4004 BC - 2348 BC
Click below to view all PRE-FLOOD history:
c. 4004 BC
The earth is created by God. Before this point, there was nothing. In six days, God creates everything in the universe -- every star, every planet, everything of nature that exists on the earth. Among this creation on Earth, are the first two humans, a man and a woman named Adam and Eve. They are created fully grown, fully intelligent, and live for a while, naked, in a lush beautiful place known as the Garden of Eden.
At this time, the entire Earth is covered with a water/ice canopy that preserves it in a consistent, warm, greenhouse-like climate. Differences in temperature are minimal, with no more than mild global air movements. Storms do not exist. Rain does not occur. Instead, the surface of the planet is watered by a fog, a mist that rises up and moistens the ground. Life is abundant all over the earth. Animals, birds, fish, plants and trees can be found everywhere. Rain forests are plentiful. Rivers are crystal clear. Land is hilly or flat. There are no mountains, no deserts, no polar ice caps, glaciers do not exist. Earth is, quite literally, a perfectly engineered paradise.
All animals are created to eat plants and the fruit that grow on them. They do not hunt or kill each other for food. There are no meat-eaters (this includes the dinosaurs). Adam and Eve are also commanded, by God, not to eat meat.
Beyond Earth, there are countless stars and planets, all equally beautiful and unique, but none of them are created to support sentient life. Earth is 100% unique -- the home of humanity, the crown of God's creation.
An unknown date after Creation
Sin and death enter the world. As a consequence of their disobedience to God, Adam and Eve are banished from the Garden of Eden. They are ashamed of their nakedness, and clothe themselves. Not long after they are expelled from the Garden, they have a son, whom they name Cain. He is the first human born on Earth. Over time, many more sons and daughters are born to Adam over the years, thereby establishing Adam and Eve as the genetic source of all humanity.
At some point, when Cain is older, he kills his younger brother Abel, lies to God, ignors God's rebuke, and leaves home to build a far-off city. From him and his wife are descended generations of Godless men and women who spread out and populate the Earth. They begin to eat meat, in defiance of God's command not to do so. They kill each other, they practice polygamy... they live evil, selfish and utterly corrupt lives.
Many humans during this period live over 900 years. The water canopy above the planet shields them from the harmful effects of ultra-violet rays, cosmic rays, and other harmful radiation.
The inhabitants of Earth at this time create and play musical instruments. The develop poetry. They tend cattle and livestock, they dig mines in search of mineral resources, and they make and use tools of brass and iron. They live in cities and they farm the land. They are advanced, intelligent, creative, self-aware individuals.
Eve gives birth to a son, whom she and Adam name Seth.
A man named Jared, of the line of Seth, fathers a son named Enoch.
Enoch has a son whom he names Methuselah.
Adam, the first human created on Earth, dies at the age of 930.
Enoch, a God-fearing man, is taken to heaven -- without death. He is 365 years old.
Lamech, son of Methuselah, has a son. He names him Noah.
- Methuselah dies at the age of 969. He is known to history as the oldest-living human.
In response to the sheer wickedness of mankind, God engineers a cataclysmic global flood that engulfs the entire Earth. The water/ice canopy above the planet collapses into a massive global deluge of rain, and water below the earth's surface rises up, flooding everything. There is no dry ground left uncovered. Massive earthquakes, volcanoes, and other natural disasters accompany this violent apocalypse. Mountains rise, and valleys sink. The surface of the Earth is completely changed, resulting in the modern continents and islands that we know today.
Noah, his wife, his three sons (Shem, Ham, Japheth), and their wives, survive this global flood aboard a large wooden ark. Accompanying them are two of every kind of animal (one male, and one female). Every other human, animal and plant on Earth is destroyed. The world before the Flood is completely wiped out. An estimated 10 trillion people perish. When the water recedes, hundreds of feet of sediment cover the Earth. The lush pre-flood plant life (now trapped under rock and sediment) becomes the earth's massive coal and oil resources.
*(The estimate of 10 trillion people on Earth before the global flood is the result of a conservative mathematical extrapolation using Biblical lineage data, the average lifespan of 900 years, and the much higher number of children per couple. In addition, a global flood would not have been necessary if humanity did not fill the entire surface of the Earth at that time.)
After 40 days of rain, and 150 total days afloat, the large wooden vessel comes to rest on the newly-exposed land of a brand new mountain in the Middle East, known to history as Mount Ararat.
The new world begins.
After 370 days on the ark, Noah, his family, and all of the animals on the ark, exit onto dry ground, and set foot upon Mount Ararat in the Middle East. From these survivors descend all current humans and animals on the earth. At this time, God engineers it so that all animals now fear humans. In addition, God grants permission for humans to eat any animal that does not still have blood in it. Before the Flood, humans and animals live in harmony with each other. After the flood, they fear and eat each other.
When the flood waters recede, areas of the planet begin to cool. Large ice sheets form over vast areas of the planet (except near the equator). This rapid global "ice age" persists for roughly 700 years.
At this time, all humans on earth speak the same language. Noah and his family had been commanded by God to "be fruitful, increase in number, and fill the earth." Yet, as the post-flood population grows, most people remain in the Middle East. They decide to build a city with a tall tower (Bablyon in Mesopotamia) to proclaim their greatness. God, however, intervenes, removes their common language, and establishes multiple new languages so that they can no longer understand each other. All humans on Earth, are, therefore, forced to spread out across the planet, settling in various places that share the same language. These common language groups become the founding inhabitants of the ancient civilizations we know today.
c. 1850 BC
The post-Flood global "ice age" reaches its peak.
c. 1650 BC
The post-Flood global "ice age" comes to an end.
Native Americans record an odd geological occurrence -- the sun and moon stop moving for about 24 hours. It is not known until centuries later, that in Isreal (in the Middle East), Joshua asks God to make the sun and moon stop moving, so that the light of the day could last long enough for the Israelites to complete their battle against the Amorites. God answers Joshua's prayer. The Earth and moon stop rotating for about a day, and the Amorites are crushed by the armies of Israel.
c. 1400 BC
The ancient cities of San Lorenzo, Tenochtitlán and Potrero Nuevo are settled in the southeastern region of "Mexico". This is the political center of the Olmec people. Many scholars believe that the Olmec crossed the Pacific Ocean in boats from western Africa. They are the earliest known civilization in the Americas.
c. 900 BC
The ancient city of Chavin de Huantar is settled in the northern Andean highlands of "Peru". Its political influence extends to other civilizations and settlements along the western South American coast. It is the political center of the Ancient Chavin people, and the first known civilization in South America.
c. 750 BC
The ancient Mayan civilization establishes its first major cities in Central America.
Jesus Christ is born in the town of Bethlehem in Judea, Israel (the Middle East). He is both God and man. As a human being, Jesus is the second man in Earth's history to be born outside of natural conception (Adam being the first, having been created fully grown). He is born to a virgin woman named Mary, conceived by God, and having no human father.
Jesus Christ begins his ministry in Galilee, Israel (the Middle East).
Jesus Christ is crucified on a cross just outside of the gates to the city of Jerusalem in Israel (the Middle East). He is buried, and, three days later, rises from the dead. After 40 more days appearing to his disciples and followers, he ascends into heaven.
Norsemen from Iceland, led by Erik the Red, settle in Greenland. These early settlements along the southwestern coast of Greenland eventually see a combined population of 3,000-5,000 with at least 400 farms. They export walrus ivory, furs, rope, sheep, whale and seal blubber, live animals such as polar bears, and cattle hides.
Bjarni Herjólfsson, a Norseman sails to Iceland to visit his parents, only to find that his father has gone with Erik the Red to Greenland. He takes his crew, and sets off to find him. Unfortunately, a severe storm destroys his ship. Most of the crew, including Bjarni, drown. Three survivors are later recovered, and tell the story of the ship's disappearance.
*(In real life, Bjarni discovers land west of Greenland when his ship was blown off course. Although he doesn't explore his discovery, his stories reach Greenland and Norway, inspiring Leif Erikson to retrace Bjarni's journey. This leads to the Viking discovery of Helluland, Markland and Vinland. -- These events never occur in this timeline. Greenland is the limit of Viking influence in the New World.)
The ancient North American settlement, known today as Cahokia Mounds, rapidly grows in size to become a massive city. Cahokia Mounds is located near the confluence of the Missouri, Illinois and Mississippi Rivers -- near Collinsville, Illinois, east of St. Louis. It becomes the center of trade, with trade networks extending to the Great Lakes, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.
The ancient North American settlement, known today as Aztalan, is established in south-central Wisconsin, Tessen. It is connected to Cahokia Mounds by a robust trading link. At it's peak, it is estimated to have had a population of 500-1,000 inhabitants.
The Ancient city of Aztalan (modern name) is abandoned. No one has been able to determine why, although environmental reasons are generally assumed to be the cause.
The Mexica/Aztecs begin building the city of Tenochtitlan on a small island on the west side of Lake Texcoco in "Mexico". This city eventually becomes the center of the powerful Aztec civilization, with an estimated population as high as 350,000.
The Norse settlements in Greenland suffer through unseasonably cold winters around this time, but manage to survive. While they remain largely self-governing, the Kingdom of Norway, and later Denmark assert uncontested territorial control over Greenland.
*(In real life, these original Norse settlements in Greenland are abandoned by 1400, with no indication as to what happened to the settlers, or where the may have gone. A 1721 Dano-Norwegian expedition to Greenland found no evidence of surviving Europeans.)
The Ancient city of Cahokia Mounds (modern name) is abandoned. No one has been able to determine why, although environmental reasons, possibly even illness, are generally assumed to be the cause.
The Inca Empire is established in "Peru". It is born out of the Kingdom of Cusco.
A Spanish caravel is wrecked in the Caribbean, and about a dozen survivors manage to make landfall on the coast of Yucatán. They are seized by a Maya lord, and most of them are sacrificed. Two Spaniards manage to escape. The conflict between the Spanish and the Maya begins.
The Spanish under Hernan Cortez makes first contact with the Aztec Empire. He allies with the long-time enemy of the Aztecs -- the Confederacy of Tlaxcala -- and arrives at the gates of Tenochtitlan (the Aztec capital) in early November.
A group of Spanish arrive in Mexico from Hispaniola, bringing with them the smallpox virus that has already been ravaging that island for two years. Cortez hears about the group, and goes to defeat them. During this contact, though, one of Cortez's men contracts the disease.
The Aztecs rise up in rebellion against Cortez and his men. Outnumbered, the Spanish are forced to flee Tenochtitlan. During the fighting, the Spanish soldier carrying smallpox dies.
After the Spanish flee the Aztec capital, the smallpox virus spreads, devastating the Aztec population. It kills most of the Aztec army and 50% of the overall population. The Aztecs do not know the cause of this disease, and die in great numbers. There are so many dead that it becomes impossible to bury them all. When entire families die, they pull down the houses over them so that their homes become their tombs.
Hernan Cortez returns to Tenochtitlan to find the Aztec army in ruins, with any remaining soldiers weak and dying from the disease. He easily defeats the Aztecs and enters Tenochtitlan, victorious. Spanish reports indicate that they could not walk through the streets without stepping on the bodies of Aztec smallpox victims.
A total of 180 Spanish cavalry, 300 infantry, 4 cannons and thousands of allied warriors from central Mexico arrive in that land that will become Guatemala. The subjugation of the Maya civilization begins.
The Spanish make first contact with the Inca Empire. Smallpox and other diseases begin to sweep through the Inca population. Incan Emperor Huayana Capac, his successor, his sons, and most of the other leaders are killed by the disease. Within a short time, smallpox claims 90% of the Inca population. The Spanish subjugation of the remaining Inca follows soon after.
Measles and other European diseases infect the Maya.
A second smallpox epidemic sweeps through the Aztec population.
Smallpox reaches Chile by sea, when a ship carrying the Spanish governor lands at La Serena. Chile had previously been isolated by the Atacama Desert and Andes Mountains from Peru, but at the end of 1561, and in early 1562, the disease ravages the native Chilean population. Unofficial estimates suggest that the natives lose 40% of their population.
A third smallpox epidemic sweeps through the Valley of Mexico. The Spanish, to consolidate the diminishing Aztec population, merge the survivors from small towns in the valley into bigger ones. This helps to break the remaining power of the upper classes. By the end of this third outbreak, the population of the Aztecs is estimated to have declined by 95% in the course of 60 years.
Henry Hudson, an English sea captain and explorer, explores the New England coast for the Dutch East India Company. He is hired to find a Northeast Passage to Asia. He lands at Newfoundland, Cape Cod, and discovers Delaware Bay.
The Dutch begin establishing settlements in New England.
Frenchman, Etienne Brule, becomes the first explorer to reach Lake Superior.
The Dutch establish a fur trading settlement on Governors Island (in New York harbor).
The Dutch begin constructing Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island (New York). The port city outside the walls of the fort, New Amsterdam, will become a major hub for trade between North America, the Caribbean and Europe.
Frenchman, Jean Nicolet, becomes the first European to enter Lake Michigan as he searches for a water route to China through North America.
Aug. 27 -- The British capture the city of New Amsterdam ("New York City").
The last remaining independent Maya city (the Itza capital of Nojpetén) falls to to the Spanish. The Mayan Empire is no more, although the Mayan culture persists in small villages outside the reach of Spanish control.
The French and Indian War (between France and England) begins in North America.
Nov. 13 -- The Treaty of Fontainebleau secretly cedes the land west of the Mississippi River to Spain.
Oct. 25 -- British King George II dies suddenly, the result of an incipient aortic aneurysm. He is 77 years old. He is succeeded by his 22-year-old grandson George William Frederick (George III).
Feb. 10 -- The Treaty of Paris is signed in Europe, ending the French and Indian War.
Robert Tessen, a British-Canadian fur trader, becomes the first European settler in Tessen, when he settles permanently at Green Bay. The Republic of Tessen is later named in his honor.
The American Revolution begins in North America as British colonies declare their independence from England. A bloody war begins along the eastern coast of North America.
Estimates of North American native deaths as a result of smallpox and other European diseases reaches nearly 2 million.
Sept. 3 -- The Second Treaty of Paris is signed in Europe, ending the American Revolutionary War. All British land east of the Mississippi River (and south of Wisconsin) is given to the new, sovereign and independent democratic nation of the America AU.
French-Canadian Alexis Laframboise establishes a trading post at the site of what will eventually become Milwaukee. A small European settlement soon springs up near the trading post.
Spain returns control of Louisiana Territory to the French in the Treaty of Ildefonso.
June 8 -- The War of 1812 breaks out between England and the United States. This is the first time the United States declares war on another nation.
Dec. 24 -- The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812. Within that treaty are provisions to release the British Wisconsin Territory as a fully independent sovereign nation. The new nation is intended to be a Great Lakes land buffer between the United States and British Canada.
Feb. 18 -- The British territory of Wisconsin officially becomes a sovereign and independent nation known as Tessen.
Jan. 29 -- British King George III dies, the result of rapidly failing health. He is 81 years old. He is succeeded by his 57-year-old Prince Regent son George Augustus Frederick (George IV).
June 26 -- British King George IV dies, the result of upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting from the rupture of a blood vessel in his stomach. He is 67 years old. He is succeeded by his 64-year-old younger brother William Henry (William IV).
The British Canadian Welland Canal opens, allowing ships to travel from Lake Ontario/Atlantic Ocean to Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan. A total of 40 wooden locks control the canal, with the smallest lock being 110 feet long, 22 feet wide, and 8 feet deep. At this time, the entire canal is owned by Great Britain.
June 2 -- British King William IV dies, the result of failing health. He is 71 years old. Since he has no living legitimate issue, he is succeeded by his 18-year-old niece Alexandrina Victoria (Queen Victoria).
June 10 -- British Princess Alexandrina Victoria is crowned as Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
Jan. 20 -- El Salvador gains independence from the United States of Central America.
Jan. 25 -- The United States of Central America collapses. The new nations of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica gain sovereign independence.
Jan. 8 -- Bolivia declares independence from Peru. This, in turn, leads to the independence war between Peru and Bolivia.
Feb. 15 -- The Dominican Rebellion begins in Haiti.
March 26 -- The United States and United Kingdom agree to the Webster-Ashburton Treaty. This treaty resolves the regional Aristook War between the two powers.
Jan. 23 -- In France, Louis Phillipe I abdicates the throne of France in favor of his nine-year-old grandson, Philippe.
Jan. 25 -- Due to strong public opinion, the National Assembly of France rejects young Philippe as king. Instead, they declare the establishment of the Second French Republic. The provisional government instates Dupont de l'Eure as its president.
Feb. 1 -- France declares war on the United Kingdom as a result of political issues in Europe. This fighting spills over into North America.
Aug. 26 -- French and UK troops engage in battles in the Idaho region of North America.
Oct. 3 -- French and UK troops engage in battles in French Minnesota.
Dec. 11 -- In France, Louis Napoleon wins the Presidential election.
The British Canadian Welland Canal is deepened and improved. The 40 locks are reduced to 27, each 150 feet long, 27 feet wide, and 9 feet deep. The rest of the St. Lawrence Seaway to the Atlantic is upgraded to this 9-foot depth. This canal allows ships to travel from Lake Ontario/Atlantic Ocean to Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan. At this time, the entire canal is owned by Great Britain.
Feb. 11 -- The United States allies itself with France in their war with the United Kingdom, thereby bringing the USA into the fighting in North America. United States troops prepare to invade British Canada.
July 4 -- In Haiti, Soulique declares himself emperor.
Oct. 20 -- The United Kingdom accepts peace with the United States. Status quo.
Jan. 14 -- In Haiti, the Dominican Rebellion is crushed.
April 16 -- The slave trade ends in Brazil.
Dec. 3 -- In France, the Coup d'Etat of Louis Napolean occurs.
Dec. -- In France, Louis Napoleon is elected Emperor. He assumes the French throne as Napoleon III.
Feb. 18 -- In France, an assassination attempt wounds Napoleon III.
The St. Marys Falls Canal opens. This canal/lock allows small ships to travel from Lake Huron to Lake Superior. At this time, the entire canal is owned by Tessen.
Dec. 21 -- The Confederate States of America declare independence from the United States, setting into motion the deadly and destructive American Civil War. South Carolina secedes from the Union.
Dec. 24 -- The U.S. state of Florida secedes from the United States and joins the Confederacy.
Jan. 2 -- The U.S. states of North Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, Virginia and Mississippi secede from the United States and join the Confederacy.
Jan. 7 -- France intervenes in Mexico; France declares war on Mexico.
Jan. 11 -- The Republic of Tessen honors its preexisting alliance with the United States, and allies with the USA in it's civil war against the Confederacy. This brings them into the war against the South, however, Tessen declines to provide any troops to the assist the North.
Jan. 22 -- Spain intervenes in Mexico; Spain declares war on Mexico.
Feb. 22 -- The first battle of the American Civil War takes place near Staunton, Virgina. 8,000 Confederate infantry are attacked by 32,000 Union troops (with artillery). The Confederate troops are easily routed and forced to retreat.
March 11 -- Union troops begin a scorched-earth tactic in the Virginia Shenandoah Valley. North/South fighting grows in intensity (and exclusively) in Virginia, literally destroying the Confederate state. It becomes the worst sustained combat ever pursued on American soil.
May 30 -- French troops successfully complete an amphibious landing of troops at Acapulco, Mexico.
Intense fighting continues in Virginia. The CSA Army of Northern Virginia, and the USA Army of the Potomac continue to brutalize both each other, and the Virginia landscape. Land is captured and liberated, back and forth. Thousands of men have been killed on both sides.
Feb. 12 -- Confederate troops invade the USA state of Kentucky.
March 12 -- Spain accepts peace with Mexico. Status quo.
March 13 -- Ecuador chooses to establish a Jesuit dictatorship, and becomes a satellite nation of the Papal States.
April 2 -- The Confederate States pass the Conscription Act and institute a nationwide military draft.
May 22 -- Confederate troops capture Louisville, Kentucky.
May 23 -- In Virginia, the Battle of Fredricksburg begins the deadly Fredricksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In this two-day battle, 50,000 Confederate troops clash with 30,000 Union troops defending the city from rebel liberation. Confederate Generals Clebourne and Pemberton face off against Northern General Ambrose Burnside.
June 23 -- Confederate troops invade Southern Illinois.
July 4 -- Confederate troops invade the USA state of Indiana.
July 25 -- Confederate troops invade Maryland, as they push toward the Union capital of Washington D.C. -- The Maryland Campaign begins.
July 26 -- Confederate troops capture the USA city of Evansville, Indiana.
Aug. 23 -- Confederate troops invade Pennsylvania.
Aug. 30 -- The USA naval ship, USS New York, intercepts the British mail packet RMS Trent and removes, as contraband of war, a high-ranking Confederate diplomat. The Confederate envoy was bound for Britain to press the Confederacy's case for diplomatic recognition, and to lobby for possible financial and military support. The British government demands an apology from the USA, and receives none. Disgusted by this violation of British neutral rights, and viewing the entire situation to be an insult to their national honor, the United Kingdom declares war on the United States, and throws its support behind the Confederacy.
Sept. 2 -- The USA state of Kentucky secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy.
Sept. 3 -- Confederate troops capture the USA city of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Sept. 12 -- Confederate troops capture the USA city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Sept. 13 -- Confederate troops march into the USA capital of Washington DC. Conceding defeat, the United States sues for peace with the Confederacy.
Sept. 15 -- The United States and Confederate States sign the Treaty of Washington which officially ends the bloody and destructive American Civil War. The treaty is signed in the White House, and grants sovereign independence to the Confederate States of America (now officially known as Dixie AU). War, however, continues between the United States and the United Kingdom.
Sept. 18 -- The displaced United States Senate gathers near Washington D.C. and near unanimously votes to impeach President Abraham Lincoln. He is immediately removed from office. They also vote to relocate the United States capital to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
May 8 -- France accepts peace with Mexico. Status quo.
June 19 -- British troops invade and capture the USA city of Baltimore, Maryland.
July 30 -- USA troops recapture Baltimore.
Oct. 6 -- USA troops capture the British city of Sydney, New Britanna.
Dec. 12 -- USA troops capture the British city of Halifax, New Britanna. The United States now controls all of the British Canadian province of New Britanna.
Jan. 18 -- Impeached USA President Abraham Lincoln is murdered by a Dixie national while crossing the street in his hometown of Springfield, Illinois.
United States troops continue to capture land in British Canada.
May 5 -- The United Kingdom accepts peace with the United States. Status quo. USA troops in British Canada begin the long march south back into the United States.
April 20 -- Mexico enters a military alliance with Dixie.
Feb. 17 -- Dixie buys the island of Cuba from Spain. The island becomes a state within the Confederacy.
Oct. 9 -- The Dixie Congress rejects an emancipation proposal. Slavery continues within the Confederate States of Dixie.
Oct. 8 -- A massive fire destroys a large part of the USA city of Chicago, Illinois. Hundreds of acres of the city land are burned, with roughly thousands of buildings destroyed. Of the city's 100,000 inhabitants, 63,000 are left homeless. 230 bodies are recovered, but the death toll may have been as high as 400-500. The county coroner suggests that an accurate count is impossible as some victims may have drowned or had been incinerated leaving no remains.
*(In real life, dry conditions and gusting winds contributed to major forest fires in northern Wisconsin and Michigan on the same day. Thousands of people were killed. In our story, however, miraculously, the only major fire on this day was in the city of Chicago.)
French sculptor, Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, briefly considers the idea of gifting a colossal neoclassical bronze statue of a robed female figure representing Libertas, a Roman goddess, bearing a lighted torch and tablet, and representing Freedom to the United States. However, the United States' disastrous loss in the American Civil War, and the continuation of slavery in Dixie kills the idea rather quickly. No such statue is ever gifted to the United States.
*(In real life, this was the beginning of the famous Statue of Liberty. In our story, however, Lady Liberty is never built in New York harbor. Instead, Bedloe's Island is the location of a granite-walled star-shaped fortification known as Fort Wood.)
Nov. 24 -- France declares war on the United Kingdom. Within months, French troops are invading and capturing land in British Canada. British Canada will, from this point forward, be a highly contested region by both France and the United Kingdom.
Russia officially claims and occupies Alaska.
May 5 -- The Dixie Congress rejects an emancipation proposal. Slavery continues within the Confederate States of Dixie.
June 2 -- French Emperor Napoleon III dies, the result of failing health. He is 76 years old. He is succeeded by his 28-year-old son Napoleon Eugene Louis Jean Joseph (Napoleon IV).
A new shorter route for the British Canadian Welland Canal is completed. The new route contains 26 stone locks, each 270 feet long, 45 feet wide, and 14 feet deep. This canal allows ships to travel from Lake Ontario/Atlantic Ocean to Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan. At this time, the entire canal is owned by Great Britain.
July 9 -- The United States declares war on Dixie over the issue of slavery -- an institution that is still practiced in the Southern nation. The Dixie War begins. Tessen honors its military alliance with the United States, but, once again, declines to send any military troops to assist in the fighting.
July 16 -- 54,000 USA troops invade Dixie Virginia.
Aug. 1 -- Dixie troops invade USA southern Ohio.
Aug. 27 -- USA troops capture the Dixie city of Norfolk, Virginia.
Sept. -- Severe fighting has engulfed the Dixie state of Virginia a second time, yet the Confederates put up a strong defense.
Sept. 11 -- USA troops begin an assault toward the Dixie capital of Richmond.
Oct. 8 -- After a month of intense fighting, USA troops are routed near Richmond, and forced to retreat.
Nov. -- Nearly 200,000 USA troops push toward the Dixie capital of Richmond a second time.
Nov. 16 -- The monarchy comes to an end in Brazil.
Dec. 20 -- USA troops capture Richmond, Virginia.
Dec. 22 -- France and Portugal ally with the Confederacy in their defensive war against the United States.
Dec. 25 -- Tessen pulls out of the Dixie War, and declares neutrality. They have no interest in being pulled into a major war against France -- with whom they share a common border along the Mississippi River.
Dec. 26 -- Dixie troops invade USA southern Illinois.
Dec. 28 -- USA troops invade Dixie's state of North Carolina.
Jan. 13 -- USA troops invade Dixie's state of Kentucky from the north.
Feb. 25 -- French troops cross the Mississippi River from Louisiana, and invade the southern part of the USA state of Illinois. Surprisingly, there are no USA troops located there at the time, and the masterful French invasion succeeds unopposed.
March 23 -- French troops take control of, and occupy, southern Illinois.
April 10 -- After the massive Battle of Lynchburg (in Virginia), a decisive victory that sees the Confederates utterly wiped out by a massive USA force of 256,000 troops, Dixie sues for peace. The United States agrees, on one condition: Dixie emancipates all of its slaves, and permanently abandons the institution of slavery. Faced with severe ultimatums from the United States, and seeking to preserve its sovereignty, the Dixie government agrees. All slaves in Dixie are granted their freedom. Many begin to flock northward into the United States, in what will become the largest refugee operation on American soil.
May 1 -- The United States signs peace with France, in an effort to avoid a long, drawn-out war with their French neighbors. Within the treaty, the southern two thirds of the USA state of Illinois is ceded to French Louisiana.
April -- In Athens, Greece, half way around the world, the first Modern Olympics are held. Over the years that follow, this will become a high-profile global sports competition.
Jan. 22 -- British Queen Victoria dies, the result of failing health. She is 81 years old. She is succeeded by her 49-year-old son Albert Edward (Edward VII).
July 25 -- Dixie hosts the World's Fair in Charleston, South Carolina.
Fighting continues between French and British troops in British Canada.
July 20 -- The United Kingdom finally agrees to peace with France. Central British Canada is ceded to France, and is immediately granted sovereignty as the nation of French Canada. French Canada becomes a dominion of France.
May 6 -- British King Edward VII dies, the result of failing health. He is 68 years old. He is succeeded by his 44-year-old son George Frederick Ernest Albert (George V).
Nov. 1 -- In Peru, the abandoned city of Maccu Piccu is discovered.
June 22 -- Tessen purchases the land of Minnesota and eastern Dakota from French Louisiana.
April 3 -- Denmark sells the Caribbean Virgin Islands to the United States. The former Danish territory becomes the first official territory of the United States of America.
After years of delays and other problems, the Panama Canal opens. The locks are 1,050 feet long, 94 feet wide, and 40 feet deep. This canal allows ships to travel to cross Central America between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. At this time, the entire canal is owned by France.
March 22 -- All over North and South America, news reports and first-hand accounts speak of the sudden and mysterious appearance of hundreds of naked humans. Some sources claim that these are angels fallen from heaven; others claim that they are visitors from another planet; and still others claim that they are time-travelers from 100 years in the future. No one is able to agree on their origin, but the fact still remains, these mysterious people are here. They are beginning to assimilate into the cultures around them.
Jan. 18 -- France captures Texas, and adds it to French Louisiana.