by Max Barry

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by The Final Dawn of New Kowloon Bay. . 145 reads.

https://nkbgov.nkb/history


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History
Prehistory
Paleolithic Times


Hand Stencils found in Bandouwan Cave
What is now the Canton and Tonkin regions of New Kowloon Bay were once populated by the predecessor to humans, Homo Erectus. To be exact, a recent study in 2115 dated the point of origin of the Dapenkeng culture to be 1.390 055 million years ago. The current archeological site in Bandouwan shows cave paintings of these Paleolithic humans using fire, and hand stencils using various methods of painting. There has also been simple stone tools found scattered around Hainan Island, dated to approximately 125,610BC.

Neolithic Times
At approximately 15,120 BC, the Neolithic period occured in New Kowloon Bay. Rice has also been shown to be cultivated then, with rice grains and husks being found in the archeological site of Dong'erguang and carbon-dating back to 8,090C. This farming behaviour led to the rise of the Mateiyau Culture(8050-7810BC), with cave paintings of different characters like the Sun, the Moon, primitive gods and scenes of hunting and eating all being found in various caves. Many of these pictures are actually proto-writings of the Cantonese language, and scientists believe these were the earliest Kowlooni writing systems. Excavations and rebuildings of a ruined community(5960-4910) around the East Pearl Delta finds evidence of agriculture, buildings, pottery, and funeral rites. With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, and the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators. In late Neolithic times, the Pearl River valley began to establish itself as a center of Yangshao culture (5000 BC to 3000 BC), and the first villages were founded; the most archaeologically significant of these was found at Yanmian, Foshan. Later, Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture, which was also centered on the Pearl River Delta from 2990-1980 BC.

Bronze Age


Cave pottery dating back 10,000 years

Since 3110 BC, bronze artifacts have been unearthed at the Sungwun Culture site on Hainan Island. A large ancient city of around 50,000, Baituwan is believed to be the starting point of the Baitu Culture(2890 BC-1950BC) and the Shu kingdom, linking artifacts found at the site with the Shu's first leaders. The city was first uncovered during the Interwar periods, specifically 1935, but was buried by war debris during the Second Eurasian War, and uncovered again in 1960.

The first instances of ferrous metallurgy produced in New Kowloon Bay have not been found until around 2000BC, but prehistoric stone tablets containing proto-scriptures containing trading from Northern Chinese merchants of copper and bronze tools have been discovered and dated to the 25th century BC.

Finally, in the closing centuries of the Prehistoric Age, bloomery iron fragments have been excavated at the Dongjiang Lake site, numbering 6 in total, and have been dated back to the 14th century BC.



Ancient Times(2050-1000 BC)
Early Yue Kingdom(2050-1600BC)

The Yue Kingdom of China was the first Kowlooni kingdom to be described in historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian. Until the late 1970s, scientists believed this kingdom was a myth until excavations unvealed several Bronze Age sites, all densely packed together, around an outlet on the lower Bei River. With few clear records matching the Liang oracle bones, it remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Yue kingdom or of another culture from the same period. Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be ancestral to modern Chinese characters.

According to ancient records, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC as a consequence of the Battle of Jieyang.

Shen Kingdoms(1600-1420BC)


Middle Shen era wine jug

Although there are several archeological findings proving the reality of the Shen Kingdom, it seems that it was divided by a short civil war, seperating the Kingdom into three periods: Early, Middle and Late. In the Early Shen Kingdom, the main cities and archeological ruins can be found in Honghai and Jiazigang. Certain historians believe that the ruins around Dongjiang Shuiku was also part of the Early Shen Kingdom, but records show that there is no official tie to the Early Shen Kingdom, as there are other settlements that show a relatively advanced civilisation at the time unlike Honghai civilisation. The leading hypothesis is that Dongjiang Shuiku, ruled by the same Shang in the official history, coexisted and traded with numerous other culturally diverse settlements in the area that is now referred to as China proper.

The Early Shen Kingdom was recorded to have collapsed due to numerous internal conflicts during the rule of the 'dictator' king Hao, eventually culminating in the King being beheaded at the Battle of Yenian. It was at this point where the famous philosopher Ngai Zi came up with the Dynastic Cycle theory for the interchanging of dynasties and kingdoms.

After a son of the last king of early Shen set up the Middle Shen Kingdoms after the Jiaomu Wars, the Shen Dynasty embarked on a series of expansions along the Dong Jiang stretching to nowadays Heyuan, where quite intact structures of several houses and forts can be found west in Yuteam. Although larger and more militarily powerful, it soon succumbed to similar problems like the Early Shen Kingdom.

After around 3 years of continuing internal struggle after a series of young rulers and power struggle, a coup occurred in the form of the then ruler's uncle Zhan, who set up the Later Shen Kingdom. It was actually quite a large kingdom compared to the Ancient Kowlooni ones, with borders stretching to Ningde. It was around this time when New Kowloon Bay entered the Iron Age.



The Iron Age(1420-220BC)
Wen Dynasty(1510-1130BC)

Although during the start of the Wen Dynasty, New Kowloon Bay was still in the Bronze Age, it is still considered by many to be the official start of the Iron Age.

By the end of the Middle Shen Kingdom, only two of the original trading partners of the Early Shen remained: Zhao and Wen. The Wen started their dynasties by a feudal system, and had very close diplomatic relations with both Zhao and Shen. Throughout the Middle Shen, the Wen Dynasty relocated to around Fengtinghe, quite close to the Shen capital at that time: Zhanjiang, therefore it was imperative for the Middle Shen kingdom to have close ties with them, even appointing them as the Protector of the North.

Unfortunately for the Later Shen, this was not one of the things on the rulers' minds. After the Battle of Hunai around 1420, the ruler of Wen Wang allied with the Duke of Zhao to claim the territories of Shen. The king of Wen at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that was influential for almost every succeeding dynasty. Like Shangdi, Heaven (tian) ruled over all the other gods, and it decided who would rule NKB. It was believed that a ruler lost the Mandate of Heaven when natural disasters occurred in great number, and when, more realistically, the sovereign had apparently lost his concern for the people. In response, the royal house would be overthrown, and a new house would rule, having been granted the Mandate of Heaven.

The initial capital of Wen was an area near Yulin, most likely Wucai, as it was slightly farther away from Zhao. In 1400, Wen mounted an invasion of Zhao, and in the Siege of Shu'keao invaded Zhao and now controlled all of their lands. This controlling of Zhao would only last for around 270 years with the changing of time.

In 1134, a peasant uprising of the long-oppressed people of Zhao ended the Wen Dynasty during the Battle of Goujian.



Later Zhao Dynasty(1130-711BC)


Remains of an ancient sewer in Ancient Linzi, Spring and Autumn Period

The Later Zhao Dynasty was rocked by several small battalions of the Wen Dynasty refusing to surrender in its first years, mainly located at clumps in small forts and towns in the East. They were wiped out within five years, but contributed to the political instability found in earlier years.

After the Wen remnants had been defeated, several trader states reported trading and selling with small towns of another civilisation, which was the Zhou dynasty in Central China. A small battalion was sent to determine the power of the dynasty, but it ended up retreating after a larger Zhou force pushed them back. Over time, small skirmishes occurred around the Changjiang, with the Wen fuelling some peasant rebellions and funding the cause of local military leaders.

This funding caused the rapid instability and collapse of the Zhou Dynasty, and the start of the Spring and Autumn period. Although the Later Zhao Dynasty was able to gain much more land in the north, this had unwanted political effects as the calls for hegemony spread into the Zhao and many small leaders declared independence, much like the earlier collapse of the Zhou, and it eventually could not bear the brunt of this and fell.

In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhao kings in name only. Some local leaders even started using royal titles for themselves. Although this happened, there was still a small concentration of Later Zhao owned land around Xinfengjiang.

The Hundred Schools of Thought of Kowlooni philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Mohism were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The first two philosophical thoughts would have an enormous influence on Kowlooni, especially Chinese Kowlooni culture.

As the era continued, larger and more powerful states annexed or claimed suzerainty over smaller ones. Eventually, most of the land of Zhao except a few border states to the northwest had come under the control of the next dynasty, Chu.

Chu Dynasty(710-430BC)
Literally just the entirety of the Chu Dynasty but filched from Wikipedia. I had nothing to change, so yeah.

The first capital of Chu was established at Danyang (present-day Xichuan in Henan).

Under the reign of King Zhuang, Chu reached the height of its power and its ruler was considered one of the five Hegemons of the era. After a number of battles with neighboring states, sometime between 695 and 689 BCE, the Chu capital moved south-east from Danyang to Ying. Chu first consolidated its power by absorbing other states in its original area (modern Hubei), then it expanded into the north towards the North China Plain. In the summer of 648 BCE, the State of Huang was annexed by the state of Chu.

The threat from Chu resulted in multiple northern alliances under the leadership of Jin. These alliances kept Chu in check, and the Chu kingdom lost their first major battle at the Chengpu in 632 BCE. During the 6th century BCE, Jin and Chu fought numerous battles over the hegemony of central plain. In 597 BCE, Jin was defeated by Chu in the battle of Bi, causing Jin's temporary inability to counter Chu's expansion. Chu strategically used the state of Zheng as its representative in the central plain area, through the means of intimidation and threats, Chu forced Zheng to ally with itself. The tension between Chu and Jin did not loosen until the year of 579 BCE when a truce was signed between the two states.

At the beginning of the sixth century BCE, Jin strengthened the state of Wu near the Yangtze delta to act as a counterweight against Chu. Wu defeated Qi and then invaded Chu in 506 BCE. Following the Battle of Boju, it occupied Chu's capital at Ying, forcing King Zhao to flee to his allies in Yun and "Sui". King Zhao eventually returned to Ying but, after another attack from Wu in 504 BCE, he temporarily moved the capital into the territory of the former state of Ruo. Chu began to strengthen Yue in modern Zhejiang to serve as allies against Wu. Yue was initially subjugated by King Fuchai of Wu until he released their king Goujian, who took revenge for his former captivity by crushing and completely annexing Wu.

Freed from its difficulties with Wu, Chu annexed Chen in 479 BCE and overran Cai to the north in 447 BCE. Unfortunately, Chu at that time had become very corrupt, and thus was overrun by the combined efforts of the Qin and the recently-declared Hai Dynasty.

Hai Dynasty(430BC-230BC)


A crystal cup, carved during the Hai Dynasty

Immediately after the beginnings of the Hai Dynasty, King Dao made Wu Qi his chancellor. Wu's reforms began to transform Hai into an efficient and powerful state in 389 BCE, as he lowered the salaries of officials and removed useless officials. He also enacted building codes to make the capital Ying seem less barbaric. Despite Wu Qi's unpopularity among Hai's ruling class, his reforms strengthened the king and left the state very powerful and brought contentment to the lower classes.

With the strengthening movement complete, the Hai Dynasty turned outwards and spurred on the Warring States period, engaging in a war with Qin, pushing them above the Changjiang. Unfortunately, this caused great worry and anxiety among the northern states and they eventually banded against the Hai Dynasty, forming the Golden Plains Alliance. They secretly funded the officials and although Hai's powerful army once again became successful, defeating the states of Wei and Yue, Wu Qi was assassinated at King Dao's funeral in 372 BCE.

This caused the military strength of the Hai Dynasty to rapidly decrease, and they were pushed back further towards the Pearl River and Minjiang. Eventually, the ruler King Jian signed a peace treaty and became somewhat neutral in the continuing period of strife between the other states, trying and failing to strengthening itself towards its past territories.

At the later periods of the Hai Dynasty, trading started with Taiwanese tribal states and a battalion was put there to ensure the safety of traders and merchants there. There was also an increased Kowlooni presence on Hainan Island, and several explorers reported finding scattered islands with few inhabitants, which are found to be the nowadays Paracel Islands and Dongsha Atoll.

The Hai Dynasty was the last kingdom to be conquered by the Qin in 231BC in a short war lasting around a year. The tipping point came at the Battle of Five Deltas, where several large Hai military camps were razed to the ground.



Imperial Era(230BC- AD1823)
Qin Dynasty(230-206BC)

Although the Qin Shi Huang was able to unify most of the mainland, setting up some larger forts and towns, the one in the Zhujiang Delta turning out to be the largest. Yet, it was still plagued by the tribes in the south, who had long pledged alliegance to the Hai Dynasty, mainly the Nan Yue and the Dong Yue.

The doctrine of Legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peacetime. The Qin Emperor presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning of books and burying of scholars, especially in the south, where the political atmosphere was very unstable.

Major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, and the unification and development of the legal code, the written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods. Even something as basic as the length of axles for cartswhich need to match ruts in the roadshad to be made uniform to ensure a viable trading system throughout the empire.

The Qin also connected the Northern and Eastern walls of its conquered opponents, forming the Great Wall and the Long Wall. The Long Wall was mainly used to combat the tribes there, most significantly the Dian-Yue and the Yelang, the latter of which was once able to overrun the wall for a short time in 221 BC, during the power struggle that happened after the death of the First Qin Emperor.

After Emperor Qin Shi Huang's unnatural death due to the consumption of mercury pills, the Qin government drastically deteriorated and eventually capitulated in 207 BC after the Qin capital was captured and sacked by rebels, which would ultimately lead to the establishment of a new dynasty of a unified China. Despite the short duration of the Qin dynasty, it was immensely influential on NKB and the structure of future dynasties.

Nanyue Dynasty(206-111BC)


A statue of Zhao Tuo in Haikou

After the sack of the Qin capital, the Chu-Han contention started, with the Qin Dynasty being split up into 5 states: Han, the Kingdom of Later Zhao, the three Qins, and the Nanyue. The first emperor, Ren described the natural advantages of the southern region and described how a kingdom could be founded with the many Chinese settlers in the area to combat the warring groups in the Chinese north. He drafted a decree instating Zhao Tuo as the new Lieutenant of Nanhai, and died soon afterward.

After Ren's death, Zhao Tuo, sent orders to his troops in Hengpu Pass (north of modern Nanxiong, Guangdong Province), Yangshan Pass (northern Yangshan County), Huang Stream Pass (modern Yingde region, where the Lian River enters the Bei River), and other garrisons to fortify themselves against any northern troops. He also executed Qin officials still stationed in Nanhai and replaced them with his own trusted friends.

After building the Pearl River Extension Wall, Zhao Tuo turned his attention to the south, specifically u Lạc. In the times when Nanyue and u Lạc had good relations, u Lạc acknowledged Nanyue's suzerainty, especially because of their mutual anti-Qin sentiment. However, when relations between the Eastern Qin and Nanyue improved, in 183 BC Zhao Tuo marched south and invaded, annexing u Lạc.

In 200BC, Liu Bang, after years of war with his rivals, established the Han dynasty and reunified Central China. The precarious state of the empire therefore forced the Han court to treat Nanyue initially with utmost circumspection. In 196 BC, Liu Bang, now Emperor Gaozu, sent Lu Jia to Nanyue in hopes of obtaining Zhao Tuo's allegiance.

A long exchange ensued, wherein Lu is said to have admonished Zhao Tuo, pointing out that he was Chinese, not Yue, and should have maintained the dress and decorum of the Chinese. This caused great anger throughout both kingdoms, and after the death of Liu Bang in 194 BC, the government was put in the hands of his wife, Empress L Zhi, who served as Empress Dowager over their son Emperor Hui of Han and then Emperor Hui's sons Liu Gong and Liu Hong. Enraged, Empress L sent men to Zhao Tuo's hometown of Zhending (modern Zhengding County in Hebei Province) who killed much of Zhao's extended family and desecrated the ancestral graveyard there.

This caused great anger to Zhao Tuo, who again declared himself the Protector of Nanyue and led a war against the Han. The Nanyue kingdom attacked the principality of Changsha and captured some neighboring towns under Han domain. L sent general Zhou Zao to punish Zhao Tuo. However, in the hot and humid climate of the south, an epidemic broke out quickly amongst the soldiers, and the weakened army was unable to cross the mountains, forcing them to withdraw which ended in Nanyue victory, but the military conflict did not stop until the Empress died. Zhao Tuo then annexed the neighboring state of Minyue in the east as subject kingdom.

This greatly reduced the power of the Han, and it ceded the Kingdoms of Yelang and Tongshi to the Nanyue. After the new king of the Han Liu Heng ascended the throne, he ordered officials to revisit Zhending, garrison the town, and make offerings to Zhao Tuo's ancestors regularly, adopting a conciliatory attitude towards the Nanyue.


A bronze mortar and pestle, made during Middle Nanyue

In 137 BC, Zhao Tuo died, having lived over one hundred years. Because of his great age, his son, the Crown Prince Zhao Shi, had preceded him in death, and therefore Zhao Tuo's grandson Zhao Mo became king of Nanyue. In 135 BC, the king of neighboring Minyue launched an attack on the towns along the two nations' borders. But, Minyue was quickly defeated by the two's militaries, and the Han, sensing a chance, went south and lay siege to Tong'an County, forcing a quick retreat.

Although they did retreat temporarily, the counties of Nanyue were sent into disarray, and many young men were drafted into the military. Even with the added boost of power, they were still no match for the skilled Han troops. After the fall of Panyu, the king Zhao Lie and his general Lu Jia escaped into North Vietnam, but were soon captured by the Han. Afterwards, the other commanderies and counties of Nanyue surrendered to the Han dynasty, ending Nanyue's existence as an autonomous and mostly sovereign kingdom. When news of Nanyue's defeat reached Emperor Wu, he was staying in Zuoyi County in Shanxi Province while travelling to perform imperial inspections, and promptly created the new county of Wenxi, meaning "Hearing of Glad News". After Lu Jia's capture he was executed by the Han soldiers and his head was sent to the emperor. Upon receiving it, he created Huojia County where he was travelling, meaning "Capturing [L] Jia".

Han Dynasty(111BC-241AD)


Han Dynasty Trading Routes

A golden age in history, the Han dynasty's long period of stability and prosperity consolidated the foundation of China as a unified state under a central imperial bureaucracy, and the religion of Confucianism was officially elevated to orthodox status and was to shape the subsequent Chinese and Kowlooni civilization.

The Han dynasty also saw many mathematical innovations being invented such as the method of Gaussian elimination which appeared in the Chinese mathematical text Chapter Eight Rectangular Arrays of The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. Its use is illustrated in eighteen problems, with two to five equations. The first reference to the book by this title is dated to 179 AD, but parts of it were written as early as approximately 150 BC, more than 1500 years before a European came up with the method in the 18th century.

After the initial laissez-faire policies of Emperors Wen and Jing, the ambitious Emperor Wu brought the empire to its zenith. To consolidate his power, Confucianism, which emphasizes stability and order in a well-structured society, was given exclusive patronage to be the guiding philosophical thoughts and moral principles of the empire. Imperial Universities were established to support its study and further development, while other schools of thought were discouraged.

In the south, The Han annexed Minyue in 135 BC and 111 BC, Nanyue in 111 BC, and Dian in 109 BC. Migration and military expeditions led to the cultural assimilation of the south, and brought the Han Dynasty into contact with hostile Southeast Asian nations that had maintained friendly relations with Nanyue, most notably the Ailao Tribes, who waged sporadic battles along the southern borders of the Han. After the defeat of those tribes, however, many of the South Asian nations buddied up with the Han, increasing the trade and diplomacy of the Han.

With the diplomatic efforts of Zhang Qian and the invention of junks, this led to the creation of the Maritime Silk Road.

After Emperor Wu's death, the Han Dynasty stagnated and fell into decline, with the economy falling due to the never-ending border skirmishes with the Ailao Tribes and the increasingly aggressive Southeastern Asian nations. Various consort clans exerted increasing control over strings of incompetent emperors and eventually the dynasty was briefly interrupted by the usurpation of Wang Mang.

Xin Dynasty

Although unofficial, the Xin Dynasty brought about great changes to the atmosphere, both politically and socially. In AD 9, Wang Mang used the Mandate of Heaven to declare that the current Han Dynasty was corrupt and thus needed to change. He started a very extensive program of land, economic and politic reform, including outlawing of slavery and land redistribution, and thus was supported by a large number of peasants, especially in the south, as the Han Dynasty had long mistreated and degraded the people there, believing them to be inferior to "Proper Han" people.

In AD 10, Wang Mang retreated to the sympathetic south after a bounty was placed on his head, and immediately declared the new Xin Dynasty. Unfortunately, although he was supported by peasants, he was hated by the landholding families as it did not help them in any way. The instability of power brought about chaos, uprisings, and loss of territories. This was compounded by mass flooding of the Pearl River; silt buildup caused it to split into two channels and displaced large numbers of farmers.

Eventually, the unpopular Wang Mang was killed trying to escape to Sanya by a peasant mob in AD 17.

Eastern Han Dynasty


A caliper from the Eastern Han Era

Under the rule of Emperor Guangwu, the South was once again conquered, but to appease the less-than-happy peasant class, it kept some of the reforms, such as parts of the land redistribution and a semi-ban of slavery. With the capable administrations of Emperors Ming and Zhang, former glories of the dynasty was reclaimed, with brilliant military and cultural achievements. The Xiongnu Empire was decisively defeated. The diplomat and general Ban Chao further expanded the conquests across the Pamirs to the shores of the Caspian Sea, thus reopening the Silk Road, and bringing trade, foreign cultures, along with the arrival of Buddhism. With extensive connections with the west, the first of several Roman embassies to China were recorded in Chinese sources, coming from the sea route in AD 166, and a second one in AD 184.

In AD 186, one of the first foreign trading posts that was set up by the Kowlooni government at that time was established on Palawan. It could be called one of the first colonies ever established, although it is still told as a trading post, due to it mainly being controlled by traders and merchants.

The Eastern Han dynasty was one of the most prolific era of science and technology in ancient China, notably the historic invention of papermaking by Cai Lun, and the numerous scientific and mathematical contributions by the famous polymath Zhang Heng.

Three Kingdoms Period

By the 2nd century, the empire declined amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in AD 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the period of the Three Kingdoms, since greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Initially, the south was controlled by the Kingdom of Wei, but after a short rebellion, much of the Wei ruling class abdicated and escaped west. In the insuing chaos, the great family of Zhang consolidated their power around Wuchang, extending down south to Nanhai. In the battle of Three Dry Ships, much of Zhang's competitor Jin's army was destryoed

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