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by The Revolutionary Unitary State of Polish Grand Republic. . 81 reads.

Federal Slavic Republic of Yugoslavia (LCV RP)

Federal Slavic Republic of Yugoslavia

Федерална Славицска Република Југославије
(Serbo-Croatian Cyrillic)

Federalna Slavicska Republika Jugoslavije
(Serbo-Croatian Latin)

Tribute video: LinkEveryone misses Socialist Yugoslavia, but I prefer this...


National Flag

High-quality version can be found Linkhere

Flag waving in Belgrade.


Coat of Arms


Economic classification: Social Capitalism



Motto: Brotherhood and Unity

Anthem: LinkХеј, Словени/Hej, Sloveni (Serbo-Croatian)

Hey, Slavs (English)


Capital: Belgrade


Language(s): Serbo-Croatian (official), English (mandatory curricular), Slovene, Hungarian, Romanian, Slovak


Government: Federal Republic under Right-Wing Military Dictatorship

- President: LinkGen. Florijan Malešević

For the full list, click this link

- Vice President: LinkGen. Radovan Bulatović

- House Speaker: Vladana Pejakovski


Population: 53,038,290 (mainland alone)

6,081,904 (Dominion of Venetia)

59,120,194 (overall total)


Demonym(s): Yugoslavian/Yugoslav


Currency: Yugoslav Dinar


Census:

Religious Affiliations

Christianity: 90%

- Roman Catholicism: 45%

- Eastern Orthodoxy: 43%

- Non-religious: 10%

- Other Christians: 2%

Islam: 10%

- Sunni Islam: 70%

- Non-religious: 20%

- Shia Islam: 10%


Racial Demographics

White: 98%

Mixed-race: 1%

Asian: 1%

History


Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The country was formed in 1918 immediately after World War I as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes by the union of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs, and the Kingdom of Serbia. It was commonly referred to at the time as the "Versailles State". Later, the government renamed the country leading to the first official use of Yugoslavia in 1929.

King Alexander

On 20 June 1928, Serb deputy Puniša Račić shot at five members of the opposition Croatian Peasant Party in the National Assembly, resulting in the death of two deputies on the spot and that of leader Stjepan Radić a few weeks later. On 6 January 1929, King Alexander I got rid of the constitution, banned national political parties, assumed executive power, and renamed the country Yugoslavia. He hoped to curb separatist tendencies and mitigate nationalist passions. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in 1931. However, Alexander's policies later encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, and the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin became absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact, Italy and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, and the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy.

Alexander attempted to create a centralized Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, and new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas. The banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were jailed or kept under police surveillance. The effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity. During his reign, the flags of Yugoslav nations were banned. Communist ideas were banned also.

The King was assassinated in Marseille during an official visit to France in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, an experienced marksman from Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization with the cooperation of the Ustaše, a Croatian fascist revolutionary organization. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin, Prince Paul.

1930s

The international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes, and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was loosing its strongholds and its sponsors were losing their strength. Supported and pressured by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, Croatian leader Vladko Maček and his party managed the creation of the Banovina of Croatia (an autonomous Region with significant internal self-government) in 1939. The agreement specified that Croatia was to remain part of Yugoslavia, but it was hurriedly building an independent political identity in international relations. The entire Kingdom was to be federalized but World War II stopped the fulfillment of those plans.

Prince Paul submitted to the fascist pressure and signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna on 25 March 1941, hoping to still keep Yugoslavia out of the war. But this was at the expense of popular support for Paul's regency. Senior military officers were also opposed to the treaty and launched a coup d'état when the king returned on 27 March. Army General Dušan Simović seized power, arrested the Vienna delegation, exiled Paul, and ended the regency, giving 17-year-old King Peter full powers. Hitler then decided to attack Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941, followed immediately by an invasion of Greece where Mussolini had previously been repelled.

World War II

At 5:12 AM on 6 April 1941, German, Italian and Hungarian forces invaded Yugoslavia. The German Air Force (Luftwaffe) bombed Belgrade and other major Yugoslav cities. On 17 April, representatives of Yugoslavia's various regions signed an armistice with Germany in Belgrade, ending eleven days of resistance against the invading German forces. More than 300,000 Yugoslav officers and soldiers were taken, prisoner.

The Axis Powers occupied Yugoslavia and split it up. The Independent State of Croatia was established as a Nazi satellite state, ruled by the fascist militia known as the Ustaše that came into existence in 1929 but was relatively limited in its activities until 1941. German troops occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as part of Serbia and Slovenia, while other parts of the country were occupied by Bulgaria, Hungary, and Italy. From 1941 to 1945, the Croatian Ustaše regime murdered around 500,000 people, 250,000 were expelled, and another 200,000 were forced to convert to Catholicism.

From the start, the Yugoslav resistance forces consisted of two factions: the communist-led Yugoslav Partisans and the royalist Chetniks, with the former receiving Allied recognition only at the Tehran conference (1943). The heavily pro-Serbian Chetniks were led by Draža Mihajlović, while the pan-Yugoslav-oriented Partisans were led by Josip Broz Tito.

The Partisans initiated a guerrilla campaign that developed into the largest resistance army in occupied Western and Central Europe. The Chetniks were initially supported by the exiled royal government and the Allies, but they soon focused increasingly on combating the Partisans rather than the occupying Axis forces. By the end of the war, the Chetnik movement transformed into a collaborationist Serb nationalist militia completely dependent on Axis supplies. The highly mobile Partisans, however, carried on their guerrilla warfare with great success. Most notable of the victories against the occupying forces were the battles of Neretva and Sutjeska.

On 25 November 1942, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia was convened in Bihać, modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The council reconvened on 29 November 1943, in Jajce, also in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and established the basis for the post-war organization of the country, establishing a federation (this date was celebrated as Republic Day after the war).

The Yugoslav Partisans were able to expel the Axis from Serbia in 1944 and the rest of Yugoslavia in 1945. The Red Army provided limited assistance with the liberation of Belgrade and withdrew after the war was over. In May 1945, the Partisans met with Allied forces outside former Yugoslav borders, after also taking over Trieste and parts of the southern Austrian provinces of Styria and Carinthia. However, the Partisans withdrew from Trieste in June of the same year under heavy pressure from Stalin, who did not want a confrontation with the other Allies.

Western attempts to reunite the Partisans, who denied the supremacy of the old government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the émigrés loyal to the King led to the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in June 1944; however, Marshal Josip Broz Tito was in control, and was determined to lead an independent communist state, starting as a prime minister. He had the support of Moscow and London and led by far the strongest partisan force with 800,000 men.

The official Yugoslav post-war estimate of victims in Yugoslavia during World War II is 1,704,000. Subsequent data gathering in the 1980s by historians Vladimir Žerjavić and Bogoljub Kočović showed that the actual number of dead was about 1 million.

Socialist Yugoslavia

On 11 November 1945, elections were held with only the Communist-led People's Front appearing on the ballot, securing all 354 seats. On 29 November, while still in exile, King Peter II was deposed by Yugoslavia's Constituent Assembly, and the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was declared. However, he refused to abdicate. Marshal Tito was now in full control, and all opposition elements were eliminated.

On 31 January 1946, the new constitution of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, modeled after the constitution of the Soviet Union, established six Republics, an autonomous province, and an autonomous district that was part of Serbia. The federal capital was Belgrade. The policy focused on a strong central government under the control of the Communist Party, and on recognition of multiple nationalities. The flags of the Republics used versions of the red flag or Slavic tricolor, with a red star in the center or in the canton.

Tito's regional goal was to expand south and take control of Albania and parts of Greece. In 1947, negotiations between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria led to the Bled agreement, which proposed to form a close relationship between the two Communist countries and enable Yugoslavia to start a civil war in Greece and use Albania and Bulgaria as bases. Stalin vetoed this agreement and it was never realized. The break between Belgrade and Moscow was now imminent.

Yugoslavia solved the national issue of nations and nationalities (national minorities) in a way that all nations and nationalities had the same rights. However, most of the German minority of Yugoslavia, most of whom had collaborated during the occupation and had been recruited to German forces, were expelled to Germany or Austria.

Yugoslav-Soviet Split

The country distanced itself from the Soviets in 1948 (cf. Cominform and Informbiro) and started to build its own way to socialism under the strong political leadership of Josip Broz Tito. Accordingly, the constitution was heavily amended to replace the emphasis on democratic centralism with workers' self-management and decentralization. The Communist Party was renamed the League of Communists and adopted Titoism at its congress the previous year.

All the Communist European Countries had deferred to Stalin and rejected the Marshall Plan aid in 1947. Tito, at first went along and rejected the Marshall plan. However, in 1948 Tito broke decisively with Stalin on other issues, making Yugoslavia an independent communist state. Yugoslavia requested American aid. American leaders were internally divided, but finally agreed and began sending money on a small scale in 1949 and on a much larger scale in 1950 - 1953. The American aid was not part of the Marshall plan.

Tito criticized both Eastern Bloc and NATO nations and, together with India and other countries, started the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961, which remained the official affiliation of the country until it dissolved.

In 1974, the two provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija (for the latter had by then been upgraded to the status of a province), as well as the Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, were granted greater autonomy to the point that Albanian and Hungarian became nationally recognized minority languages, and the Serbo-Croat of Bosnia and Montenegro altered to a form based on the speech of the local people and not on the standards of Zagreb and Belgrade. In Slovenia, the recognized minorities were Hungarians and Italians.

Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija formed a part of the Republic of Serbia but those provinces also formed part of the federation, which led to the unique situation that Central Serbia did not have its own assembly but a joint assembly with its provinces represented in it.

Mid-20th Century

On 7 April 1963, the nation changed its official name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Josip Broz Tito was named President for life. In the SFRY, each republic and province had its own constitution, supreme court, parliament, President, and prime minister. At the top of the Yugoslav government were the President (Tito), the federal Prime Minister, and the federal Parliament (a collective Presidency was formed after Tito's death in 1980). Also important were the Communist Party's general secretaries for each republic and province, and the general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.

Tito was the most powerful person in the country, followed by Republican and Provincial Premiers and Presidents, and Communist Party Presidents. Slobodan Penezić Krcun, Tito's chief of the secret police in Serbia, fell victim to a dubious traffic incident after he started to complain about Tito's politics. Minister of the interior Aleksandar Ranković lost all of his titles and rights after a major disagreement with Tito regarding state politics. Some influential ministers in government, such as Edvard Kardelj or Stane Dolanc, were more important than the Prime Minister.

First cracks in the tightly governed system surfaced when students in Belgrade and several other cities joined the worldwide protests of 1968. President Josip Broz Tito gradually stopped the protests by giving in to some of the students' demands and saying that "students are right" during a televised speech. But in the following years, he dealt with the leaders of the protests by sacking them from university and Communist party posts.

A more severe sign of disobedience was the so-called Croatian Spring of 1970 and 1971 when students in Zagreb organized demonstrations for greater civil liberties and greater Croatian autonomy, followed by mass manifestations across Croatia. The regime stifled public protest and incarcerated the leaders, but many key Croatian representatives in the Party silently supported this cause, lobbying within the Party ranks for a reorganization of the country. As a result, a new Constitution was ratified in 1974, which gave more rights to the individual Republics in Yugoslavia and provinces in Serbia.

Ethnic Tensions

The Yugoslav federation was constructed against a double background: an inter-war Yugoslavia which had been dominated by the Serbian ruling class; and a war-time division of the country, as Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany split the country apart and endorsed an extreme Croatian nationalist faction called the Ustaše. A small faction of Bosniak nationalists joined the Axis forces and attacked Serbs while extreme Serb nationalists engaged in attacks on Bosniaks and Croats.

Yugoslav Partisans took over the country at the end of the war and banned nationalism from being publicly promoted. Overall relative peace was retained under Tito's rule, though nationalist protests did occur, these were usually repressed and nationalist leaders were arrested and some were executed by Yugoslav officials. However, the "Croatian Spring" protest in the 1970s was backed by large numbers of Croats who claimed that Yugoslavia remained a Serb hegemony and demanded that Serbia's powers be reduced.

Tito, whose home republic was Croatia, was concerned over the stability of the country and responded in a manner to appease both Croats and Serbs: he ordered the arrest of the Croat protestors, while at the same time conceding to some of their demands. In 1974, Serbia's influence in the country was significantly reduced as autonomous provinces were created in ethnic Albanian-majority populated Kosovo and the mixed-populated Vojvodina.

These autonomous provinces held the same voting power as the Republics but unlike the Republics, they could not legally separate from Yugoslavia. This concession satisfied Croatia and Slovenia, but in Serbia and in the new autonomous province of Kosovo, the reaction was different. Serbs saw the new constitution as conceding to Croat and ethnic Albanian nationalists. Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo saw the creation of an autonomous province as not being enough and demanded that Kosovo become a constituent republic with the right to separate from Yugoslavia. This created tensions within the Communist leadership, particularly among Communist Serb officials who resented the 1974 constitution as weakening Serbia's influence and jeopardizing the unity of the country by allowing the Republics the right to separate.

According to official statistics, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Yugoslavia was among the fastest growing countries, approaching the ranges reported in South Korea and other miracle countries. The unique socialist system in Yugoslavia, where factories were worker cooperatives and decision-making was less centralized than in other socialist countries, may have led to stronger growth. However, even if the absolute value of the growth rates was not as high as indicated by the official statistics, both the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia were characterized by surprisingly high growth rates in both income and education during the 1950s.

The period of European growth ended after the oil price shock in the 1970s. Following that, in Yugoslavia, an economic crisis erupted, which was a product of disastrous errors by Yugoslav governments, such as borrowing vast amounts of Western capital to fund growth through exports. At the same time, Western economies went into recession, decreasing demand for Yugoslav imports, and creating a large debt problem.

In 1989, according to official sources, 248 firms were declared bankrupt or were liquidated and 89,400 workers were laid off. During the first nine months of 1990 directly following the adoption of the IMF program, another 889 enterprises with a combined workforce of 525,000 workers suffered the same fate. In other words, in less than two years "the trigger mechanism" (under the Financial Operations Act) had led to the layoff of more than 600,000 workers out of a total industrial workforce of the order of 2.7 million. An additional 20% of the workforce, or half a million people, were not paid wages during the early months of 1990 as enterprises sought to avoid bankruptcy. The largest concentrations of bankrupt firms and lay-offs were in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Kosovo. Real earnings were in a free fall and social programs had collapsed; creating within the population an atmosphere of social despair and hopelessness. This was a critical turning point in the events to follow.

Impending Collapse

After Tito's death on 4 May 1980, ethnic tensions grew in Yugoslavia. The legacy of the Constitution of 1974 was used to throw the system of decision-making into a state of paralysis, made all the more hopeless as the conflict of interests had become irreconcilable. The Albanian majority in Kosovo demanded the status of a republic in the 1981 protests in Kosovo while Serbian authorities suppressed this sentiment and proceeded to reduce the province's autonomy.

In 1986, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts drafted a memorandum addressing some burning issues concerning the position of Serbs as the most numerous people in Yugoslavia. The largest Yugoslav republic in territory and population, Serbia's influence over the regions of Kosovo and Vojvodina was reduced by the 1974 Constitution. Because its two autonomous provinces had de facto prerogatives of full-fledged Republics, Serbia found that its hands were tied, for the republican government was restricted in making and carrying out decisions that would apply to the provinces. Since the provinces had a vote in the Federal Presidency Council (an eight-member council composed of representatives from the six Republics and the two autonomous provinces), they sometimes even entered into a coalition with other Republics, thus outvoting Serbia. Serbia's political impotence made it possible for others to exert pressure on the 2 million Serbs (20% of the total Serbian population) living outside Serbia.

Serbian communist leader Slobodan Milošević sought to restore pre-1974 Serbian sovereignty. After Tito's death, Milošević made his way to becoming the next superior figure and political official for Serbia. Other Republics, especially Slovenia and Croatia, denounced this move as a revival of greater Serbian hegemonism. Through a series of moves known as the "anti-bureaucratic revolution", Milošević succeeded in reducing the autonomy of Vojvodina and of Kosovo and Metohija, but both entities retained a vote in the Yugoslav Presidency Council. The very instrument that reduced Serbian influence before was now used to increase it: in the eight-member Council, Serbia could now count on four votes at a minimum: Serbia proper, then-loyal Montenegro, Vojvodina, and Kosovo.

As a result of these events, ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo organized the 1989 Kosovo miners' strike, which dovetailed into an ethnic conflict between the Albanians and the non-Albanians in the province. At around 80% of the population of Kosovo in the 1980s, ethnic Albanians were the majority. With Milosevic gaining control over Kosovo in 1989, the original residency changed drastically leaving only a minimum amount of Serbians left in the region. The number of Slavs in Kosovo (mainly Serbs) was quickly declining for several reasons, among them the ever-increasing ethnic tensions and subsequent emigration from the area. By 1999 the Slavs formed as little as 10% of the total population in Kosovo.

Meanwhile, Slovenia, under the presidency of Milan Kučan, and Croatia supported the Albanian miners and their struggle for formal recognition. Initial strikes turned into widespread demonstrations demanding a Kosovan republic. This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later even the Federal Army was sent to the province by the order of the Serbia-held majority in the Yugoslav Presidency Council.

In January 1990, the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was convened. For most of the time, the Slovene and Serbian delegations were arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia. The Serbian delegation, led by Milošević, insisted on a policy of "one person, one vote", which would empower the plurality population, the Serbs. In turn, the Slovenes, supported by Croats, sought to reform Yugoslavia by devolving even more power to Republics but were voted down. As a result, the Slovene and Croatian delegations left the Congress and the all-Yugoslav Communist party was dissolved.

The constitutional crisis that inevitably followed resulted in a rise of nationalism in all Republics: Slovenia and Croatia voiced demands for looser ties within the Federation. Following the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, each of the Republics held multi-party elections in 1990. Slovenia and Croatia held the elections in April since their communist parties chose to cede power peacefully. Other Yugoslav Republics - especially Serbia - were more or less dissatisfied with the democratization in two of the Republics and proposed different sanctions (ex. Serbian "customs tax" for Slovene products) against the two, but as the year progressed, other Republics' communist parties saw the inevitability of the democratization process; in December, as the last member of the federation, Serbia held parliamentary elections which confirmed former communists' rule in this republic.

Unresolved issues remained. In particular, Slovenia and Croatia elected governments oriented towards greater autonomy of the Republics (under Milan Kučan and Franjo Tuđman, respectively) since it became clear that Serbian domination attempts and increasingly different levels of democratic standards were becoming increasingly incompatible. Serbia and Montenegro elected candidates who favored Yugoslav unity.

The Croat quest for independence led to large Serb communities within Croatia rebelling and trying to secede from the Croat republic. Serbs in Croatia would not accept a status of a national minority in a sovereign Croatia, since they would be demoted from the status of a constituent nation of the entirety of Yugoslavia.

Coup D'état and End of Socialism

On 23 June 1991, a military coup calling themselves the National Salvation Union led by Gen. Florijan Malešević ousted President Slobodan Milošević from power in an attempt to save the Yugoslav Union from collapsing. Almost immediately, the junta made Slovenia's and Croatia's desire for election null and void and pursued a crackdown on secessionists. The junta takeover angered many secessionist Slovenes and Croats when the junta cracked down on their independence. Both Serb and Bosnian Serb nationalists were also angered by the sudden military takeover as Gen. Florijan Malešević himself was Croatian and the Serb nationalists thought the Serbs were being undermined.

The ousted Slobodan Milošević began to lead the Serb nationalists and opted for an independent Serb state. A series of repression was conducted by the junta to deter any ultra-nationalists and secessionists from taking hold. With the USSR's waning control over the Eastern Bloc, Gen. Florijan Malešević began an immediate de-communization that angered socialists and communists. This move was supported by the USA as such, and a move to make Yugoslavia transition from communism to a more capitalist free market economy.

In Bosnia, news reached out that both Serb nationalists and the junta were undertaking huge atrocities against the Bosniak Muslims. By July 1991, the entire country was in chaos. On July 27, 1991, The Yugoslav Civil War has begun.

Yugoslav Civil War

In September 1991, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia overpowered the Yugoslav Federal Army and successfully declared independence, becoming the only former Republic to gain sovereignty without resistance from the Belgrade-based Yugoslav authorities. 500 US soldiers were then deployed under the UN banner to monitor Macedonia's northern borders with the Republic of Serbia. Macedonia's first President, Kiro Gligorov, maintained good relations with Belgrade and the other breakaway Republics and there have to date been no problems between Macedonian and Serbian border police even though small pockets of Kosovo and the Preševo valley complete the northern reaches of the historical region known as Macedonia (Prohor Pčinjski part), which would otherwise create a border dispute if ever Macedonian nationalism should resurface (see VMRO). This was despite the fact that the Yugoslav Federal Army refused to abandon its military infrastructure on the top of the Straža Mountain up to the year 2000.

As a result of the conflict, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution 721 on 27 November 1991, which paved the way for the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina in November 1991, the Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favor of forming a Serbian Republic within the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and staying in a common state with Serbia and Montenegro. On 9 January 1992, the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate "Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina". The referendum and creation of SARs were proclaimed unconstitutional by the military government of Yugoslavia and declared illegal and invalid. In February-March 1992, the government held a national referendum on Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia. To the dismay of the Bosniaks and Bosnian Serbs, the referendum was tampered with by the ruling junta to mask the legibility of Bosnia's independence. The Bosnian secessionists declared their immediate and unrecognized independence on 5 April 1991, and the Serbs immediately declared the independence of Republika Srpska. The war in Bosnia followed shortly thereafter, and soon the bloodshed spread throughout the nation.

21st Century

The ruling military government led by Gen. Malešević ultimately won the Yugoslav Civil War with the help of US and UK backing. The civil war was officially over on November 12, 2001, after 10 years 3 months 17 days of bloodshed. Yugoslavia faced a massive exodus of its population, mostly ethnic Serbs and Bosniaks, to neighboring countries and especially to the USA. This mass exodus caused a significant shift in population in favor of the Croats who now basically carries the entire nation's economy alongside Slovenia. Gen. Malešević began a series of rapid economic reforms and more laws were enacted to forcefully de-communize the country and align itself more with the west.

Yugoslavia in the 21st century was among the poorest countries in Europe. However, that changed when a huge number of foreign investors flowed through the country in 2003 bringing unprecedented economic growth. Serbian dominance within Yugoslavia has greatly diminished and shifted to favor the Catholic north, or specifically speaking, Slovenia and Croatia, who now mostly contributes to Yugoslavia's economy and cultural representation. Gen. Malešević, a Croat himself, is also seen to favor Croatia and Slovenia.

Rapid De-Communization

Yugoslavia under Gen. Malešević saw the unprecedented era of rapid de-communization which ultimately led to the dismantling of dozens of communist/socialist symbols. Many statues of Lenin and Marx were either dismantled or destroyed, statues and images of Tito were left untouched, however, and some were moved to museums. The flying/displaying of the old Socialist Yugoslavia flag became illegal and would be fined about 10,000 Yugoslav Dinars if not followed.

Gen. Malešević, himself once a communist, became a staunch critic of communism later in his life, citing the very failure of communism's/socialism's failure to unite the Yugoslav ethnic groups and the failure to address economic slowdown prior to the civil war. Despite being a capitalist, Gen. Malešević regarded himself as a social capitalist (also known as rhine capitalism) as an alternate system to laissez-faire capitalism which he regarded as unfair and unsuitable. Gen. Malešević's social capitalist policies which included welfare reform and encouraged entrepreneurship largely kept the nation stable.

Yugoslavia in the 21st century played an active role to help eradicate communism, socialism, Marxism, and syndicalism worldwide and would often support anti-communist insurgency groups and potential military coups. To the dismay of some of Yugoslavia's people nostalgic for communism/socialism, the rightist military government actively suppresses their beliefs, and syndicalists are often hanged.

2008 Recession and WWIII

Yugoslavia was, along with many nations, have been affected by the 2008 recession. However, thanks to the social capitalist economic policies of the junta, Yugoslavia was not severely affected and was forced to pursue a temporary semi-autarkic policy to lessen the severity of the recession.

As housing prices continued to fall in the 2010s, the recession was re-branded as the "2nd Great Depression" as more nations struggle to fix their economies. Yugoslavia, on the other hand, remained afloat. Massive war threats around the world ensued as nations were unable to sustain their economic growth and were forced to declare war for more resources. Yugoslavia remained neutral and was saved by the impending doom.

The eventual nuclear war that would ultimately destroy half of the world came to reality, all nations were severely affected by the sudden loss of civilization. However, surviving countries, such as Yugoslavia, were lucky to survive.

Vatican in Exile

During the 3rd World War, the Italian peninsula descended into chaos and instability. The Vatican, led by Pope Leonardo I; the successor to Pope Francis, feared the Vatican's vulnerable position and chose to flee. The military regime of Yugoslavia contacted Pope Leonardo I to establish an exiled Vatican government in Zagreb where the Vatican can continue its function to lead the Roman Catholic Church. The Vatican's relocation to Yugoslavia was not received well by the Bosniaks and some Serb nationalists who feared the erasure of the nation's Muslim and Eastern Orthodox Christian heritage.

Post-3rd World War Era

Yugoslavia after the collapse of civilization became one of the most stable countries in what was left of the world. New nations were formed, but Yugoslavia maintained its sovereignty and existence. Yugoslavia became heavily involved in state politics worldwide as a bastion for anti-communism and anti-leftism. The nation established diplomatic and economic ties with Novatavia, Czechoslovak Federation, and Qing China by early 2022 and is expected to expand to other remaining and new nations.

On August 18, 2022, Yugoslavia dropped its claims on Macedonia as the latter joined the newly formed Novatavia. Many attempts to restore Macedonia to the Yugoslav Federation had failed, and Yugoslavia's army does not have the capacity to take down the Novatavian Army which slightly outnumbered that of Yugoslavia's entire armed forces.

Demographics


Yugoslavia had always been home to a very diverse population, not only in terms of national affiliation but also religious affiliation. Of the many religions, Islam, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, and Protestantism, as well as various Eastern Orthodox faiths, composed the religions of Yugoslavia, comprising over 40 in all. The religious demographics of Yugoslavia changed dramatically since World War II. A census taken in 1921 and later in 1948 showed that 99% of the population appeared to be deeply involved with their religion and practices. With postwar government programs of modernization and urbanization, the percentage of religious believers took a dramatic plunge. Connections between religious belief and nationality posed a serious threat to the post-war Communist government's policies on national unity and state structure. Although Yugoslavia became a nominally secular state, in contrast to other socialist states of the time, Catholic Church maintained an active role in the society of Yugoslavia, the Holy See normalized its relations with Yugoslavia by 1967 and worked together on stopping the Vietnam War. Likewise, the Serbian Orthodox Church received favorable treatment, and Yugoslavia did not engage in anti-religious campaigns to the extent of other countries in the Eastern Bloc.

After the rise of communism, a survey taken in 1964 showed that just over 70% of the total population of Yugoslavia considered themselves to be religious believers. The places of highest religious concentration were Kosovo with 91% and Bosnia and Herzegovina with 83.8%. The places of lowest religious concentration were Slovenia with 65.4%, Serbia with 63.7%, and Croatia with 63.6%. Religious differences between Orthodox Serbs and Macedonians, Catholic Croats and Slovenes, and Muslim Bosniaks and Albanians alongside the rise of nationalism contributed to the Yugoslav Civil War in 1991.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia had unitary policies, suppressed autonomy, and proclaimed the official ideology to be that Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Montenegrins, Macedonians, and Slovenes were tribes of one nation of Yugoslavs, to the heavy disagreement and resistance from Croats and other ethnic groups; this was interpreted as gradual Serbianization of Yugoslavia's non-Serb population. The ruling Communist Party of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was ideologically opposed to ethnic unitarism and royal hegemony, and instead promoted ethnic diversity and social Yugoslavism within the notion of "brotherhood and unity", while organizing the country as a federation.

The ousting of Slobodan Milošević by Gen. Malešević ultimately ended socialism and the socialist legacy of Yugoslavia. The rapid de-communization process initiated by the military government and successive anti-progressive policies of Gen. Malešević helped resurrected religiousness among Yugoslavs, especially Croats and Serbs. Religious affiliation among the population has doubled since the late 2000s and the country has been ranked as one of the most religious countries in the world.

On June 2024, after the inception of Hungary and Southern Slovakia as Yugoslavia's newest federal subjects, the historically Eastern Orthodox Yugoslavia for the first time in the nation's history became a Roman Catholic-majority country, this event along with the new Slavic Catholic immigrants from Austria-Hungary after the Central European War has led to a religious demographic shift that once again ignited ethnic and religious tensions.

Racially, Yugoslavia is almost homogenously white which is similar to its neighboring Eastern European countries, and in great contrast to multicultural Western Europe. However, there exists a small Asian community in the country due to Yugoslavia's economic boom in the early 21st century which attracted the nation to immigrants from other parts of the world. Controversially, the Yugoslav military junta has discouraged any immigration from Africa, citing as people from the region are linked with cultural incompatibility and violence which can be seen in Western Europe.

Federal Republics


The Federal Slavic Republic of Yugoslavia is divided and consists of five (now eight) Federal Republics. Originally six Republics, Macedonia was previously claimed as part of Yugoslavia since its independence on 8 September 1991. However, previous attempts of restoring Macedonia failed. With Macedonia joining Novatavia on August 18, 2022, there have been negotiations of buying Macedonia by Yugoslavia were initiated, but all failed. Gen. Florijan Malešević has officially dropped Yugoslavia's claims to Macedonia after many failed attempts to reunify it within the union. On May 27, 2023, Yugoslavia annexed Western Romania (Transylvania proper) from Austria-Hungary after the latter's defeat in the Central European War, Yugoslavia also claimed Southern Hungary as part of its spheres of influence. Yugoslavia's newest Federal Republic is currently the YFR Slovakia after the inception of Hungary then later Slovakia a year later.

The rump state of the Austro-Hungarian Republic collapsed on 8, 2024, due to mass revolutions and protests from the growing instability. In light of this, Germany seized control over the rest of Austria and Hungary erupted into a revolution and soon held a referendum to join Yugoslavia, which succeeded. After Slovakia's breakaway, the German Empire seized control of Slovakia's western portion; Polanas in the north; while the remaining southern part also held a referendum to join Yugoslavia that also succeeded. As of June 2024, Hungary and Southern Slovakia are Yugoslavia's newest federal subjects - the Yugoslav Federal Republic of Hungary was formally established on June 12, 2022, while the Yugoslav Federal Republic of Slovakia joined the union with Yugoslavia two weeks later after Hungary.

The Constitution of 2001 created several changes regarding the status of Yugoslavia's Republics and how they should be managed. During Socialist times, each Republic has its own President and a special seat in the United Nations. However, the new Constitution ratified in 2001 largely diminished each of the Republic's greater autonomy, and the executive federal head of each of the Republics was replaced by the Office of the Prime Minister since the President of the nation was made the supreme head of state. Each of the Yugoslav Republics' UN status was removed in favor of the federal government representing the entire country. Despite the move towards centralization, each of the Republics maintained its sovereignty.

Each Federal Republic has its own Prime Minister and is eligible for re-election after their 1st term ends. Voting for a Federal Prime Minister starts every October 3rd and the inauguration of the Federal Prime Ministers of each Federal Republic are inaugurated and take office every December 5.

As of current, Yuglsavia has a total of 8 Federal Republics, 5 of whom are core territories, 3 are non-core territories; 6 of whom are primarily Slavic and 2 are non-Slavic Federal Republics.

Flag

Name

Capital

Map

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Slovenia

Federal Capital: Ljubljana

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Croatia

Federal Capital: Zagreb

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Federal Capital: Sarajevo

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Serbia

Federal Capital: Belgrade

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Montenegro

Federal Capital: Podgorica

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Romania

Federal Capital: Timișoara

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Hungary

Federal Capital: Budapest

Yugoslav Federal Republic of Slovakia

Federal Capital: Košice


(Red indicates the YFR Slovakia's territory)

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Dominions


Dominions are self-ruling colonies but still have a connection to the host country, kind of like the Dominion of Canada. A Dominion slightly differed from a Commonwealth because of different laws regarding autonomy, kind of like why Australia is a Commonwealth and not a Dominion.

Yugoslavia's Dominions were created to limit the entry of non-Slavic territories to prevent the dilution of Yugoslavia's majority Slavic population. Moreover, all dominions are automatically allied to Yugoslavia as the dominions are subjected to Yugoslavian-friendly governments as well as full loyalty to Yugoslavia in exchange for partial but special autonomy.

In terms of foreign relations, the Dominions are automatically allies or friends to Yugoslavia's allied and friendly nations, and as such is also the same thing for enemies and rivals of Yugoslavia will also be rivals and enemies of Dominions.

The Dominion territories use the same currency as Yugoslavia, that is, the Yugoslav Dinar. Moreover, the Dominions can serve as Yugoslavia's economic resources, Yugoslavia helps build the Dominion territories' industries and economy in exchange for Yugoslavia taking a fair share of that Dominion's resources.

Flag

Name

Capital

Map

Dominion of Venetia

Capital: Venice

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Policies


Government


Semi-Authoritarian - The nation only holds elections at a local government level but does not hold elections on a national government level.


Military Junta - The nation operates under a military dictatorship.


Federalism - The nation is divided between federal subjects.


State Press - Only state-controlled media is permitted.


No Dissent - Public protests are illegal.


Pledge of Allegiance - The daily singing of an anthem or reciting of a pledge is compulsory in schools.


Anti-Communism - The nation pursues a policy of anti-communism.

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Society


Hetersoxesuality - Same-sex relationships are illegal.


Moderate Abortion Ban - Abortion is banned but only for limited circumstances.


Sex Education - School-age children receive mandatory sex education.


Cooperation between Church and State - The church remains separate from the state, but the government or state recognizes the church's role in society.


Public Prayer - Schools, wether public or private, are required to have a public prayer.

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Law & Order


Capital Punishment - Citizens may be executed for crimes.


Conscription - A period of military service is compulsory for all citizens.


Gun Ownership - All citizens are required to own a firearm.

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Economy


Social Capitalism - The nation uses a social capitalist and a well-regulated market economic model.


Maternity Leave - Mothers of newborn children received paid leave from employment.


No Drugs - All recreational drugs are prohibited.


Nuclear Power - The nation is nuclear powered.


Space Program - The nation runs a space program.


Metricism - The state mandates the use of the metric system.

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International


Good Neighbor Policy - The nation pursues a policy of streghtening diplomatic ties with its neighbors.


Weapons of Mass Destructon - The nation claims the legal right to use WMDs.


Immigration Act of 2015 - Immigration from African and Middle Eastern countries (except Israel, Cyrpus, and Lebanon) are banned and discouraged.

Policies template found here.
The modified policies template is made by me of course.

Flag Evolution


Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918 - 1941)

The new Balkan state was officially titled the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. From the start, however, it was informally called Yugoslavia and this name was made official by royal decree in 1929. Blue, white and red had long been regarded as the Pan-Slav colors and various unofficial flags of the movement incorporated them. The ensign hoisted aboard warships of the defunct Austro-Hungarian Navy that had been taken over by Yugoslavia had stripes of red, white, blue, and red; it may possibly have served briefly as the national flag. In 1919, however, Yugoslavia adopted a horizontal blue-white-red tricolor, which was formally confirmed as the national flag by a law passed in 1922. This law specified the number of additional flags for the armed forces, government authorities, and high officials. The design of the royal standard was left to the King's discretion; he chose a design somewhat reminiscent of the old Habsburg imperial standard, with a border of triangles and a field in the national colors with the royal arms. A law of 1937 modified the design of various flags (though the national flag remained unchanged), including the royal standard. The German/Italian invasion and subsequent occupation of Yugoslavia resulted in the suppression of all these flags, though some continued to be used by the royal government in exile.


Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943 - 1945)

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was a provisional state established during World War II on 29 November 1943 through the Second Session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ) was its original executive body. Throughout its existence, it was governed by Marshal Josip Broz Tito as prime minister.

It was recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, along with the AVNOJ as its deliberative body. The Yugoslav government-in-exile of King Peter II in London, partly due to pressure from the United Kingdom, recognized the AVNOJ government with the Treaty of Vis, signed on 16 June 1944 between the prime minister of the government-in-exile, Ivan Šubašić, and Tito. With the Treaty of Vis, the government-in-exile and the NKOJ agreed to merge into a provisional government as soon as possible. The form of the new government was agreed upon in a second Tito–Šubašić agreement signed on 1 November 1944 in the recently liberated Yugoslav capital of Belgrade. DF Yugoslavia became one of the founding members of the United Nations upon the signing of the United Nations Charter in October 1945.

The state was formed to unite the Yugoslav resistance movement against the occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The agreement left the issue of whether the state would be a monarchy or a republic intentionally undecided until after the war had ended so the position of head of state was vacant. After the merger of the governments, the state was reformed as a one-party Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia with Josip Broz Tito as Prime Minister and Ivan Šubašić as minister of foreign affairs.


Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1945 - 1963)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963 - 1992)

The principal resistance to the German/Italian occupation of Yugoslavia was put up by the Partisan organization under Josip Broz Tito, a veteran revolutionary of Croat origin. The Partisans constituted the military arm of the Communist-dominated Unitary National Liberation Front. After national liberation, the UNLF looked toward the establishment of a federal republic, communist in ideology, in place of the monarchy. By 1944 the Partisans had grown into a regular army of more than 60 divisions and were fighting a conventional war against the Germans. Thus Yugoslavia was the sole occupied country able to claim that it had largely liberated itself, albeit with considerable British contributions of weapons, munitions, and other supplies. The war's end soon saw the establishment of the desired communist state, with Tito at its head.

During the war, the Partisans used several different versions of the flag first adopted in 1941 when the movement was formed: the Yugoslavian tricolor with a red "Partisan Star" on the white stripe. The Partisan Star was also applied to the flags of Serbia and Croatia. In 1946 Yugoslavia adopted a new national flag with a larger star, red, bordered yellow, on the tricolor, to both commemorate the Partisans and to symbolize the state's socialist character. For use on land, its proportions were 1:2; a version proportioned 2:3 was adopted as the civil and state ensign. The presidential flag was the same as the old royal standard, with the communist-style state coat of arms replacing the royal arms. A square version of the national flag with a golden yellow wreath added behind the star was adopted for the use of high government officials. The ruling party styled the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, had a red flag with the motto PROLETARIANS OF ALL LANDS UNITE! in the upper part over the party emblem and initials. There were six variants of this flag with inscriptions in the various languages of Yugoslavia; shown above is the Croat version (Serbo-Croatian language rendered in the Roman alphabet). Each of the six constituent republics had a flag, and there were also flags for various national minorities within the constituent republics. Two of the latter are shown above.


Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992 - 2001)

The death of Tito (1982) removed his strong authoritarian hand from the direction of Yugoslavian affairs and gradually the nationalist sentiments of the state's various peoples began to reassert themselves. Tensions steadily escalated and by 1990 Yugoslavia had fallen apart. Some of the constituent republics gained independence with a minimum of violence, but in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina there was bloody fighting. A coup initiated by Gen. Florijan Malešević against President Slobodan Milošević on 23 June 1991 was a response to save the country from falling apart. Ultimately, however, Slobodan Milošević began to lead the Serb nationalists to form a separate Serb Republic. The military dictatorship prevented Slovenia's and Croatia's independence and cracked down on secessionists. By July 1991, the entire country was in chaos. On July 27, 1991, The Yugoslav Civil War has begun.

In September 1991, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia seceded from Yugoslavia after overpowering the army, Macedonia is the only Yugoslav Republic to successfully gain independence. During this time, communism was losing its grip worldwide. A series of revolutions hit the Eastern Bloc in 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 prompted Yugoslavia to deviate further from communism. Florijan Malešević, formerly a communist, blamed the communist system for Yugoslavia's failure to keep the ethnic melting pot of the country united as well as poor living standards. In 1992, the red star was officially dropped from the flag and the ruling junta declared that Yugoslavia has ended socialism altogether. This move of de-communization attracted the support of the US and UK for the military dictatorship.


Federal Slavic Republic of Yugoslavia (2001 - Present)

With the military regime victorious in the civil war, Yugoslavia entered a new phase of anti-communist, anti-progressive, and militarist state in the 21st century. Yugoslavia's economy began showing signs of recovery by the early 2000s due to aid from the west. At the same time, the disparity of the economy of Yugoslavia's federal subjects widened. Serbia, historically the dominating state within the country, was one of the poorer regions while Slovenia and Croatia became Yugoslavia's richest federal subjects. Although the 2008 Recession halted major economic growth, the nation remained afloat and pursued a temporary Autarky policy. Yugoslavia's neutrality in the 3rd World War saved the nation from disintegration once more.

The new coat of arms was added after the civil war to mark victory against the secessionists. While admittedly the coat of arms used is similar to East Germany's, a former communist state, Gen. Malešević has stated the new coat of arms looked more "Grandeur". The first variant uses the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Serbia as flags for its federal subjects Montenegro and Serbia. Romania was added to the flag and coat of arms shortly after the Central European War. Much later, the federal flags of YFR Montenegro and YFR Serbia were updated and thus updating the national flag as well. Hungary and Slovakia were added after the two latter voted to join Yugoslavia when the rump state of the Austro-Hungarian Republic disintegrated.

Date created: 8/18/2022

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