More expansion under Cemal the Conqueror before entry into decline.
On December 31, 1846; the Arabian Empire under Sultan Cemal the Conqueror, would launch an invasion of Kurdistan. At the time, it was under the protection of the Persian Empire; and to deter Persian intervention, Arabia called in all its allies, including Malaya under Raiz Zafar. Seeking to test Malaya's new military capabilities, and to prove to the world in a great display of power Malaya's ability to hold its own, Raiz Zafar was enthusiastic to join Cemal's Conquest of Kurdistan. Furthermore, several other powerful nations joined Arabia; such as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Venetian Republic, as well as the Morisco Republics of Algharb and Alfida.
In fear of facing so many powers at once, the Persian Empire backed out its protection of Qara Qoyunlu, and simply allowed Arabia to conquer and annex it.
On October 28, 1855; tensions between Siam and Malaya would finally erupt into full-blown war between the two. While Malaya was able to swiftly occupy the Siamese portion of Sumatra, the terrain of Siam made it difficult for the Malayan army to proceed further.
Furthermore, Dai Viet joined Siam against Malaya; and their combined might numbered thrice that of Malaya's, giving them a significant land advantage. However, Malaya's navy was far larger, more advanced, and generally more experienced than that of the Bolkiah Alliance. This proved to make the war excruciatingly difficult for both sides, prolonging it until August 20, 1861.
Following the eruption of the Bolkian War in Southeast Asia, the 6th Fitnah would erupt in Arabia. The Circassian Mamluks would wrestle power from the Arab majority and the Abbasid Caliph and move the center of power from Egypt to Circassia, resulting in a massive civil war.
Spain seeing opportunity, began to make plans to invade the Arabian Maghreb during the 6th Fitnah.
Spain sold the Philippines to Malaya and Sulu and signs a non-aggression pact.
As the 6th Fitnah continues, Spain and Persia would lead incursions into the Maghreb and Southern Persia respectively; taking territory from Arabia in the middle of its civil war.
The 6th Fitnah ends on September 1857, in the Islamic Month of al-Muharram. The Abbasid Caliphate is abolished, and the Mamluk Sultan Fatih declares a monarchy with himself as both caliph and sultan.
Revolts against Venetian and Polish overlords result in the liberation of the Balkans during the years of 1857 and 1860 respectively.
In 1862, Fatih's successor, Arslan; invaded the Balkans. Due to the lack of industrialization however, Arabia was severely lagging behind in terms of technological advancements and poorly prepared for war against European nations; being easily beaten back by a coalition of Balkan nations and their supporters.
On February 19, 1887; Omer would succeed Tarik as Sultan. Like the reign of Arslan and his successor Tarik, Omer's was that of stagnation and decline. However, unlike his predecessors; Omer made attempts to reconcile Arabia with the dissatisfied Arab majority, and modernize alongside the West. Due to his attempted reforms however, he would constantly butt heads with some powerful Mamluks
The Propaganda Movement begins - a period of time when native non-Bruneian Malayans were calling for reforms, lasting approximately from 1880 to 1886 with the most activity between 1880 and 1895, as a direct result of a globalized book trade. European ideas, ideologies, and tactics poured into the Bruneian Empire inspiring several separatist movements critical of monarchism and absolutism.
Famines in Russia killed between 375,000 and 400,000 and affected millions more throughout the 1890s, rapid industrialization in rural Europe culminated in the popularization of communist ideas which spilled over to Asia and the Americas as well.
The idea of a Tagalog identity unifying the peoples of Central Luzon under a “Tagalog Nation” is first expressed by independence writer Dr. Yusuf ar-Rijal (Jose Rizal), who states that “Tagalog or, stated more clearly, the name "tagalog" has no other meaning but "tagailog" which, traced directly to its root, refers to those who prefer to settle along rivers, truly a trait, it cannot be denied, of all those born in Bangsatagalog, in whatever island or town.”
In January, 1892, the Katipunan or Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Association of the Children of the Nation), a Philippine independence movement, was founded. Members stockpile arms and agitate for freedom from their Malayan occupiers.
In May, 1896, a delegation was sent to Emperor Meiji of Japan in order to solicit funds and military arms. The Katipunan's existence was revealed to Sulu authorities after a member named Teodoro Patiño revealed the Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister, and finally to an Imam in Mandaluyong. This forced the movement into adapting a guerilla doctrine, with separate chapters in Mindoro and Panay.
On December 30, 1896, Dr. Yusuf ar-Rijal, falsely charged with the crime of leading the Katipunan is executed in Bagumbayan.
In 1898, a democratic independence movement of Central Luzon Filipino peoples, the Fatherland Republic of the Tagalog Peoples (Haring Bayang Katagalugan or the Tagalog Republic) declared secession from the Kesultanan Besar of Sulu on the 7th of July following a decisive military victory against its occupiers at the Battle of Tondo. Under the command of a certain General Emilio Aguinaldo, over 3,200 ill-prepared Sulu troops werw routed by some 2,000 meagerly-equipped rebels, who forced their occupiers into the fortress-city of Kota Selurong.
On the 15th of August, the Tagalog movement, branding itself as the first ever Republic of the Philippines, convened in the town of Tejeros to elect its first cabinet. General Aguinaldo was elected its first President, while democratic idealist Apolinario Mabini was elected its first Prime Minister. The First Philippine Republic became the first unitary elected constitutional democracy in Asia.
On August 29, Sulu forces launched an ill-advised counter-attack at Camaya from across Manila Bay. 1,000-2,500 Malayan fighters were either killed or captured.
A rectification offensive was announced by President Aguinaldo on September 31st. The Republican Army marches from its camp in Paombong, Bulacan to as far Northward as Bangui in a series of decisive victories against the Imperial forces of Sulu.
In December, Sulu forces attempted to break the encirclement around Kota Selurong one more time, but severe flooding slowed down the offensive and led to another decisive Philippine victory.