The Unified Earth Governments has its roots within the Interplanetary War, a near century long conflict between old remnants of Earth ideologies, the primary participant's in the conflict were between the majority of Earths nations (Under the banner of the United Nations), Several rouge states, and two resistance movements; the Koslovic's, and the Freidan Movement. The Koslovic's were Russian in origin, though their desires for a workers revolution quickly spread to other colonies on the red planet, under the banner of the Red Faction the early Koslovics harassed both the Russian military and various large mining corporations. The swift guerrilla war and propaganda runs slowly brought many to rise against their own states, the Koslovic Federation was created, the hearts and minds of the people were won over and initial bloody conflict gave the revolutionaries several bases and a small fleet to start with, and the needed time to start producing what they needed to fight Earth off. Because of their actions before hand and due to the sheer distance, Earth did not get wind of the rebellion until the Koslovic's were strong enough to resist occupation. Ironically they could have lost several times whenever Earth started creating a beach head, however due to inexperience in interstellar warfare, the thought of controlled orbital bombardment never crossed many minds at this time.
Amidst the conflict however was also interstellar discovery. Since the early 22nd century, satellites over Mars detected strange, Bermuda like effects within a specific region of the planet Mars. Early explorers were sent and discovered a hidden cache of alien ruins, including broken down ships and a facility, only minimal samples, including what is currently known as a Prothean beacon have been recovered before an unknown ship opened fire and destroyed much of the ruins and took control of the region, little did anyone know this was a hidden power play for dominance. The technology that was captured here would however change humanity's perceptions, and both civilians on Earth and Mars were shocked. Later into the conflict, the Martian government that formed demanded the tech be given over to them since it came from their planet, this was denied though as the war started turning to a close, it became much more of a possibility and the demands were more reasonable to argue.
Despite the conflict in the stars, Earth was not safe as well. As the war for Mars began, several powers that have staved off defeat for what amounts to three centuries made their moves. A new Korean conflict arose while a Brazilian made Federation initiated a war of conquest on South America, what remains of Africa's more militant and disenfranchised nations, entered conflict for dominance over the region and its resources. With only a few super powers having the militaries, industry and tech to keep the peace, the conflict became much more absurd. A UN enforced peacekeeping force entered Africa to try to end the conflict with diplomacy and ensure no harm to non combatants, while a joint American and Japanese force backed South Korea to take down the Northern half in a short one sided conflict. South America however is where most of the blood shed on Earth would appear, in a small part of the Interplanetary Wars infamous Rainforest Wars. While the conflicts happened on Earth and near Mars, UN boarder colonies near Jupiter were to be taken over with ease by a much more dangerous faction, one led by extremist of Eastern Europeans, and of German Descent, a Fascist movement arose in the one place it could rebuild in peace. Io would be the start of the Freidan Movement.
Conflict persisted in South America for much longer than it did and the damage done there along with the waring African states and the remains of the North Koreans, as conflict started to ease on Earth, the United Nations could make greater effort to work on ending the conflict in space. Massive military build up resulted in the Koslovics preparing themselves, despite the build up being mostly for defense and a counter attack on the rising Friedan movement. What neither side expected however was that the Friedan would initiate an attack on the Koslovics, the reasons vary, but historians commonly agree it was a mix of a desire for solar domination, and due to the Koslovics predecessors harming several corporations which funded the Freidan movement. The Friedan movement had some brilliant members in it, who had access to greater levels of technology from the Prothean ruins. An initial starting fleet in the region was created and the Friedan Republic was created, its goal to spread its fascist ideology through the system and rule it with an iron fist.
The Friedan's initial attack on the Koslovics started with a sneak into their formations flanks with a corvette, dropping advanced troops of their Cerberus legion, they destroyed the infrastructure of one of the Koslovics major cities, harming both sides potentially in future conflict. The United Nations would not take this threat face down however, and they knew what had to be done to win the war. An initial fleet made primarily of the heaviest of American and Russian ships made way to the Jovian Moons for what was thought to be a smart counter attack, however the Friedan Admiral Joseph Alexander Lieberman accounted for the attack, and hid his forces into a pincher formation, initially having a three count fleeting movement, something risky for space combat, but something notable to right down in the text books. Using this tactic the Admiral tricked the UN forces into pursing fleeing and seemingly injured Friedan ships until they were within the kill zone, from there the rest of the fleet entered the conflict by leaving their cover of wreckage and interstellar bodies.
The UN Captains were however just as smart, the attack was constructed on a single plane, as if it was a sea battle and after initial loss quickly took advantage of space and moved down into a fleeing pattern, planning to use Titans gravity well as a boost for a strong escape. Captain Asya Matveev sacrificed her Cruiser in order to prevent the fleet being compromised, ramming her injured vessel into a powerful Friedan ran station. The escape was successful and the UN left to lick its wounds. While the battle for the Jovian Moons started to pick up, the much greater battle started on Mars. In 2154 the United Nations initiated an attack on the Koslovic held city of Cydonia, once a small outpost, was slowly becoming a greater city on Mars. Under the cover of fleet support, a joint American and British drop ship wing made a run through enemy Anti Air in order to drop a joint force of their Marines, many losses were made but a single battalion worth of forces made land fall into the cities outskirts. After hours of fighting and destroying enemy anti air, the forces were given Russian air support and were to join up with French and Japanese forces who took the inner cities defenses, Chinese ships willingly gave orbital over sight while the American and Russian power house fleets engaged enemy Koslovic vessels. While the battle for the last line of Koslovic defenses was brutal, it got more complicated as a sudden Friedan counter attack made way and engaged the Chinese vessels, dropping para troopers into the city uncontested by anti air. It would take several days until the battle finished with a UN victory.
The UN however would achieve a great loss soon after. Full of confidence after the performance of the battle for Cydonia, the UN sent a joint fleet to initiate a staging invasion of the outer territories of Sol, however when the forces arrived to the asteroid belt, they were met with a surprising force. The Friedan scientist have discovered how to properly add the Prothean technology into their ships and decided to make a bid against the UN with a force of their own. The Friedan fleet was made up of modified Cruisers, Destroyers and Frigates, each using the prothean tech to create powerful rail guns that could fire munitions the size of a tank round, into deadly weapons as powerful as the tank sized rounds of the Russians own ships. The UN fleet was caught off guard and was being hammered by the Freidans, who smaller but more powerful fleet gutted all resistance. The UN Fleet was already half depleted of its forces because it couldn't fight in Ernest, what was worse is that the enemy somehow discovered FTL, and with it dictated the battle, the infamous Battle for the Belt became more important than ever, and one that Rear Admiral Johnathon Carver recognized was a threat to mankind. The UN lost the battle, and the UN ships that survived left battered and injured, and the Freidan movement ever more capable than ever. Something had to be done in order to survive this change of events, and that lead to the first step of unification.
In 2156 the United Nations decided that a greater cohesive movement was needed to win the war, and the leaders of the UN security council and several other nations signed the UN Charter of Unified Service. This officially created the United Nations Space Command, a full use military branch of Earth and of the UN, much more powerful as one, and with more power than the Peace Keepers which mostly could only guarantee civility in the war. The UN has placed all its eggs into one basket, and the basket was a nuclear bunker. With this formation new ship designs and principles were worked, higher military requirements were made, and the UNSC became the strongest military force in Human history. With a new line of military ships and weapons, and a strong contingent of Marines, the UNSC came back into the war even stronger.
In 2157, two years after a horrid loss within the Asteroid belt, the UNSC 3rd Fleet, under the leadership of the experienced Johnathon Carver engaged the Freidan patrol there. With more powerful and accurate weapons, the UNSC ships engaged the enemy first with a decisive first strike, followed up by drones to take the enemy by surprise and to scan for mines, several ships then used their M19 Hellfire Missile Pods to unleash massive amounts of fusion tip missiles to decimate the Freidan ships who were swarmed by both drones and a mass amount of missile spam. With the Freidan fleet in disarray, Carver had his ships move into one more push, pinching from all angles his fleet fired a single salvo of their ships nuclear arsenal and followed up with their new magnetic accelerator cannons. The battle finished with very few UNSC causalities, and massive damage to the Friedan fleet, almost its entire force. With this massive win the Jovian Moon Campaign officially began, however Mars was not yet done. As the UNSC started to clean up with Jovian Moons in months of conflict, one final massive push on Mars began, in what is infamously called the Argyre Planitia Campaign.
While often forgotten by most people, despite this military push, a historic treaty was signed prior to the invasion, that both sides would halt combat if a notable invasion of any Freidan forces was to make their move, both seeing the danger they presented. During this time, a lunar civil conflict began between forces of Friedan cells. The Neo-Freidanist believed their current leader was too moderate and was not truly into their cause. They were violent and clearly wanted to take hold of the power they were bidding for. It was because of this civil conflict that made the Jovian Moon Campaign nothing more than a practical Thursday War if nothing else, and while the UNSC broke the Freidan Movements teeth in, the final push into Lowell city, the capital for Mars came to a dramatic conclusion. The UNSC began the first true push with orbital strikes into the distant heavy orbital fire weaponry, before having precision strike son anti air. This lead to the deployment of the Tactical Shock Marines, who entered into combat in large, bulky drop pods, the pods would tank any small damage and could keep the people inside safe while it crash into the ground, of course with some prior counter thrust to dampen the impact.
The TSM took over Koslovic bases within short order, taking them by surprise and remaining mostly hidden, this was followed by a swift armored battalion moving into without much hassle to assault the larger Koslovic forces, who were entrenched and supported. A battle for air control and space control made the battle more gritty as neither side could expend their air units, this meant that the conflict was more in close and more dangerous. However the new UNSC marine battle armor proved several times more protective then older uniforms and this allowed them to more often than not, survive any internal conflict. In December 31st, 2169, Friedan forces that survived managed to make their way to Lowell during the last battle and quickly do damage, their goal was to destroy the cities fusion reactor, something which would kill millions of innocent lives. Realizing how the issue was turning out in the Argyre Planitia Campaign, Koslovic leaders met with the highest of the UNSC and talked about a cease fire and post war terms, unofficially the Koslovics surrendered after the wars toll proved their fight was futile. Under direct orders Koslovic forces joined in with their former enemies and made a defensive push to preserve the lifes of the people they cared about. When the new year was declared on Earth, the war ended as what remained of the Freidan movement was destroyed, and with the Koslovics surrendered.
In January 15th, of Earth; The Treaty of Callisto was signed by the UNSC's leading officials, representatives of the United Nations, as well as top officials of the Koslovic Freedom Fighters, and the sole remaining earnest member, and the former leader of the Freidan movement. The treaty was signed live across all channels, with obvious delay to the colonies. Following the end of the war it took until the 20th of that month for the greatest political achievement for the Human race to reach fruition. In January 20, 2170 the 11 most powerful nations on Earth signed the Articles Of Unification, and with it signed the systems stellar alliance charter, which promoted that no matter the system, no matter the world, all are allied under Earth and all are independent, none are owned. With this signed, Mars gained a strong semblance of Independence, along with the Moon; By this action, the Unified Earth Governments was formed. The 22nd century ended on a high note, as the Light Stellar Bridge was constructed, reverse engineering the prothean tech, Humanity entered the Alpha Centauri system in a total of 4 years.
In the dawn of the 23rd century the light bridge was all but removed early on with the discovery of the then called Stellar Bridge Network, now known by the common term of Mass Relay's. With this discover Humanity slowly expanded from the Arcturus system and into all active relays with the worlds within them. However the expansion by relay was slow and steady, to Humanity it was clearly a snatch and grab of what they could, however they couldn't stay sustained on such a system. Thankfully by 2219, the scientist Tobias Fleming Shaw and Wallace Fujikawa invented one of Humanities greatest technologies, the Translight Engine. While it was slower than the Relays and required the use of cyro sleep, the initial slipspace engines allowed Humanity to go off the grid of the Relays, and with it colonize several new world,s including the current power house of Reach. Within this time Humanity not only knew they were not alone, but they made first contact. In 2235 the UNSC opened a relay leading into a neutral system, things were not clear and sent forces didn't come back or lost connection, fearing an invasion the UNSC sent a fleet commanded by Wallace Winfield to investigate. What they discovered though was that a synthetic race known as the Geth were jamming communication, mostly out of curiosity.
As it turned out, the Geth were investigating pathways way from another interstellar body when they were discovered by an ONI prowler that was scouting the other side. It was clearly a new species, and the geth were clearly not behind what is known as the Perseus Veil. Morally the geth decided to risk the platforms present and jam any communication and wait for a response. What they didn't expect was that Wallace would have the ships A.I send them a message. The Geth were suspecting that an advanced V.I network was present in system, they didn't know it was an A.I. The knowledge that the Human race created synthetic beings that were considered equals and treated well was surprising, and this eased much of the initial tension. After weeks of talk and a few months of hiatus, the UEG and Geth created an easy alliance out of the desires for mutual beneficial trade and possible diplomatic benefits.
2248 marked the beginning of Humanities first true conflict; The planet Shanxi was a polished colony, and it was what was labeled as a dead center. one of the minor relays in the system was deactivated and it was the subject of the start of research into relays, by doing basic linear positioning, UNSC scientist found its opposing relay and began research on both ends, with decently far away stations built to put research into the super structure and learn about them. However during a routine test, the relay activated, and within moments alien vessels appeared, the station and its small fleet were destroyed after they sent a first contact package to the aliens, who ignored it and pursued conflict, this began the First Contact War. The war was one between Humanity and the Turians, the incidental relay activation is illegal under Citadel law, and the brash Turian commander brought it upon himself to dictate how its interpreted on other species. The Turian commander swiftly destroyed the station on the other sided and amassed a large fleet to take what he thought was Humanities homeworld.
The Fleet battle for Shanxi was brutal and lasted hours until the Turians forced a retreat of the Human defenders, word was sent to Arcturus though due to Turian experience, they began jamming it, a second battle would take place over Shanxi as the ODP network went to combat the invading fleet. The Turians eventually won out using their FTL to tactically zip behind the network and fire from behind, with this the Turians decided to initiate a move to force the UNSC forces ground side to surrender, hopefully though intimidation. As this happened the Turian Admiral sent a message asking for reinforcements, which caught the attention of an interesting third part in that of the Turian Councilor to the Citadel, Sparatus Acteiros. While specifics are not known, internal political issues lead to the arrival of a Turian spectre who would bring the conflict into a more grey line instead of the more clear war time issue initially brought up.
In Shanxi's capital of Juniper, a small fire team under the 31st Marine Battalion made hard contact against the Turian invaders upon the then evacuated bridge leading into the city, as they made contact with the enemy reports flooded the battle network as Turian forces dropped into the save zones around the planet and started making ground, pushing the Planetary Guard back before the army could respond. As the only true equals in the area, the Marines under the direct authority of Staff Sergeant Adam Lowell engaged the Turian forces on the Bridge, stalling the east side invasion long enough for the Army and remaining Planetary Guard in the capital to set up defenses and help civilians get to bunkers. Sergeant Lowell and his men held out against the rising Turian forces for an hour before they had to retreat, Lowell making what he considered a necessary sacrifice, detonated the units entire supply of C8 explosives, preventing Turian vehicles to progress (This would ironically bring into the use of jump jets into Turian military vehicle designs to compensate for such plans in the future.)
Within the onset of the war, cities began falling faster and faster as the Turian military gained complete air dominance over the region, as the Turian military pushed, the Army pushed back. The Turian forces were getting angered as UNSC forces kept killing more Turians than they themselves could get a casualty. However this could break and the Turians adapted to the Armies tactics in quick succession. As the initial conflict began to end and the occupation started, one last tale began to give hope for the defenders. During the end of the initial siege, a Marine named Tadius Ahern was sent with a small squad to retrieve a data module from a shot down Gunship, only to be beset by dozens of Turian soldiers. With just a couple of defense turrets to assist them, a small strong choke point and no cover, Ahern and his men managed to fight the Turians off for five minutes until their evac arrived. While this marked the end of UNSC resistance, General Williams would initiate a Guerrilla campaign to fend of the invaders.
The Planets Government was put under arrest, with their family getting a lighter sentence, especially the children, with confirmation by the Government the civilians were placed under Turian rule and were to return to as normal of a life as possible as things settled out. This is when things began to become a nightmare for the Turians. What remained of the Army and Marines helped the police and Planetary Guard get into shape, they recruited civilians subtly and got their act together, taking note of Koslovic - and begrudgingly - Freidan tactics, the UNSC forces made Turian occupation hell. Corporal Shepard alone damaged Turian supplies of food and ammunition and power, as well as subterfuge and assassination on prime targets. The people were hopeful that things would return to normal soon, and as this continued, the Turian spectre arrived. While the initial warning was silenced, the very occupation itself is what would doom the Turians here. Shanxi went silent and was near Arcturus on the relay map, and there were no signs of trade attempted, when a missing freighter sent to Shanxi made an attempt to communicate with an emergency system, DEFCON was raised to maximum and war was on the horizon.
As the Turian Admiral prepared to expand the invasion to the relay nexus at Arcturus, the guerrilla fighting on Shanxi angered a Turian General by the name of Desolas Arterius, enough for him to order orbital strike's on the capital of the world, major damage and moral support was lost, but this action gave Humanity a keen ally. Orbital bombardment of civilian targets was strictly banned by the Citadel, and under Turian law any caught doing it were to be disgraced and removed of their rank in society, under this law, the Turian spectre Varhirus Mesilius began a counter campaign and called in assets from the Council for a strict undercover support of the locals until they could get an official peace fleet sent. Within this space of time the Turian admiral invaded the Arcturus relay expecting an easy victory, however he met a massive defense fleet, and angry survivors. The appearance of Dreadnaughts made the Admiral question himself and his fleet was lost in the resulting hours of conflict which saw a decisive UNSC victory.
By the end of that month a Prowler managed to get details on the Turian fleet stationed around Shanxi, as well, a small detachment of Spectres under an STG ship arrived to support the locals indirectly, the mission was a humanitarian one, but they would merely become observers of a greater battle. After the powerful defense at Arcturus, Admiral Kastanie Drescher arrived at Shanxi with a fleet twice the size of the Turians, using slipspace to catch the Turians off balance. The UNSC Pacific Class Carrier was a new ship and it would forever change galactic warfare, the observing STG ship would see that it brought with it, a full wing of fighters, interceptors, and bombers, and thanks to this, the bolstered force quickly overran the Turians own equivalents, the fleet sent was a fleet built up from Reach, the metaphorical Spartans of the modern age. With the Turian ships fighting hard to survive the UNSC attack, the Turians planetside were caught off guard by a new UNSC arrival, the ODST's.
ODST's or Orbital Drop Shock Troopers were a new special forces, bred for hardship, and screened from the best of the best, unmatched they easily decimated Turian infantry, and their performance was slightly better than the Turians own special forces. The ODST's quickly took out all anti air over their deployment areas and allowed UNSC forces to move in closer, dropping Marines, tanks, and so on into the battle. It was at this point that General Williams gave his last order to his temporary Marine squads. The Marines of red squad, now nicknamed David were to sent out to capture the Turians headquarters on the planet. However the information was fault and they fell for a decoy, Shepard was captured and about to be executed until the Turian Spectre managed to take his own people out. When Shepard came to, the Turian Spectre gave him directions to the actual headquarters of the General. General Desolas was taking residence in a skyscraper near the cities lake, under the lie that Shepard was personally captured by Mesilius, the two managed to make it to Desolas himself, they planned their capture but things didn't meet their expectations, when they went for the take down Desolas's guards managed to arrive to intervene, Desolas made it into a Turian gunship and opened fire himself. A mass accelerator from orbit would hit the building under Desolas's orders, from what can be reported, the Spectre jumped and caught the gunship, clinging to it as it escaped while Shepard jumped from the skyscraper, landing through a building and requiring medical help from a Marine detachment that made their way to his local. Shepard and the Marines would make their way to a crashed gunship, there they found Mesilius standing over a defeated Desolas.
After the battle for Shanxi was over, the spectre was taken as a prisoner of war with Desolas, but treated well as his situation was for political reasons, deciding that the UNSC cannot look weak in these circumstances, and that the Turians needed to pay, the UNSC found the location of a Turian industrial world and would make a counter attack soon after, decimating Turian ship production in the resulting conflict. Before the war could escalate however, the Citadel Council properly made contact and deescalated the situation before it could get out of hand and cause a galactic war that could endanger the balance made by the Council. Initial political communication was brief, however the UNSC managed to agree for the end of hostilities and would have the UEG send a diplomat to the Citadel to bring the issue to closure. Ambassador Anita Goyle was the first Human to set foot on the Citadel and she acted as Humanities first ambassador to the Citadel, under agreements between the two parties, the Turians payed for the attack on Shanxi, as well the UNSC agreed that the members who decided the counter attack would be demoted for their actions. Because of the First Contact War, Humanity gained a quick boost into the galactic economy, giving them polarity with the Elcor government until recently when Humanity made a leap to equality to the Batarian Hegemony.
It wasn't until recently that the Citadel and UEG made an official treaty bringing the UEG as a member of the Citadel. The UEG would have been introduced much quicker if it wasn't for several reasons. First of all the UNSC fleet and Dreadnaught percentage already outmatched other non council species, and after the First Contact War, Humanity wasn't willing to lower their numbers, and damage their economy or defense. Next was both their use of A.I and their alliance with the Geth, the Citadel previously had no success trying to communicate with the Geth and believed A.I to be hostile, as well A.I are illegal under Council law, the UNSC has noted they will freely engage in a offensive operation if any action against what they considering Humanities children, and rising citizens. The next issue was of Humanities technology and how it could disrupt the Councils economy and structure with ease. As issues continued to rise and politics damped the waters, it was finally reached into agreement to make a special case for Humanity, due to the situation they were in. What was obviously a power play for advanced technologies outside that of Eezo, as well as to easily begin regulating the technology in Citadel space, was lost on some, and this angered the Batarian Hegemony.
As Humanity settled into its new position as a medium power with strong military presence, and with both Slipspace and relays to explore, Humanity began to colonize further. The Asari Republics was the first species to receive slipspace, and the Salarians, A.I methods, the Turians received Humanities Magnetic Accelerator technology. This power play made them more likely to support them as Humanity began colonizing the Attican Traverse, territory the Batarians were already slowly spreading into. After the war, Shepard became a member of the ODST's due to his heroic acts of valor and unmatched skill in combat and adaption, his first deployment was seen on the colony of Mindoir, which recently was attacked by Pirates from the Terminus Systems. He managed to lesson the Pirates blows and along with several other forces, he retook the colonist during a counter invasion. Currently the UNSC, and the civilian government within the UEG are working on a joint investigation with the Salarian STG to see if this is tied to the Batarian Hegemony, who has denied all relations to the Pirates; The UEG is still colonizing the Attican Traverse as we speak.