Hong Kong-Mainland China Conflict, 2020-2021 China-India Skirmishes
People's Republic of China (PLA), East Asian Democratic Alliance (AEA),
Uyghur Republic (UPF), Republic of China (RoCAF)
the People's Republic of China (PLA) maintains most
of the Chinese territories, EADA (AEA) holds the cities of
Lhasa, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau,
the Uyghur Republic (UPF) holds the cities of Urumqi and Kashgar
the Republic of China (RoCAF) holds the island of Taiwan and the
Chinese coast around Quanzhou
People's Republic of China
East Asian Democratic Alliance
Republic of China
Nur Bar Sauma
People's Liberation Army:
Army of East Asia:
Republic of China Armed Forces:
Uyghur People's Front
People's Republic of China:
East Asian Democratic Alliance:
Republic of China:
The Second Chinese Civil War is an ongoing civil war, fought in China, between the People's Republic of China led by Chinese president Xi Jingping and a loose coalition between the Democracy Party of China and Tibet (known as the East Asian Democratic Aliance), Taiwan and Xinjang, led respectively by Lei 'Lizzie' Lifen, Tsai Ing-Wen and Erkin Bughra.
The unrest in China has been growing since the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) took control of the country in 1949. With regions such as Tibet and Xinjang claiming to have been illegally annexed and suppressed by the Chinese government and democracy levels rapidly decreasing in former British and Portuguese owned territories Hong Kong and Macau, frequent protests and terror attacks have been seen across China for half a century.
The tensions came to a head after numerous laws were passed over Hong Kong, shutting down their free press, stripping away their freedom to criticise the government, the right to any citizenship other than Chinese and finally, in response to major protests over the former, a curfew on all citizens in the nation of 10pm. Many also point to the COVID-19 Pandemic and how China's forceful counter tactics were seen as another excuse to strip away freedoms for good.
The war is currently being fought by two major factions. These are the People's Liberation Army and a loose coalition between CCP opposed entities. The opposition is currently composed of three factions each with a common goal to end the People's Republic of China but with separate ideas for what should follow. The Democratic Alliance wishes to create a new Federal Republic of China, a democratic nation more aligned with Japan, South Korea and the west, Taiwan wishes to restore the Republic of China and the Uyghur Republic wishes for full independence as a democratic republic in Central Asia. Many see these conflicting goals as a catalyst for potential future conflicts between the three.
A number of foreign countries, such as Russia, Pakistan, Japan and India, are currently provided support to one or another faction. Russia, Pakistan and North Korea support the People's Republic of China and the People's Liberation Army with arms supplies already flowing in. Support for the opposition comes in the form of arms supplies and humanitarian aid from India, the Philippines, Japan, South Korea and the United Kingdom. India has already stated its intent to get involved directly, in order to settle outstanding border disputes with the PRC. The UK is currently remaining largely neutral on the situation, merely offering refuge to citizens of Hong Kong who hold British National Overseas Passports, though this is likely to change as the UK was already preparing to place sanctions on China.
International organizations remain largely neutral but stand opposed to human rights abuses from the PRC, however some point to Taiwan's eagerness to get involved as an appeal to nostalgia for the Kuomintang, an organisation that in its pass committed major war crimes and massacres, others see this argument as flawed as Taiwan's current leader Tsai Ing-Wen is not a member of the Kuomintang party and the country as a whole has become far more progressive, being the only nation in Asia to have currently legalised Same-Sex Marriage. While other western nations besides the UK have declared their disapproval for Chinese humanitarian crimes, many are criticising the UK's involvement with many calling it not enough and others saying they should steer clear of their colonial past by avoiding involvement in their former colony's affairs.
Refugees have already begun to flee the nation, with most heading to neighbouring nations such as Vietnam and Russia and many heading across the seas to the Philippines, Japan and Indonesia. Many believe this will result in yet another refugee crisis alongside those currently fleeing from the Middle East.
Communist Party Rule
The Marxist-Leninist Chinese Communist Party came to power at the end of the First Chinese Civil War in 1949, ousting the former Kuomintang government of the Republic of China who retreated to the islands of Taiwan and Hainan, eventually losing the latter the following year. The People's Republic of China was proclaimed under the leadership of Chairman Mao Zedong. One of their first acts was officially annexing Tibet which had been seeking independence and slowly dismantling its government and social structure over the following decade.
Over the remainder of the 20th century and the first two decades of the 21st China would continue to grow and exert its power over other nations across the world, laying claims to the majority of the South China Sea, propping up the North Korean dictatorship, refusing to acknowlege the existence of Taiwan and its government and carrying out genocidal activities against the Uyghur population of Xinjiang. With the world's largest population and military as well as the second largest economy and third largest nuclear arsenal, by early 2021 China was on track to become the next great super power, something which many saw as a major threat to world peace.
While minor wars, disputes and internal attacks did not phase the People's Republic of China throughout the majority of its existence by the mid-2010s the world had begun to awaken to human rights issues, with Same-Sex Marriage rapidly becoming the norm, more focus on ending and preventing wars, a re-analysis of colonial pasts and racism and China's anti-humanitarian ways became more opposed. With the more democratic region of Hong Kong finally daring to stand up to the CCP in 2019, initiating major protests which saw China crack down on many of the freedoms unique to the city state.
As the situation worsened in Hong Kong, with books being banned, people going missing and the elected government standing on the side of the mainland, democracy movements were revitalised and the Democracy Party of China began to see a surge in new members. With recent graduate Lei Lifen, more commonly known by her English name Lizzie, taking the helm the party began to push back against the authoritarian forces.
After laws were passed allowing China to "deport" Hong Kong citizens to the mainland for trial, effectively ending their freedom to criticise he government, stripping them of their dual-national status, ending their right to appeal to other nations for help, shutting down Hong Kong's free press, ending the free flow of fact based information, and introducing a curfew across the entire nation preventing anyone from living life at their own pace, the democracy movements turned to more drastic measures. Armies were assembled in Hong Kong and Lhasa formed of students, former and current police and military men, with the intent to use force to end the oppression of the CCP. Dubbing themselves the Army of East Asia (Sometimes referred to as the Democratic Army of China and Tibet) they declared war against the Chinese government, beginning a full blown Civil War.
The Uyghur Crisis
Since 2014 the Chinese government under Xi Jingping has introduced policies which have led to more than a million Muslim ethnic Uyghurs in the west of the country being held in 'Vocational and Educational Centres' in the name of anti-terrorism. Here the imprisoned face abuse, rape and torture at the hands of Chinese officials. Many have dubbed this a genocide, both cultural and physical, and have compared such camps to those of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 40s.
Reports have found China practices forced labour, suppression of religion, political indoctrination, ill-treatment, forced sterilisation, forced contraception and forced abortion within the camps, all in an attempt to reduce opponents to the majority Han Chinese, atheist dominated state.
Though China claims the camps contain only terrorists, non of the imprisoned have faced any form of trial, and China has attempted multiple cover-ups of what goes on inside. In addition to the Uyghur Muslims, there have been reports of the camps holding Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Christians and even foreign nationals.
As China continued to deny the true intent of these camps and claimed to be decreasing the number in operation, a report from the Australian Strategy Policy Institute claimed more were under construction throughout 2019 and 2020.
Outside of the camps, the population of Xinjiang has been falling consistently, with birth rates at an all time low by 2020. Though China denies forced sterilisation, the drop has been seen by many to be unnatural.
The population of China was estimated at 1.398 billion in 2019; ethnic groups - approximately Han 91%, Zhuang 1.2%, Hui 0.8%, Manchu 0.8%, Uyghur 0.8%, Miao 0.7%, Yi 0.7%, Tujia 0.7%, Tibetan 0.5%, Mongol 0.4%, Other 2.4% (Includes Dong, Korean, Kazakh, Wa, Kyrgyz, Russian, Uyghur, Tatars); Religions - Non-Religious/Folk Religions 74%, Buddhist 15%, Taoist 8%, Christian 2%, Muslim 1%
Curfew Bill Introduced May 2021
Major Protests and Uprisings in Beijing, Chengdu, Wuhan, Chongqing, Shanghai, Shenzen, Hong Kong and Macau May 2021
Chinese Democracy Advocates Encourage Protests to Continue June 2021
UN Warns of Full Blown Civil War Early July 2021
East Asian Democratic Alliance formed, joins Uyghur Republic and Taiwan in declaring war on the People's Republic of China Late July 2021
EADA takes the city of Guangzhou Late July 2021
Taiwan deploys 200,000 reserves and invades the mainland and seizes the city of Quanzhou Late July 2021
People's Republic of China
The Chinese Communist Party under the leadership of President Xi Jingping is committed to maintaining its control of China, claiming the insurgents are merely terrorists using fabricated crimes against humanity as justification to increase their power and influence over the Chinese populace. Their military, the People's Liberation Army, is the largest organised militia in the world and is led by Wei Fenghei, China's Minister of Defence. They are currently receiving military supplies from Russia, Pakistan and North Korea.
The East Asian Democratic Alliance
Led by Lizzie Lifen of the Democracy Party of China, this alliance consists of disgruntled Chinese citizens from Hong Kong and Tibet, they aim to remove the CCP from power and to create a democratic Federal Republic of China, granting independence or full autonomy to regions such as Tibet and Xinjiang. Their military, the Army of East Asia led by Hu Qiu, consists of civilians, police and military many of whom were formerly loyal to the CCP and is currently 600,000 strong. They are directly supported by Taiwan and Uyghuristan but are also supplied by India, the Philippines, Japan and South Korea with the United Kingdom offering refuge to those who flee from Hong Kong.
The Republic of China
The largest opposing force in the First Chinese Civil War, Taiwan aims to create a new Republic of China on the mainland under Taiwan's current government led by Tsai Ing-Wen. They have discussed higher levels of autonomy for Xingjian, Tibet and Hong Kong/Macau as well as providing reparations to the affected Uyghurs, however are more reluctant with regards to full independence. Their military the Republic of China Armed forces, led by Chiu Kuo-Cheng the Taiwanese Minister of Defence, is relatively small however 1.7 million soldiers stand by in reserve and can be deployed at any moment.
The Uyghur Republic
Led by Erkin Bughra the Ughur Republic aims to create a democratic republic similar to others in Central Asia, with complete independence from China. Their military, the Uyghur People's Front is led by Nur Bar Sauma and is currently the smallest of the involved militias with only 99,000 active personnel.
Prior to the war many countries and international organisations had already declared their opposition to policies being practiced in China. Australia and the United Kingdom both declared their aims to reduce reliance on China, with nations in the EU as well as Canada and the US being in agreement. The United States in particular was already seeking to place sanctions on China and has declared its intent to move forward with this over the coming months.
Reports from Australia helped expose the Uyghur crisis as well as issues with Chinese cyber-bullying and other humanitarian crises. Japan regularly urged western nations to join them in creating a force great enough to stand against China in order to end its firm grip on the world and its bullying tactics.
Upon declaration of the Civil War, many nations immediately took sides and began offering support to the various factions, these nations included Russia, Japan and India. India has declared its intentions to ally with the EADA and move troops into China, especially in the Aksai-Chin region, formerly belonging to India, that China has controlled since 1947.
Refugees have already begun to flee from China amidst the chaos of the new conflict. The majority are fleeing to neighbouring countries such as Russia, Laos and Vietnam, with Vietnam taking the brunt. Vietnam has now reported the entry of over 300,000 Chinese citizens since the conflict began.
Some have also fled to island nations nearby such as Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia. Carrie Lam, former leader of Hong Kong was also sighted in the Philippines before the conflict began.
Many are speculated to flee to Europe, especially those holding Overseas British Passports in Hong Kong.
The US has declared its intent to place sanctions against the People's Republic which would penalise any nations supporting their war efforts or anything related to humanitarian crises in Xinjiang, Tibet and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau. Though they have been reluctant to place further sanctions on companies operating from within the PRC.
Some activists welcomed this legislation. Some critics contend that these punitive sanctions are likely to backfire or have unintended consequences; they argue that ordinary Chinese people will have fewer economic resources due to these sanctions, further worsening their plight, while the sanctions' impact on ruling political elites will be limited. Many also point to nations that rely on China, such as those in Central Asia, Africa and the Pacific, arguing that the US will use the sanctions as an excuse to prosecute their general involvement in Chinese affairs.
Many have criticised the US's hesitancy at placing restrictions on Chinese companies, arguing that they should go all in or not at all, and this is a sign that the US cares more about itself and its profits than the Chinese people suffering at the hands of the CCP.
People's Republic of China (People's Liberation Army)
Republic of China (Republic of China Armed Forces)
East Asian Democratic Alliance (Army of East Asia)
Uyghur Republic (Uyghur People's Front)
East Turkestan (Turkistan Islamic Party)
People's Republic of Inner Mongolia (Inner Mongolia Defence Force)
Free City of Xi'an (Xi'an Old Guard)
State of Manchuria (Manchu Patriot Army)