"Urs Negru" 5P103 Anti-Aircraft System
The "Urs Negru" 5P103 is an all-weather, short-range, low-altitude, self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon used by the armed forces of the Federal Republic and designed and produced by WURCo., a Cossack arms company. The "Urs Negru", as part of the changes that came with the Air Defense Acquisition and Revitalization Program (ADARP), was refocused in 2021 into a far more mobile, shorter-ranged system in order to provide day and night protection against various aircraft and guided munition threats that an army on the march would face.
The system is praised for its high kill probability per missile and the utility of its dual-weapon method of disposing of threats; the former is largely due to the shorter range of the missile giving less time for an aircraft to evade, while the latter gains praise for having economical autocannons alongside its missiles for slow-flying aircraft at distance or as a last-ditch interception attempt.
The "Urs Negru" 5P103, as opposed to its larger and longer-reached cousins, is geared toward being a purely defensive weapon, being more capable of engaging incoming munitions and direct threats to its escorts than shooting down the faraway aggressor itself. As such, this air defense system is referred to as "an air defense system for your air defense system", as it is also typically deployed along larger, less flexible air defense systems (see "Maslowski" 5P149, RtfPR-400).
As part of the bloated military budget that characterized Principle Chairman Vadimir Bezukhov's early administration, the 5P103 system came into being with the intent of being a more advanced contemporary of the 5P89 and 5P81 systems, although in early performance its more recent design was moot due to inherent design flaws like the dispersal of its equipment across several platforms, hindering its mobility and increasing its maintenance and complexity.
The first major use of the "Urs Negru" system was in 2006 during the East Cossack Secessionist Incident, where its role in prohibiting air travel from nearby rebel-held airports and engaging civilian drones presumably used by the secessionists. However, its bulkiness (with a separate fire control radar on another vehicle with limited view) did slow their readiness and engagement speed.
During the South Seas War, the 5P103 was deployed to defend key areas, such as Korf, New Krasnoyarsk, and military bases abroad. After the seizure of Omega Basis, 5P103 units were moved in to replace the depleted 5P81 and 5P89 systems, where they saw no combat.
A battery consists of two "Urs Negru" vehicles, although each unit is certainly capable of operating independently. The chassis of the 5P103-A model is based on a wheeled Kartoplya (Retrospectively classified as Type 184) armored vehicle hull, though more recent versions such as the 5P103-D operate on the tracked and amphibious Type 319 infantry fighting vehicle chassis. In either case, the system is self-propelled and consolidated into one vehicle, acting as the transporter, erector, launcher, command, and guidance platform. The system needs three operators for maximum efficiency, although the equipment is capable of being operated, however poorly, by a single operator. The given reaction time for the system against 'surprise' threats (those detected and engaged utilizing its own sensors without any forewarning from allies) is 5-8 seconds.
The 5P103 is equipped with the Common Air Defense Networking Band, a data link which allows the functions of other air defense systems, from large-scale radars to SAM positions, to be complementary. This way, the 5P103 can participate in a potentially nation-wide integrated air defense network, providing a crucial short-range utility to larger air defense systems. As well as that, the 5P103-D, based upon a Type 319, provides its crew with full CBRN protection.
The armament of the "Urs Negru" (5P103-D) consists of two VKP-1059 Erivorsh 30mm autocannons and twelve missile tubes armed with Klyuvka-1250 surface-to-air missiles. It features a digitalized fire control system to engage targets.
The guns of the "Urs Negru", the dual VKP-1059 Erivorsh 30mm autocannons, provide the air defense system with a kill probability of 0.8 at acceptable ranges. The autocannon, a successor to the aging DKh-63 20mm autocannon, is capable of firing up to 2,300 rounds per minute per gun for a combined rate of fire of 4,600 rounds per minute. Firing typically in bursts of 60 to 150 rounds, the VKP-1059 can utilize 600 rounds of high-explosive-incendiary rounds for each gun at engagement distances from 0.3 to 4.2 kilometers. On the 5P103 turret, the weapons are able to elevate from -11o to 89o. The 5P103 can fire its guns while on the move, and automatically guides the aim of the weapons using either radar guidance from Shchyt PZR-1084 or visual from Shpyhun SVK-1127.
The Klyuvka-1250 is a solid-fuel, two-stage surface-to-air missile, a cousin of the Dz'ob-1252 missile used on naval point defense batteries. The missile uses a first stage which accelerates to 1,200 m/s (Mach 3.5) and a secondary sustainer stage to guide the weapon to its target. Unlike its naval variant, however, the missile is slower and uses radio/optical command guidance from either the Shchyt PZR-1084 or Shpyhun SVK-1127 systems. The missile has a similar range of 15 kilometers with a 10,000 meter ceiling, and utilizes a radio-fuze operated 20 kilogram continuous rod warhead. When on the move, the "Urs Negru" can stop briefly while tracking a target to fire its missile payload.
The Shchyt PZR-1084 is a passive electronically scanned array (PESA) used to guide the weapon systems of the "Urs Negru" 5P103. Operating on the C-band, the radar permits long-range tracking of targets with high accuracy, which is advantageous when relating to air defense. As it is a passive array, with only one transmitter and low sidelobe, it is less susceptible to signal detection while remaining just as effective. The Shchyt allows for the tracking of targets at ranges up to 22 kilometers away. The PZR-1084 can track and engage three targets at once, and to complicate ECM, can also simultaneously guide the missiles on different frequencies.
The Shpyhun SVK-1127 is a electro-optical tracking system used to complement the PZR-1084 radar in the acquisition and engagement of targets. The SVK-1127 allows the guns and missiles to be guided to their targets within visual range completely passively, giving the target no indication of their engagement prior to identification of the missile. In case of miscommunication or human error, the Shpyhun is also linked with an IFF system to discern friendly targets from possible hostiles. The electro-optical system is able to track and engage two targets simultaneously.
The Navidnyk RPA-1103 is a dual-band 3D Air Search Radar which, atop its rotating mount on the turret, provides 360o of long-range target tracking. The radar operates in the L- and S-bands, which gives it excellent long-range surveillance capabilities. The Navidnyk is capable of tracking up to 54 targets at ranges no greater than 28 kilometers away.
"Maslowki" 5P149 Air Defense System
The "Maslowski" 5P149 is an all-weather, networked and distributed air defense system with short-to-medium range capabilities. Originally developed as the Type 339 under WURCo.'s vehicle registry, the "Maslowski" is the first land-based application of both the Yastrub PHO-953 naval surface-to-air missile and "Veles" KPD-44 short-range air-to-air missile, as well as the first surface-to-air system designed under that registry.
As part of the Air Defense Acquisition and Revitalization Program (ADARP), the 5P149 provides a crucial role on land for protecting locations of importance and warding off aircraft and cruise missiles at range from Cossack Army formations. The "Maslowski" is designed to defend against supersonic aircraft, helicopters, unmanned vehicles, cruise missiles, and precision-guided munitions (PGMs).
The closure of the South Seas War brought about one final conclusion regarding the control of the skies of a battlespace; that if air superiority with aircraft could not be achieved, then air denial must be at least reached. During the war, this was the case as the Cossack Air Force failed to successfully intercept enemy fighter aircraft, so the exposed advances of military units relied upon the scattered organic formations of the Cossack Air Defense for defense against aerial threats.
However, the state of the Cossack Air Defense was woeful. Many of the air defense systems were under repair during the war, and with the disparate (and in some cases, heavily outdated) array of equipment in service, it was clear to the Department of War that the service life of these systems was long expired.
After the Second Cossack Civil War, Operation Plan Whetstone established several objectives on the standards of the military and its functions. Part of this was the Air Defense Acquisition and Revitalization Program (ADARP), which officially retired many air defense systems (such as the 5P89, 5P81), issued much-needed upgrades on remaining equipment, and requisitioned newer equipment to fill in the gaps.
The "Maslowski" 5P149 came as part of that program, and filled a gap for a medium-range air defense system left open for far too long.
The 5P149 integrates the Reyndzher PER-977 Detection and Tracking Radar, Oko POA-1000 Passive Air Surveillance System, and Yanychar TM-1049 Fire Control System in order to provide surveillance of the airspace by either active or passive means, as well as the tracking and engagement of targets. The "Maslowski" also utilizes the ROPM-10 Battle Management System, which helps coordinate the various appendages incorporated into the system.
Most of the system is mobile via trailer or based upon an existing truck or armored vehicle chassis. This way, the system remains fairly mobile and can keep pace with mobile formations while remaining fairly cheap. In addition, the command vehicle (ROPM-10 Battle Management System), as well as some dedicated WC-250 5-ton trucks, have CBRN protection to allow operation of the SAM position even in chemically, biologically, or radiologically hazardous circumstances.
A "Maslowski" 5P149 battery consists of:
2 x launch units, mounted on either TMP-2249 trailers or on the back of Makovsky WC-250 5-ton trucks.
1 x Reyndzher PER-977 Air Search Radar, typically based in a similar trailer unit or on the bed of a WC-250 5-ton truck.
1 x Oko POA-1000 Passive Surveillance System, typically based in a similar trailer unit
1-2 x Yanychar TM-1049 Fire Control Radar based in the bed of a Makovsky WC-250 5-ton truck
The "Veles" KPD-44 is a short-range air-to-air missile repurposed for stationary platform launch. An advanced munition in a relatively compact frame, the KPD-44 uses an all-aspect 115x115 resolution electro-optical imaging infrared focal plane seeker to acquire targets before or after launch (Lock-On After Launch), which provides the missile high ECM resistance and longer range than other infrared missiles. Fired from a WC-250 or TMP-2249, the missile uses a dual-burn, high impulse solid rocket motor to reach speeds greater than Mach 3 for ranges up to 29 kilometers (range dependent on head-on engagement or not) in all weather conditions. The detonation mechanism is a laser proximity fuse, which when triggered detonates the 10-kilogram blast/fragmentation warhead. The "Veles" KPD-44 provides the "Maslowski" with a shorter-range, fire-and-forget munition for self-defense or target engagement while minimizing emissions.
The Yastrub PHO-953 is a medium-range surface-to-air missile system. It came as part of the ADARP (Air Defense Acquisition and Revitalization Program) series of air defense reforms and includes a mobile land-based variant as well as a sea variant. It is designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned air vehicles. Paired with the Reyndzher PER-977 and Yanychar TM-1049 radars, the missile can engage targets of radar cross sections as low as 0.05 square meters at ranges up to 180 kilometers (in head-on engagements). The missile has a two-mode solid-fuel rocket engine that allows it to accelerate up to Mach 5.3 with a total burn time of eighteen seconds. A variation of the naval PHO-953, the land-based SAM's guidance consists of being designated a target and then utilizing active radar homing via AESA to engage that target. Upon the target triggering the radio proximity fuze, the 60-kilogram blast fragmentation warhead detonates, scattering nearly 7,000 pieces of fragmentation in prearranged patterns to damage or destroy aircraft or munitions.
The Reyndzher PER-977 is an L-band active electronically scanned array radar used as a long-range search-and-track radar. Trailer- or truck-bound, the radar can track fighter-sized targets at 190-220 kilometers away, and provides a 32o vertical sector view and, upon its rotating mount, 360o of horizontal coverage. The system can track up to 48 targets simultaneously.
The Oko POA-1000 is a passive surveillance system, consisting of a trailer-drawn unit utilizing a thermographic camera with 360o coverage and a laser rangefinder in order to passively identify and even acquire targets. The Oko is able to cue short-range "Veles" KPD-44 missiles while the "Maslowski" system minimizes its radio and radar emissions, seriously hampering SEAD attempts. Also, in the event of the tracking or fire control radars being jammed, the Oko can act as a rangefinder immune to the jamming effects, thus neutralizing the effect of the radar jamming.
The Yanychar TM-1049 is a X-band fire control radar utilizing Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination in order to track and engage several targets simultaneously. Because of its capabilities as a AESA, the Yanychar possesses a low sidelobe and is thus resistant to primitive anti-radiation missiles. The Yanychar TM-1049 is used to guide the variant Yastrub PHO-953, the main weapon of the system. Two fire control radars are provided for each battery to enable a wider radius covered, as the radar system is limited in coverage.
The ROPM-10 Battle Management System, based in a Type 342 "Mazepa" armored personnel carrier, houses the command and coordination functions of the SAM battery. The system, through data links, allows for the individual pieces of equipment to be operated from up to 10 kilometers away from the command station, as well as allowing interoperability with other SAM systems, AEW aircraft, and fixed radar stations (OTH radars). This allows the components of the "Maslowski" to operate in a dispersed manner, increasing the security of its operators and of the equipment itself. Another benefit is that by linking with AEW, other SAM radars, or even Over-The-Horizon radar installations, it effectively becomes a multistatic radar network which enables the SAM battery, through data fusion, to either serve a part in or actively participate in the engagement of stealth aircraft, whose stealth shaping is overcome by the different angles and degrees of which radar signals reflect off of it (and from which radar tracking can be established).
The "Maslowski" 5P149, when prepared, is able to respond to aerial threats in 6-10 seconds.
The RtfPR-400 is a series of long-range, mobile surface-to-air missile systems produced by WURCo., a Cossack arms company. Initially designed as a purely ballistic missile defense system, the system grew to incorporate various types of interchangeable radars, launchers, and munitions to color itself into a cornerstone of Cossack air defenses.
As part of the ADARP (Air Defense Acquisition and Revitalization Program), the RtfPR-400 was updated to include interoperability capabilities with other systems, as to promote an integrated air defense network. With this, it also allows the RtfPR-400 to operate launchers and munitions from other systems, assimilating the different levels of air defense into under one battery.
The RtfPR-400 forms an important part of the FRCP's ballistic missile defense, with itself and its naval variant (see Podorozh-400) acting as the final ring of defense against incoming ballistic threats.
The first nuclear weapons test in the predecessor state of the FRCP was in 1974; since then, the Commonwealth and its successor have been embroiled in nuclear politics. New forms of nuclear delivery led to new forms of defense, and the widespread introduction of the anti-ballistic missile was the catalyst for the enactment of the Ballistic Defense and Security Motion (BDSM) by the legislators of the Commonwealth, which was taken up by the FRCP proper. The first units were churned out in late 1993.
In the late autumn of 2019, several RtfPR-400 batteries were placed on high alert in strategic positions, aided by 5P103 systems.
The RtfPR-400 is made up of a variety of radars, launchers, and munitions to provide a wide scope of air defense. Most of its systems, including launcher platforms, are based upon the tracked Makovsky IV-848 transporters which grant it good off-road capabilities. The launch platform, designated the IV-853, acts as a TELAR (Transporter Erector Launcher And Radar) and during a launch process will hoist the missile tubes completely vertically, allowing for omnidirectional engagement.
The air defense system includes several advanced survivability measures, such as frequency-hopping on all active radars and the inclusion of a passive radar module to resist jamming. In addition, many of the munitions unique to the RtfPR-400 have resistance to radar jamming by their wide bandwidths and frequency hopping. In the most physical sense, the system can also have its observability reduced by the application of the Ustinov Pattern netting common on the newer ground vehicles of the FRCP, as well as lower the vehicles into the ground (i.e. a trench) to reduce their profile. Inflatable decoys are also typically available to a battery, mimicking the shape of a combat-ready IV-853 launcher vehicle.
The RtfPR-400 can be combat-ready from a mobile state in less than thirty minutes, and is designed to defend against normal aircraft, aerodynamic (hypersonic) and ballistic targets, and cruise missiles. A fully-equipped battery can track 48 targets and engage up to 7 targets at a time as well as detect and track up to 95 targets at range.
A battery of the RtfPR-400 system typically involves:
6-10 x IV-853 launchers
4-6 x Mozhlyvistʹ WW-127 fire control radars
1 x Velyke Vukho AT-130 Passive Surveillance System
2 x Poyas VI-144 All-Altitude Sector Tracking Radar
1 x Korolivsʹkyy KI-146 Long Range Air Search Radar
1 x Zolotyy MA-259 Anti-Ballistic Missile Radar
1 x IV-848 Generator vehicle
1 x IV-848 Communications Platform
1-2 x Site Survey Vehicles, typically LAZP-53 mobility vehicles
The IV-853 is a modular launcher and guidance vehicle that can launch under the guidance of the battery's radars as well as perform autonomous active and passive engagement at shorter ranges using its own systems; however, not all launch vehicles include the HA-901 sensor mast. The HA-901 is a mast-mounted C-band Passive Electronically Scanned Array (PESA) radar, which also includes a passive thermographic sensor and a laser rangefinder; when not needed, such as when relying on a larger radar system, the HA-901 is typically turned off. The launch vehicle, based on the IV-848 tracked transport vehicle, has a diesel engine of 513 horsepower, capable of moving the vehicle at speeds up to 75 km/h on-road for up to 650 kilometers when loaded. The launch vehicle's loads typically consist of up to five MO-97 launch tubes which each can carry up to 3 Yastrub PHO-953, four "Polevoy" PHO-437, or a single "Ipabog" DRPP-19. The launch unit can also maintain two MO-32 launch tubes, each capable of carrying one "Zvezda" DRPP-933 anti-ballistic missile.
The Mozhlyvist' WW-127 is an electronically steered phased array operated in the X-band that is utilized by the RtfPR-400 system as the primary fire control radar. The large size of the system, taking up the entirety of the back of a IV-848 transporter, allows the radar to have a significant range of 200 kilometers against targets of 1 m2 and 390 kilometers of targets of 4 m2. The system can track and engage up to 8 targets. The system is powered by an equipped generator separate from the vehicle's diesel engine. The radar posses a low sidelobe, allowing it resistance against anti-radiation missiles (ARM), and has a fairly wide bandwidth to allow for automatic frequency hopping to counteract jamming techniques. When not in use, it is typically kept in a passive mode to avoid being detected by enemy signals intelligence.
The Velyke Vukho AT-130 is a completely passive radar system based in several Makosvsky WC-250 5-ton trucks. Although by technical definition it is an electronic support measures (ESM) system, it is intended to operate alongside radar systems to illuminate targets. The system consists of several receivers that are typically dispersed several kilometers apart in order to receive and triangulate the position of signals: these may include radio signals, electromagnetic radiation, and radar reflections or scatter from stealth aircraft. The system has an effective range of 400 kilometers, though it can reach up to 700 kilometers under unusual situations (such as the system being mounted impractically high, such as on a mountain), but it is usually confined by line-of-sight unless there is an unusually strong transmitter. The Velyke Vukho can work in conjunction with OTH radars and even space-based radar systems to detect and track stealth aircraft.
The Poyas VI-144 is an S-band AESA sector tracking radar designed with jamming resistant features such as automatic frequency hopping and based upon an IV-848 transporter. Using Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination, the VI-144 can track up to 100 targets in a 60o area. The range of the system is approximately 330 kilometers. The Poyas is capable of designating targets for Yastrub PHO-953 missiles. When not in combat operations, it is usually kept on a passive mode to avoid giving away its location on the back of a IV-848 transporter.
The Zolotyy MA-259 is the primary anti-ballistic missile radar of the FRCP. The system is found along the entire length of an WM-758 trailer, which is towed by a IV-848 or Makovsky WC-250 vehicle. Using a digital antenna array, the X-band radar has a range of 1,300 kilometers capable of detecting, tracking, and engaging incoming ballistic targets. The X-band radar also has better target resolution than an L-band radar, so it is capable of differentiating warheads from countermeasures such as decoys and chaff. The mobile Zolotyy allows for the nuclear defenses of the FRCP to be extended in conjunction with the Harsk's ballistic missile defense capabilities.
The "Polevoy" PHO-437 is a command-guided surface to air missile utilized by the RtfPR-400 as a short-range "self-defense" missile. The missile was designed to be cued and guided by the HA-901 sensor and radar mast, providing a munition for the TELAR's autonomous engagement. The missile, due to its short range of 39 kilometers (though through trajectory optimizations it can reach 67 kilometers) has a high kill probability of 0.8. The PHO-437 uses terminal imaging infrared guidance to intercept aircraft with its 100-kilogram continuous rod warhead. The missile can reach speeds up to Mach 5.6.
The "Ipabog" DRPP-19 is a long-range surface-to-air missile utilized as the main anti-air missile alongside the Yastrub PHO-953. The "Ipabog" is meant to engage aircraft at long distances, particularly large aircraft like transports, airborne early-warning systems, and bombers though it has successfully engaged maneuverable fighter-sized targets before. The range of the missile is single-handedly the longest anti-air missile in the Cossack arsenal at 496 kilometers at a maximum speed of Mach 3.9. The missile has a flight ceiling of 35 kilometers and a limited ability to intercept ballistic missiles. For guidance, the "Ipabog" utilizes both semi-active radar homing and active radar guidance to initially accelerate to the altitude of the target before turning to active radar guidance, which is supplied by an active electronically scanned X-band radar. The radar is resistant to jamming and spoofing by directing a pencil beam onto the initially detected target (also supplied via the land-based guidance radars), using the Doppler Effect to distinguish chaff or other countermeasures from the target, and frequency hopping to avoid jamming.
The "Zvezda" DRPP-933 is an anti-ballistic and anti-satellite missile utilized by the RtfPR-400. Capable of reaching up to low earth orbit with a ceiling of 180-200 kilometers; this gives the "Zvezda" the ability to engage most ballistic missiles at the beginning of its terminal phase, as well as satellites and hypersonic glide vehicles that reach into the high altitude or LEO (Low-Earth-Orbit). Otherwise, in the atmosphere, it has a range of 240 kilometers using a single-stage, solid-fuel rocket. The maximum target velocity that can be successfully engaged by the "Zvezda" is upwards of Mach 20, which is well equipped to deal with hypersonic vehicles and even reentering warheads from ICBMs. The missile itself is very large, only being able to be carried by the MO-32 launch system, but can accelerate to speeds up to Mach 9.3 at altitude. The missile is initially guided by a form of semi-active radar homing called Track-Via-Missile, which makes the missile detect the illumination of radar energy from the Zolotyy MA-259 and transmit that information back to a command station, where it will be guided to the target; this makes it difficult to jam because it is not the missile's systems generating the intercept. However, the data link that connects the missile to the ground station itself could be jammed; this is helped by including a second data link frequency to hop to, as well as a terminal imaging infrared seeker for target interception. The "Zvezda" has no explosive warhead, being a hit-to-kill missile to avoid detonating nuclear warheads when intercepted.