by Max Barry

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by The Iɱαɠιɳαɾყ Cσυɳƚɾყ of New Anarchisticstan. . 20 reads.

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Connections in Science: Waves, Quantum Physics

Internet Connections

WiFi technologies make use of radio waves. Routers and devices send radio waves back and forth between each other. How this works is, the
⠀device converts the data into amplified radio waves using a modulator. Then, the router receives the waves and decodes the data. In the opposite
⠀transfer, routers send amplified radio waves, and the device decodes them using a demodulator. While radio waves travel at the speed of light,
⠀connection problems mostly happen with how many radio waves are produced per second. A bad router would only produce a few a second.
⠀The speed of the demodulator can also affect connections: this is why some devices are slow even with good wifi! Another thing to consider
⠀is the fact that radio waves propagate, making them weaker. This is why you cannot use your WiFi while on the opposite side of the Earth.

Quantum Entanglement
⠀The definition of 'particle' is debated in the world of quantum physics, but the broad definition is "a fundamental bit of matter". Examples are
⠀electrons, muons, and photons. Now, to measure the specific position of a particle in a specific time, we use 4 quantum number, but for now, we
⠀will only look at one: quantum spin. Think of spin as a ball spinning vertically... Except it's not spinning. Let's say it can spin in the UP and
⠀DOWN direction. In most quantum particles, a particle spins in both at the same time, and this is called superposition. Think of it as a coin
⠀spinning on a table: it's both heads and tails. However, if you interact with the coin in any way, it falls over, and becomes either heads or tails.
⠀The same thing is with quantum spin: if you measure a particle's spin, it will only become 1 specific spin. This is called 'collapse of
⠀the wave function'. For example:
⠀a particle can be affected by superposition, but if you measure the spin to be DOWN, then it's now spinning down, not in both directions. At
⠀times, 2 particles can become entangled; a simpler word would be 'connected'. They are both in a state of superposition of spin directions.
⠀However, if you measure the spin of one particle, then the other one becomes the opposite spin. For example, if the spin of one is UP, the
⠀other one's spin is going to be DOWN. How does all of this benefit us? Well, the entanglement between these 2 particles does not have a latency;
⠀a change in one causes an instant change in another. If entanglement were to be replicated on a macro scale, we'd be able to create ultra precise
⠀contraptions such as clocks and encryption systems.

Higgs' Field: Connected Everywhere
⠀Light, heavy. There are light things, such as a bottle, or heavy things, such as a mother. However, there are also massless things, such as
⠀light itself. So, what gives those things the property of mass? This all comes to Higgs' field. Now, what is a field? In simple words, it is a region
⠀that can be attributed to a physical quantity. The electromagnetic field is attributed to light, and there's a field for speed and direction. In the same
⠀way, the Higgs' field is attributed with mass. Every field has particles and waves associated with them... So, in order for scientists to prove the
⠀existence of the Higgs' field, they had to discover a particle associated with the Higgs' field: the Higgs' boson. It was successfully discovered in
⠀2012, by the collision of high energy particles in the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator owned by CERN. The Higgs' boson followed its
⠀predicted theoretical properties: a spin of 0, a symmetrical structure, and the property of being a scalar particle. How the Higgs' field works is,
⠀when a particle interacts with the field, it gains mass. The more it interacts, the more mass it gains. The only particle that does not have any
⠀mass is the photon, and this is explained by the fact that it does not interact with the Higgs' field. This leads to one conclusion: the Higgs field
⠀must be everywhere in the Universe, since mass is everywhere.