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DispatchFactbookEconomy

by The State of Ostehaar. . 717 reads.

Oster Consortium for Energy Solutions





What we do

The OCES is Ostehaar's leading nuclear corporation, bringing together more than 40 nuclear companies and R&D institutions that operate in the civilian and defense sectors.

With 60 years' expertise in the nuclear field, we are a regional leader in technologies and competencies, offering cutting-edge industry solutions. We work on a regional scale to provide comprehensive nuclear services that range from uranium enrichment to nuclear waste treatment.

OCES provides a comprehensive set of nuclear fuel products and services:

  • Uranium mining and processing

  • Uranium conversion and enrichment

  • Fuel fabrication

  • Nuclear power plants design, construction, and operation

  • Spent nuclear fuel storage

  • Nuclear waste disposal

Corporate values

One step ahead
We strive to be the leader in the regional market. We are always one step ahead in technology, knowledge and the professional strength of our employees. We foresee what will be tomorrow and are ready to be it today. We continuously advance and learn. Every day we try to work better than yesterday.

Responsibility for the Result
Each of us bears personal responsibility for his/her work result to the State, Sector, colleagues and customers. In our work, we set for ourselves the most stringent requirements. It is not the spent effort that is evaluated, but the achieved results. The successful results are the basis for our new achievements.

Efficiency
We always find the best solutions to problems. We are efficient in all we do; when achieving the set targets, we make efficient use of the company’s resources and are continuously improving our working processes. There are no obstacles that can hinder our finding out the most efficient solutions.

Respect
We always treat our customers, partners and suppliers with respect. We always attentively listen to and hear each other, regardless of positions and places of work. We respect the history and traditions of the nuclear industry. The achievements of the past inspire us for new victories.

Safety
Safety is the highest priority. In our work, we ensure absolute safety of people and the environment first. There are no minutiae in safety; we know safety rules and follow them, while putting a stop to violations.

Nuclear power plant (NPP) designs

State-of-the-art technology and advanced safety systems, coupled with conformity to IAEA requirements, provide a solid competitive edge for Oster offerings on the international market.

NPP-2011 project is a major effort to design GEN III+ nuclear power plants with enhanced performance. The project is aimed at optimising the balance between safety and construction costs through a combination of passive and active safety systems that protect the plant against earthquakes, tsunami, hurricanes and aircraft crashes. Improved safety measures include double containment structures, a core catcher under the reactor shell, and passive residual heat removal systems.

Currently, OCES offers 2 types of commercial reactors:

  • 1200MWe PWR (Pressurised Water Reactor) advanced design nicknamed "Iron"

  • 1200MWe\1800MWe LMFBR (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) sodium-cooled design nicknamed "Steel"

OCES is also capable of designing and constructing research reactors, according to customers' needs and requirements.


Click Linkhere for a bird's eye view of a typical
Iron-1200 power unit layout.

Specifications of the Iron-1200 design

Iron-1200 is a pressurised, water-cooled and water-moderated power reactor, with an electric capacity of 1200MWe. It is the latest evolution in the long line of "Iron" plants, meeting all the safety requirements for GEN III+ nuclear power plants.

Main characteristics of an Iron-1200 power unit:

  • Reactor thermal output - 3200MWth

  • Power plant output, gross - 1200MWe

  • Power plant output, net - 1120MWe

  • Power plant efficiency - 35%

  • Capacity factor - 92%

  • Plant design life - 60 years

The reactor core contains 163 fuel assemblies (FAs), 4570mm high (height of the power generating part of every fuel rod is 3750mm). Each FA contains 312 fuel rods - Sintered UO2 pellets with a maximum enrichment of 5%, with a Zirconium alloy tube cladding. Up to 121 control rods are placed inside the core, for quick chain reaction suppression and maintaining power at assigned level. Annually 42 fresh FAs are loaded into the core as part of the reactor's refueling cycle, and burned-up FAs are extracted.

As of December 2015, OCES operates 4 Iron-1200 power plant pairs across Ostehaar, supplying around 56% of Ostehaar's electricity demand.


Cross-section of the Steel-1200's reactor.

Specifications of the Steel-1200 and Steel-1800 designs

Steel-1200 and Steel-1800 are power plants of a similar design but a different capacity. They are state-of-the-art sodium-cooled Linkfast breeder reactors (capable of generating more fissile material than they consume), with an electric capacity of 1200MWe or 1800MWE, respectively. As with all GEN IV nuclear power plants - those two apply new engineering solutions to improve power unit safety and cost effectiveness, as well as fuel efficiency.

Main characteristics of Steel-1200 (left side) and Steel-1800 (right side) power units:

  • Reactor thermal output - 2800MWth | 3840MWth

  • Power plant output, gross - 1220MWe | 1810MWe

  • Power plant output, net - 1140MWe | 1730MWe

  • Power plant efficiency - 41% | 45%

  • Breeding ratio - 1.2 | 1.35

  • Capacity factor - 90% | 90%

  • Plant design life - 60 years | 60 years

The reactor core contains 432 (for the Steel-1200) or 643 (for the Steel-1800) fuel assemblies (FAs), each consisting of 127 fuel rods - Sintered pellets of UO2 (with a maximum enrichment of 26%) and PuO2 (17.7% of the weight), with a Zirconum alloy tube cladding. Up to 27 control rods are placed inside the core.

As of December 2015, OCES operates 2 Steel-1200 power plants and 2 Steel-1800 power plants across Ostehaar, both type supplying around 27% of Ostehaar's electricity demand.

Clients and partners


Construction of a Steel-1200 reactor

OCES is currently supplying nuclear related services to many nations across the region. NPP units constructed and now operating in other nations:

OCES also constructed and operated (and in some cases still operates) Uranium conversion and enrichment complexes in the following nations, using either Uranium mined in their territory or supplied from other nations:

Additional agreements and deals:

  • Vancouvia's Soldotna World Energy is a subsidiary of OCES, with 80% of the company acquired for $4 billion USD in late 2016.

  • Illa Isle currently hosts grounds for nuclear waste disposal facilities and long-term nuclear waste storage, via Vancouvia's Northern Ascent Nuclear Power company.

  • Covonant's UCEnergy, following a merger, is partially (50%) owned by OCES.

  • The Keomoran Nuclear Energy Enterprise, which operates the nation's fuel cycle, is partially (50%) owned by OCES.

  • Noronica's Dagordh Class nuclear submarine is powered by a specially made OCES PWR.

  • OCES operates an advanced nuclear R&D facility and nuclear engineering traning school in Ainslie

  • OCES is negotiating the opening of Uranium mines in Menna shuli and Samudera

  • A merger between OCES and Alteran Republics' Infrastructure Development Institute (INI), a think-tank and design bureau for major infrastructure projects, is underway.

Oster nuclear program

Facilities of the nuclear fuel-cycle in Ostehaar

Ostehaar has no vast deposits of natural Uranium, and therefore OCES has to import around 90% of the Uranium it needs to operate Ostehaar's fuel-cycles and the partial fuel-cycles it operates in other nations. OCES currently operates six different fuel-cycles across The Western Isles - one in Ostehaar and the remaining five in other nations (see list above under 'Clients and collaborators'). Subsidiaries of OCES operate the Oster fuel-cycle, usually a company per facility, but not always.

Uranium is transferred into Ostehaar either in the form of Yellowcake (Triuranium Octoxide, U3O8) or in the form of unclean UNH (Uranyl nitrate, UO2(NO3)2). A small amount of Uranium mined in northern Ostehaar is extracted to Yellowcake in the Sjrihner Yellowcake Production Facility (SYPF). The Yellowcake is then inserted into the production lines of the Savare Conversion Facility (SCF) to convert it to 'HEX' (Uranium Hexafluoride, UF6, used in gas centrifuge enrichment) or to Urania (Uranium Dioxide, UO2, used as nuclear fuel).

Sjrihner Yellowcake Production Facility (SYPF)
Oprating company: Sjrihner Complex Co.


Savare Conversion Facility (SCF)
Oprating company: Oster Uranium Conversion Technology


The 'HEX' is then transferred in large containers to one of Ostehaar's two high-end Uranium enrichment facilities - the Grehem-Haalden Enrichment Plant (GHEP) or the Teser Bay Enrichment Plant (TEP). Both facilities belong to the Uranium Enrichment Industries of Ostehaar company, one of OCES' first subsidiaries.

Alongside its two large enrichment facilities, UEIO also has its own subsidiary called Ostehaar Centri-Tech (OCT), which operates a small research and development facility outside of Haalban. In this facility, OCT improves and tests new and existing centrifuge models and centrifuge cascades. OCT also manufactures the centrifuges, and sends them to UEIO to be used for industrial-scale enrichment in one of the large facilities.

The current standard centrifuge model used in UEIO's facilities is the O3 model - a 3 meter tall, 20 centimeters wide Carbon-fiber (T800) and Aluminium 7075 centrifuge, which operates at a maximum velocity of 770 meters per second (around 1,225 Hz or 73,000 revolutions per minute) and has a separative power of around 60 kgSWU/yr. In comparison, URENCO's current TC-21 centrifuges have similar technical characteristics, excluding their height of 5 meters, and a separative power of around 100 kgSWU/yr. Since the separative power increases linearly with height - this puts the O3 in line with the most efficient and advanced centrifuge models used for industrial-scale enrichment in the world today.

UEIO's facilities contain lines for enrichment of Uranium from its natural enrichment level (0.711%) to levels of around 4%, 30%, and 90% - as needed in OCES' various power and research reactors around the region. All facilities stand in IAEA regulations and are subjected to IAEA supervision and verification.

Grehem-Haalden Enrichment Plant (GHEP)
Oprating company: Uranium Enrichment Industries of Ostehaar


Teser Bay Enrichment Plant (TEP)
Oprating company: Uranium Enrichment Industries of Ostehaar


Enriched Uranium in the form of UF6 is then sent back to the conversion facility for conversion into UO2. The enriched Uranium in the form of UO2, along with natural Uranium in the form of UO2, are transferred to fuel fabrication plants for further processing to nuclear fuel for all types of reactors operated by OCES.

In the Oster fuel-cycle, OCES has two subsidiaries responsible for fuel fabrication - each operates its own plant. Osgruhn Fuels operates the Osgruhn Fuel Production Facility (OFPF), and OsterAtom operates the Ford River Fuel Production Facility (FFPF). OsterAtom also operates the Fuhrenahm Zirconium Plant (FZP), which produces the Zirconium cladding necessary for the production of nuclear fuel. OsterAtom's FZP serves both Oster fuel fabrication plants.

Osgruhn Fuel Production Facility (OFPF)
Oprating company: Osgruhn Fuels


Ford River Fuel Production Facility (FFPF)
Oprating company: OsterAtom


For a complete map of Ostehaar's fuel-cycle facilities - click Linkhere.

Nuclear waste created in all facilities is transferred to Esjtmer, to be temporarily stored in the Nuclear Treatment Complex (NTC) close to the border. After several month of storage, most of the nuclear waste is shipped to Illa Isle (Vancouvia) for long-term storage and disposal.

Nuclear reactors in Ostehaar:

A total of 9 nuclear power plants (8 of them as dual-unit plants) operate in Ostehaar, producing 10,680 MW of power altogether and supplying around 75% of Ostehaar's power demand (the rest is supplied mainly by locally extracted natural gas).

Name

Nearby city

Number of plants

Type

Narkhaaz Nuclear Plant (NNP)

Narkhaaz

1

Steel-1800

Linder Dual Nuclear Plant (LDNP)

Lindastir

2

Steel-1200

Long Coast Dual Nuclear Plant (LCDNP)

Sehovart

2

Iron-1200

Erdehare Dual Nuclear Plant (EDNP)

Erdehare

2

Iron-1200

North Dual Nuclear Plant (NDNP)

Polerast

2

Iron-1200

Additionally, 11 research, training, and isotope production reactors operate in Ostehaar. There are 6 more reactors in Ostehaar which are sub-critical reactors meant for testing and training purposes, and are not listed below.

Name

Nearby city

Number of plants

Type

Narkhaaz Research Facility (NRF)

Narkhaaz

2

100 MW heavy-water

Stable Isotope Production Plant (SIPP)

Saard

2

40 MW heavy-water

Teser Bay Research Reactor (TRR)

Teser

1

73 MW liquid metal

Porohare Campus Training Reactor (PCTR)

Porohare

2

10 MW heavy-water; 15 MW open-pool

Fuel Testing Facility (FTF)

Fordrast

1

90 MW light-water

OCES-1 Research Reactor (OCES-1)

Savarehat

1

330 MW heavy-water

OCES-2 Research Reactor (OCES-2)

Haalban

1

20 MW liquid metal

OCES-3 Research Reactor (OCES-3)

Pesarg

1

40 MW heavy-water

The State of Ostehaar

RawReport