by Max Barry

Latest Forum Topics




by Pan-asiatic states. . 24 reads.

Pan-Asiatic States | History | The Age of Revolutions

THE EARLY 20th CENTURY A.D (1901 - 1924)


In Asia, the spilling-over of Republican and Communist ideals from the West through new and more efficient trade routes led indigenous monarchies to either reform or face collapse. The foundation of the Republic of the Philippines, the first nation to secede from the Sultanate of Malaya, signified the beginning of the decline of Islamic government in Southeast Asia. The Empire of Japan, soon to be one of the most powerful countries of the century, began expanding its political influence in East Asia through its annexation of Korea. China's Xinhai Revolution saw the end of the Qing Dynasty and the fracturing of the nation into various warlord cliques. Meanwhile, in Europe, men were being forced out of their homes to fight in a new kind of conflict: a war of seemingly never-ending trenches, where meters of ground a day were gained at the cost of massive casualties.


  • On May 4th, the All-Malayan Communist Party (AMCP) was officially established by Isabelo delos Reyes, a Spain-born Filipino revolutionary in exile and a scholar of politics from Madrid in the city of Singapura, Malaya. Isabelo, considered to be “the Father of Malayan Socialism” and the AMCP agitated against what it considered Bruneian imperialist hegemony over the Pacific.

  • Taking inspiration from the structure of the Second International in Paris, the AMCP established the Workers’ Union Congress of Malaya (WUCM), which annually gathered to coordinate union strikes throughout the Empire, laying the framework for further communist activities in the future.


  • The Luzon Campaign came to a close on the 16th of November after the Philippine Republic won a decisive victory at Palanan.

  • On January 11th, coordinated subversive strikes against the Sulu fleet culminated in a fire at the port of Kota Selurong which rendered incapacitated 3 archaic carracks, a bellicose setback blamed on Republican spies.

  • Under the command of the female “Henerala” (Generaless) Agueda Kahabagan, the islands of Mindoro and Panay openly revolt against Sulu occupation, with several garrisons sympathetic to the cause of independence betraying their colonial masters and collaborating with the usurpers.

  • In December, two brigades were sent to the Mindanao region to agitate against the Sulu occupation, gather munitions, and recruit more soldiers. For the next five years, the Philippine Republic embarked on an island-hopping campaign as part of a protracted warfare strategy.


  • The Sulu Army briefly regained control of Southwestern Mindoro until Republican reinforcements from Panay crushed their counterattack under the leadership of General Artemio Ricarte.

  • The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, also known as the Eulsa Treaty, Eulsa Unwilling Treaty or Japan–Korea Protectorate Treaty, was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905. Negotiations were concluded on November 17, 1905. The treaty deprived Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty and made Korea a protectorate of Imperial Japan. It resulted from Imperial Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905.

  • In January, troops and police of the Russian Empire opened fire on a peaceful demonstration outside the Winter Palace and elsewhere in St Petersburg, killing and injuring around 1,000 people. The liberal press blamed Nicholas II.

  • In June, Sailors mutiny on the battleship Potemkin, part of the Black Sea Fleet. The mutiny triggered riots in Odessa, which were quashed by troops on the Tsar’s orders.

  • In October, Tsar Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, promising civil liberties (such as freedom of speech) and an elected parliament (Duma). As a result, restrictions are implemented on the absolute power of the Russian monarch, and a de facto constitution (the Fundamental Laws of 1906) is issued.


  • After completing Hajj and attaining the title of “Haji”, Prince Haji Farid was appointed the Governor of Gurun; a large and rich, yet unruly province of Bruneian Malaya. Plagued by separatists formed from expelled Moluccan, Visayan, Tagalog, and Javanese minorities who had developed a distinct culture over time away from Malaya, Haji Farid made it his mission to crush dissent and resolve the empire's hold on the province. He commenced a complete overhaul of the officials that governed Gurun, particularly those rumored to either be corrupt or harbor separatist sentiment; and replaced them with the most fervent Malay nationalists and loyalists from the educated upper class in Gurun.

  • He also began to crack down on certain student organizations in various schools and colleges that advocated greater autonomy or even entertained the idea that citizens of Gurun were culturally distinct, and encouraged the creation of youth organizations that advocated Pan-Malay nationalism and loyalty to Bruneian Malaya instead.

  • Non-Islamic religions, such as forms of animism brought to the lands by Moluccan immigrants, experienced suppression as well alongside native aboriginal belief systems; in an effort to strengthen cultural unity with the Malay Archipelago.

  • The first instances of an all-out campaign to eliminate Marxist elements in Malaya occurred in Gurun. Assassinations, summary executions, and mass genocide often ensued organized acts of civil disobedience.

  • In June, the Second State Durma of the Russian Empire was dissolved following an attempted coup; triggering the arrest of some of its members and a fundamental change in the Russian electoral law.

  • At the 23rd Workers’ Union Congress of Malaya in Singapura on December 16th of 1907, a General Strike was ordered by the secretariat to protest the situation in Gurun. Several tens of thousands (50,000-80,000) gather outside the Sultan’s palace, Istana, in Kota Batu led by dozens of imams and ulema sympathetic to Marxism in order to peacefully state their demands. The Sultan’s forces opened fire on the demonstrators, killing and wounding hundreds. The event is dubbed the “Kota Batu Massacre” and deals a serious amount of damage to both the legitimacy and the prestige of the Bolkiah regime.


  • Having intercepted a communique between the Mindoro Republican Army Group and the Central Luzon Republican Army Group suggesting that a siege of Kota Selurong could occur soon, the Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul-Kiram Bolkiah II, evacuated himself and his family from their palace in the city along with a convoy of the Sulu Navy on the 6th of May.

  • On January 8, 1909; the Arabian Sultan Omer was assassinated, likely due to his continuous attempts to reform Arabia. He was succeded by his younger brother, Cemal II.


  • The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 also known as the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, was made by representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on August 22, 1910. In this treaty, Japan formally annexed Korea following the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 by which Korea became a protectorate of Japan and Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907 by which Korea was deprived of the administration of internal affairs.

  • By October 25, the Republican Army had amassed almost 20,000 troops to storm Kota Selurong from all sides. Using to great effect the use of indigenous bamboo canons, the revolutionaries were able to take the fortress-city, effectively giving them overlordship over the entirety of Luzon, considered to be the cultural homeland of the Tagalogs.

  • On November 1st, the Philippine Republic officially declared its independence from the Sultanate of Sulu. However, only Japan, Siam, and Dai Viet issued proclamations recognizing the sovereignty of the new state in the East Indies. Both Malaya and Sulu remained belligerent about the situation.

  • With practically no oceangoing flotilla, the Philippine Republic remained susceptible to counter-attack. President Aguinaldo declared his intention to build a “Visayan Sea-wall” around major islands and cities to protect Republican resources from falling into enemy hands in the event of a reclamation offensive.


  • Following a failed campaign of national Westernization and a succession crisis among other factors, the mandate of the Qing Dynasty to rule in China finally collapsed during the Xinhai Revolution; the Republic of China was established, but it's ethno-political factions eventually seized the momentum to subjugate the remains of the territories of the old Empire into various cliques.

  • Following the evacuation of the Qing governor fled from Dihua (Ürümqi), a band of Yunnanese fighters led by Yang Zengxin filled the power vacuum, quelled the ensuing rebellion, and established Yang as the provincial leader.

  • Sultan Raiz Zafar Bolkiah I died on May 4th of 1911, and Raiz Zafar's eldest son, Ghalib Mansur, abstained from the throne. This called for Haji Farid to return to Kota Batu and assume the throne as the 12th Sultan of Bruneian Malaya two days later, on the 6th of May.

  • On the 13th of November, the Sultan reconvened the Alliance of the Four Houses - a trans-national alliance in Southeast Asia founded originally during the 17th Century, now composed of the Sultanates, Kedatuans, and Kingdoms of Bruneian Malaya, Sulu, Siam, and Dai Viet - rebranded as the modern “League of the East Indies” to negotiate a much more globalized system of trade that could challenge Western markets outside of each country’s policies on protectionism as well as to discuss the possibility of military collaboration against both separatist democratic movements in the wake of the successes of the Chinese and Tagalog Revolutions and vulnerability to Western interventionism in Southeast Asia.


  • In Malaya, the bellicose fracturing of China led to the passage of new provisions by the Privy Council of Malaya outlawing Communist, Socialist, and Marxist movements, as decreed by its Sultan, Haji Farid, who, inheriting the paranoia of his grandfather, oversees a regime of brutal political repression.

  • Upon assuming the throne, Haji Farid Bolkiah I made sure to replace every major official across the empire; especially those closest to the throne. All of his grandfather's old advisors and officials were immediately dismissed, and replaced with the most zealous and loyal administrators the Sultan could find from his network. He made sure that many of the officials were easily replaced, and had no way of creating income without the gold provided by the Sultan himself. He was also swift to dismantle industrial monopolies, citing market stimulation as reasons for such; although it is suspected that the Sultan simply did not trust having wealthy bourgeoisie have more money than himself. Non-Islamic religious institutions and dhimmi citizens were also taxed heavily, and conversion to Islam was highly encouraged. Languages other than Malay and Arabic were also highly discouraged, and were not taught beyond private universities.


  • Heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and Franz Ferdinand's wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, was assassinated in Sarajevo on the 28th of June. The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia. The conspirators' motives were consistent with the movement that later became known as Young Bosnia. The assassination would directly to the First World War when Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, which was partially rejected. Austria-Hungary then declared war on Serbia, triggering actions leading to war between most European states.

  • The Spanish Empire joins the Central Powers. In response, Arabia and Malaya join the Entente.


  • The Twenty-One Demands are drafted on the 25th of March.

  • The United States of America declared its official neutrality regarding the First World War on the 7th of May, a guarantee not to intervene in European affairs that they would not break until the end of the conflict.

  • Japan and China reach a series of agreements which ratified the first four sets of goals of the Twenty-One Demands on the 25th of May.

  • Malaya along with Sulu invades the Spanish territories in the East Indies, while Spain launches offensives against Arabia in North Africa.


  • In February, a series of public protests began in Petrograd, which lasted for eight days and eventually resulted in the abolition of the monarchy in Russia. The total number of killed and injured in clashes with the police and government troops in Petrograd is estimated to be around 1,300 people.

  • On March 15, as a culmination of civil unrest in Russia, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated and also removed his son from the succession. The following day Nicholas’ brother Mikhail announced his refusal to accept the throne. A Provisional Government is formed to replace the Tsarist government, with Prince Lvov becoming the leader.

  • In May, a telegram sent to the Allied Powers by Foreign Minister Pavel Milyukov stated the Russian Provisional Government’s intention to continue the war. The note was leaked by spies of the German Empire resulting in protests and increased support for the Bolsheviks. Following this, Milyukov resigned and members of the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks joined the Provisional Government. Public outrage culminates into the Russian Civil War between the communist Bolsheviks and the republican Provisional Government.

  • On the 8th of November, the anti-republican Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, took control of the Winter Palace, the last remaining holdout of the Russian Provisional Government.

  • The Decrees on Land (proclaiming abolition of private property and the redistribution of the land amongst the peasantry), and Peace (proposing an immediate withdrawal of Russia from the First World War), are issued by the new Bolshevik government. Subsequent workers’ decrees outline measures for an eight-hour working day, minimum wage and the running of factories. The death penalty is abolished once again.


  • As the scales tip towards the Entente's favor, Arabia launches a massive counter-offensive against Spanish North Africa; sweeping across the Sahara all the way to Morocco. Attempts to invade mainland Spain are made, but end in failure.

  • Malaya finally expels the Spanish Empire from Asia.


  • In March, the Comintern (Communist International or Third International) was formed in Moscow, with the aim of spreading Communist revolution all over the world.

  • Allied and German representatives sign treaty of Versailles.


  • Sun Yat-sen established a revolutionary base in Guangzhou and set out to unite the fragmented nation. He welcomed assistance from the Soviet Union (itself fresh from Lenin's takeover) and he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Communist Party of China.

  • In Japan, newspapers had begun to give extensive coverage of the racist laws meant to exclude Asian immigrants such as the "White Americas" policy; the anti-Asian immigrant laws by the U.S. Congress in 1882, 1917 and 1924; and the "White Canada" policy together with reports about how Asians suffered from prejudice in the United States, Canada and in places ruled by Europeans like India.

  • Throughout the 1920s, the port of Yokohama became a point of refuge for Asian revolutionaries fleeing political persecution, including those fleeing from the monarchies of Southeast Asia. This harmed Japan-Malaya relations significantly, as both sides begin to villainize the other.

  • On the 10th of January, during the Treaty of Versailles, Cairene Arabia managed to successfully negotiate its claimed territory from the Spanish Empire and regain its great power status.

  • On June 8th, Malaya annexed Sulu under the pretext of a “benevolent assimilation” into the Bruneian Empire. Because Malaya did not recognize the sovereignty of the Philippine Republic, officials and militants unwilling to submit to the Malayan prerogative were considered to be insurgents, and the Filipino-Malayan War began.

  • Beginning with the landing of Malayan forces at Lingayen Gulf on the 15th of June, the Filipino forces were quickly defeated in a series of battles on the Luzon mainland by superior Malayan drilling and modern equipment. Particularly, Malayan infantry were equipped with semi-automatic self-loading rifles, whilst Tagalog forces could only field bolt-action rifles.


  • On February 16th, Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo signed the decree of total and unconditional surrender to the Malayan forces who were able to occupy the entirety of Luzon in a little less than a year of fighting. General Artemio Ricarte, however, together with a band of Aguinaldo’s other most trusted generals, continued to fight a decentralized guerilla war in Mindoro and West Mindanao in the name of the Republic.


  • In December, a 1922 treaty between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).


  • On June 15 or the Dhu al-Qa'dah 1, the Arabian Sultan Musatafa bin Cemal declared that Arabia was now to be renamed the Circassian Caliphate, and that the national language would shift from Arabic to Circassian. Such was preposterous and further alienated the Arabs, rapidly increasing revolutionary sentiment among the majority Arab population. Despite this, there was no initial violent reaction; and there would be none for the next three months, as strategically expected by the Mamluk Sultan, who knew fully well that for the next three months of Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and al-Muharram; the faithful Muslims among the Arabs would refrain from combat.

  • On September 13 or Safar 1, Mustafa would be assassinated on his way to Medina.

  • On September 20, the Sochi Palace Brawl would erupt. The Mamluk leaders could not agree whom among them should succeed Mustafa, and the argument escalates into a brawl; which marks the beginning of the 7th Fitnah. Following the brawl, the Mamluk leaders would gather support and organize their personal armies to wage a civil war for the throne.


  • On the 24th of January, the sudden death of Soviet Premier Vladimir Lenin triggered a power vacuum amongst members of the Soviet Politburo. After presenting (possibly forged) signed evidence of succession, Leon Trotsky became the Head of State of the U.S.S.R.

  • Josef Stalin retained his position as General-Secretary of the Soviet Union, but had little to no power following the elimination of his political allies by the Trotskyist faction.

  • On February 31, Bahadir al-Ramin would form an agreement with the Abbasids in Qahira. He agreed that in exchange for their support, he would re-establish the Abbasids as the caliphal dynasty.

  • The Abbasid Caliphate and Sultanate of Qahira is once more declared in Qahira, and garners massive support from the Arab majority.



Pan-asiatic states