Rupiahs, and evenly distributed, with the richest citizens earning only 3.6 times as much as the poorest.

Human tissue is grown in vats as a delicacy as well as for transplants, the government is notorious for leaving citizens with almost nothing from their inheritance, otherwise healthy people are being sent to internment camps because they have VODAIS, and citizens have to dodge their neighbor's drones while getting the morning paper. Crime, especially youth-related, is totally unknown, thanks to a well-funded police force and progressive social policies in education and welfare. Irian Barat's national animal is the Bird of Paradise, which soars majestically through the nation's famously clear skies.

Irian Barat is ranked 63,500th in the world and 75th in ASEAN REGION for Smartest Citizens, with 33.65 Quips Per Hour.

Etymology

In 200 A.D. Geographical expert, Claudius Ptolemaeous called Irian Barat as Labadios Island. Untill now, no one know what is the meaning of Labadios. In 500 A.D. Chinese called this Island as Tungki, and following by Srivijaya Kingdom as Janggi, the origin of spices which they have brought.700 AD Persian and Gujaratian trader start to come into this Island, to find about Spices and called this region as Dwipanta or Samudranta which means the edge of the Seas or the edge of the ocean.

Approximately i 1646, Tidore Kingdom called this region and its citizen as Papa-Ua and later changes into Irian Barat, which in Tidore's languange means not integrated or separated. Netherland called this region by Nuevo Guinea or New Guinea, and 1956 politically declared this region as Netherland New Guinea. But at 1961 Irian Barat occupy this region and change its name into IRIAN, the abbreviation from ikut republik Irian Barat anti netherland, Irian Baratn version of "Follow Republic of Irian Barat Anti-Netherland"

The standard way to refer to a citizen of Irian Barat is as a "West Irian Baratn"

History

The historical name-founding is started in Tobati Summit, Jayapura. A committee assigned to found the name from Irian Barat which can be accepted by all races in Irian Barat. Frans Kasiepo, the founding fathers, as the Chief of Committee then take a name from Manseren Koreri Myth, the well-known legend in Biak area: Irian.

Irian, comes from Biak Numfor language, "Iri" or Land and "An" which means hot. Thus, the name Irian means Hot/Dry Land. But then founded in Serui and Merauke language that "Iri" means land and "An" means Nation, the land of nation, or the nation which uplift in high position by God.


Malino Conference 1946

1946, Frans Kasiepo, representing Nieuw Guinea in Malino Conference in Ujung Pandang, declared the name changes of this region. In 1961, National Committee of Irian Barat of Nieuw Guinea Raad, sponsored by Kingdom of Netherland, Irian Barat or West Irian Barat firstly raised the flag of morning star above the sky. Then 1 December 1961, National Committee of Irian Barat or called by Nieuw Guinea Raad by Netherland arranged the Independence. 1 July 1971, Seth Jafet Rumkorem, the Leader of Revolutionary Government declared the Independence.

Geography

A central east–west mountain range dominates the geography of the island of New Guinea, over 1,600 km (1,000 mi) in total length. The western section is around 600 km (400 mi) long and 100 km (60 mi) across.[citation needed] The province contains the highest mountains between the Himalayas and the Andes, rising up to 4,884 metres (16,024 ft) high, and ensuring a steady supply of rain from the tropical atmosphere.[citation needed] The tree line is around 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers,[citation needed] increasingly melting due to a changing climate.[citation needed] Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges.[citation needed] Except in high elevations, most areas possess a hot humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.

The southern and northern lowlands stretch for hundreds of kilometres and include lowland rainforests, extensive wetlands, savanna grasslands, and expanses of mangrove forest.[citation needed] The southern lowlands are the site of Lorentz National Park, also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[citation needed]

The province's largest river is the Mamberamo located in the northern part of the province.[citation needed] The result is a large area of lakes and rivers known as the Lakes Plains region.[citation needed] The Baliem Valley, home of the Dani people, is a tableland 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above sea level in the midst of the central mountain range.[citation needed] Puncak Jaya, also known by its Dutch colonial name, "Carstensz Pyramid", is a limestone mountain peak 4,884 metres (16,024 ft) above sea level.[citation needed] It is the highest peak of Oceania.

Ecology
The island has an estimated 16,000 species of plant, 124 genera of which are endemic.[citation needed] Irian Barat's known forest fauna includes; marsupials (including possums, wallabies, tree-kangaroos, cuscuses); other mammals (including the endangered long-beaked echidna); bird species such as birds-of-paradise, cassowaries, parrots, and cockatoos; the world's longest lizards (Irian Barat monitor); and the world's largest butterflies.[citation needed]

The waterways and wetlands of Irian Barat are also home to salt and freshwater crocodile, tree monitors, flying foxes, osprey, bats and other animals;[citation needed] while the equatorial glacier fields remain largely unexplored.[citation needed]

Protected areas within Irian Barat include the World Heritage Lorentz National Park, and the Wasur National Park, a Ramsar wetland of international importance.[citation needed]

In February 2006, a team of scientists exploring the Foja Mountains, Sarmi, discovered new species of birds, butterflies, amphibians, and plants, including possibly the largest-flowered species of rhododendron.[16]

Ecological threats include logging-induced deforestation, forest conversion for plantation agriculture (including oil palm), smallholder agricultural conversion, the introduction and potential spread of alien species such as the crab-eating macaque which preys on and competes with indigenous species, the illegal species trade, and water pollution from oil and mining operations

Demographics

The population of Irian Barat has a fertility rate of 2.9 children per woman[citation needed] The population grew from the 1.9 million recorded in the 2000 Irian Barat Census, to 2.9 million as recorded by the 2010 Census,[11] and is officially estimated to be at about 3.5 million in 2014. Since the early 1990s Irian Barat has had the highest population growth rate of all Irian Baratn provinces at over 3% annually.[citation needed] This is partly a result of birth rates, but mainly due to migration from other parts of Irian Barat.[citation needed] While indigenous Irian Baratns formed the near-totality of the population in 1961, they are now roughly 50% of the population,[citation needed] the other half being composed of non-Irian Baratn migrants coming from other parts of Irian Barat. An overwhelming percentage of these migrants came as part of a government-sponsored transmigration program.[citation needed]

According to the 2010 census, 83.15% of the Irian Baratns identified themselves as Christian with 65.48% being Protestant and 17.67% being Roman Catholic. 15.89% of the population was Muslim and less than 1% were Buddhist or Hindu.[12] There is also substantial practice of animism by Irian Baratns.

Largest Cities

Rank

City

Metro area population

State

1

Sorong

1.906.250

Sorong Special Region

2

Manokwari

1.877.260

Capital Region

3

Fakfak

668.280

Fakfak Province

4

Kaimana

462.490

Kaimana Province

5

Wondama Bay

263.210

Wondama Province

6

South Sorong

524.220

South Sorong Province

7

Raja Ampat

379.000

Raja Ampat Province

8

Tambrauw

706.190

Tambrauw Province

9

Maybrat

330.810

Maybrat Province

Government

Irian Barat is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government. Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998, Irian Baratn political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Irian Barat[63] have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.[64]
The president of Irian Barat is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Irian Baratn National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice-president.[65] The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.[66]
The highest representative body at national level is Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (People's Consultative Assembly) or MPR. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president.[67] The MPR comprises two houses; Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (People's Representative Council) or DPR, with 560 members, and Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representative Council) or DPD, with 132 members.[68] The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation.[64] Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased the DPR's role in national governance.[69] The DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.[70]
Most civil disputes appear before Pengadilan Negeri (State Court); appeals are heard before Pengadilan Tinggi (High Court). Mahkamah Agung is the country's highest court, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; Pengadilan Tata Negara (State Administrative Court) to hear administrative law cases against the government; Mahkamah Konstitusi (Constitutional Court) to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and Pengadilan Agama (Religious Court) to deal with codified Sharia Law cases.[71]

Foreign Relations and Military
In contrast to Sukarno's anti-imperialistic antipathy to Western powers and tensions with Malaysia, Irian Barat's foreign relations since the New Order era have been based on economic and political co-operation with the Western world.[74] Irian Barat maintains close relationships with its neighbours in Asia, and is a member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit.[68] The country restored relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990 following a freeze in place since anti-communist purges early in the Suharto era.[71]
Irian Barat has been a member of the World Assembly since 1950,[75] and was a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).[68] Irian Barat is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the World Trade Organization (WTO), and a member of OPEC. Irian Barat has received humanitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan.[68]
The Irian Baratn government has worked with other countries to apprehend and prosecute perpetrators of major bombings linked to militant Islamism and Al-Qaeda.[76] The deadliest bombing killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002.[77] The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Irian Barat's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.
Irian Barat's Armed Forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI–AD), Navy (TNI–AL, which includes Marine Corps), and Air Force (TNI–AU).[79] The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations.[80] One of the reforms following the 1998 resignation of Suharto was the removal of formal TNI representation in parliament; nevertheless, its political influence remains extensive.[81]
Separatist movements in the provinces of Aceh and Papua have led to armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.[82][83] Following a sporadic thirty-year guerrilla war between the Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM) and the Irian Baratn military, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2005.

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