T H E—G E O P O L I T I C S—R O L E P L A Y—R E G I O N
Global / International
George Floyd did not die in the States. Which did not trigger the explosive response it did irl.
COVID-19 is not as widespread nor as dangerous as irl due to a variety of measures implemented by various countries against COVID-19.
Ireland known as the Free Irish State (The irish-state). The Free Irish State retains the British monarch as a ceremonial figure. The Irish also fought in WW2, Iraq, & Afghanistan. Although their role in each conflict differed substantially in both size, & length.
Peninsular Malaysia (Malayu) never annexes Sarawak, North Borneo, & Singapore. PKMM becomes more popular due to anti-colonial nationalism in the 50's. Instead of rotating Constitutional Monarchy, a Federation is established with an elected head of state. PKMM establishes semi-socialist rule in the early years which means the Malayan emergency didn't take place. PKMM ruling party until the founder dies. At which point the successor takes over but he would struggle with charges of corruption. Then in the 80's Malaya follows irl: UNMO doing economic stability & development with Mahathir as PM. Until a corruption scandal at which point UNMO is voted out in favor of the opposition: MPF (Malay People's Front).
With a new Republic proclaimed, China (Zhen Dynasty) would eventually be unified in 1919. The Zhen Dynasty would be formed upon unification. Zhen undergoes it's own purge in the aftermath of unification. Beiyang Decade. Zhen Dynasty retains possession of Taiwan & the Pescadores. Tongmenghui resistance in the South of Zhen for several decades. Ties with North Korea are deteriorated. A continuous racial conflict with no end in sight.
Siam is involved in more theatres of war alongside the Japanese. Fighting from Burma to Indonesia. As a consequence, Siam (Phra Hanuman) is split into three States upon the end of WWII. Today, Thailand is split into three competing States which have continued a limited form of cold-war style conflicts.
Indonesia (Great Indonesian Republic) is given independence in 1942. Native Indonesians volunteer & fight in the IJA against European colonialism in Asia. Indonesia fights against the Dutch in 45' & gains independence in 49'. Indonesia controls British Borneo & & Timor.
The 2nd Empire of México (El-estado-mexicano) is victorious in the 2nd French Intervention. Belize is annexed. México participates in WWI & more actively participates in WWII. Mexican Revolution looks different. Diaz never takes power. Maria Josepha Iturbide isn't killed in Romania. The Iturbide's rule in México up into the present. McLane-Ocampo treaty ratified. Benito Juárez branded, 'Yankee Dog' & ultimately killed in a mysterious raid.
1859: McLane-Ocampo treaty (Federative states of america / El-estado-mexicano) is ratified under the Democrat-controlled Senate. Benito Juárez receives $2 million immediately with the other $2 million being held for claims against the Mexican Government by American citizens. Juárez image is badly damaged even to his most ardent Liberal supporters.
1861: 2nd French Intervention (El-estado-mexicano) begins. Benito Juárez & the Liberals find themselves equipped quite well due to the cash received from the McLane-Ocampo treaty. However, there is infighting & recruits are not as plentiful due to the signing of the McLane-Ocampo treaty. In addition, worried over the possible use of the treaty by the Confederacy, Juárez declared that he was neutral in the American Civil War. He would send thousands of soldiers to garrison the Northern border & uphold this neutrality when & where possible.
1863: Republican Secretary of War & Navy Pedro Hinojosa defects to the Empire alongside Santiago Vidaurri.
1864: Benito Juárez is captured when defector Pedro Hinojosa sells Juárez out to the Empire. Porfirio Diaz launches a coup for leader of the Liberals soon after he learns that Juárez has been captured.
1865: Diaz captured in Oaxaca. On April 1st, the 2nd Empire of México (El-estado-mexicano) proclaims itself victorious & the legitimate Government of México. The Liberals collapse & dissolve into small bands of guerillas. McLane-Ocampo treaty declared void. Emperador Maximilian I of México organizes the repayment of the $2 million given to Juárez to placate the Yankees. Also marks the beginning of the Reconstruction Era for México.
1871: Plan de la Noria is launched by Diaz against the Imperial Mexican Government. Diaz loses like irl but would be pardoned by Emperador Maximilian I again.
1876: Plan of Tuxtepec is launched by Porfirio Diaz. Yet again, he loses & is exiled to the United States.
1898: the 2nd Empire invades Chan Santa Cruz & then invades the British colony of British Honduras (modern day Belize). The Americans are invited to mediate the war & ultimately, México is backed up by the Americans through the use of the Monroe Doctrine.
1904: Maximilian I of México dies. Agustín de Iturbide y Green takes up the crown as Emperador of México. México soon plunges into the Mexican Revolution due to Agustin's weak rule & tendency to suffer nervous breakdowns.
1917: Zimmerman Telegraph leads Agustin to join WW1 on the side of the Entente despite protests against Mexican entry. In addition, this is the formal endpoint of the Mexican Revolution.
1925: Emperador Agustín de Iturbide y Green dies. María Josepha Sophia de Iturbide is crowned Emperatriz (Empress) of México & is the first female monarch of the country.
1936: Leon Trotsky is allowed into México. Trotsky goes on to become an influential figure in el Partido Comunista de México (the Communist Party of México) as Cardenas bill against extremism was not passed by Emperatriz Maria.
1936-1939: México officially & publicly supports the Nationalist forces of Spain at the behest of Emperatriz María. Despite protests from Caudillo Cardenas. Maria declares full support for the Nationalist forces under Franco. Volunteers & supplies are sent to the Nationalists.
1942: México declares war on the Axis Powers. Conscripted troops are sent overseas to participate in the European & eventual Asian theater mostly alongside & in support of the Yankees. Several protests are held in México over the length of the intervention to condemn Mexican involvement in foreign wars.
1946: Salvador Abascal wins the 1946 Caudillo elections. Abascal has México withdraw inward as the country becomes mostly isolationist (as per irl).
1939: The Irish Free State declares war on Nazi Germany & joins the Allies.
1954: The French & German governments developed a detailed plan for Saarpaysian independence (Saarpays) & signed by the two countries on 23 October 1954, as one of the Paris Pacts. A year later a referendum was held & passed with 67.71%. This referendum mandated that the Saarpays join the Western European Union, that the Saarpaysian leader is a European Commissioner appointed by the Council of Ministers, & to keep their economic union with France.
1960: The United Nations would deploy a Peacekeeping Force to the Congo, a small group of Irish Defense Forces personnel. This group of Soldiers would come under siege at Jadotville from Katangese Gendarmerie troops. The company would fail to hold out against the enemy forces & would be forced to surrender. They would return home to Ireland regarded as 'disgraces' until 2016.
1963: Khrushchev (Selviand) becomes increasingly erratic & unwilling to compromise with the Central Committee, leading to his replacement by his protégé Leonid Brezhnev in 1964 & early retirement. Brezhnev rolls back most of Khrushchev’s reforms, ushering in a new era of Soviet conservatism, authoritarianism & stagnation.
1966: Sunday Riots occur in Saarland. The people rioted & ransacked the nearby French town of Forbach to gain their leader’s attention. To quell the Saarpaysians the Western European Union agreed to change their system of elected Saarpaysian leaders. In the new system, the Saarpaysians would have an option of leaders to choose from presented by the Council of Ministers, minimally one approved Saarpaysian politician, for a term of 5 years, no term limit. The people would then vote directly on their approved candidates.
1970's: The Soviet Union (Selviand) faced the prospect of a harsh economic slump, largely due to the unexpected inefficiencies of General-Secretary Brezhnev’s chairmanship. Leonid Brezhnev brought new flair to the position of General-Secretary, he was far more open to compromise with his fellow committee members than his predecessors & brought about a more fair standard. Despite Brezhnev’s success as a negotiator & a leader for the people of the Soviet Union, he proved a poor economic administrator.
1978: Leonid Brezhnev dies. Replaced by Yuri Andropov. Andropov would liberalize the Soviet economy to a limited degree, increase Soviet economic output, launch & conduct a strict anti-corruption campaign, & penalized false accusations after a series of accusations were discovered to be false.
1981: Andropov dies. Selects Mikhail Gorbachev as his replacement but Konstantin Chernenko secured Andropov's former position. While Chernenko did little to reduce Cold War tensions being spurned by newly appointed US President Reagan (Federative states of america), he did meet with leaders from several Western nations & secured a trade agreement with China (Zhen Dynasty). Gorbachev, Chernenko's unofficial 2nd in command, was forced increasingly to fill his role as the General-Secretary’s health worsened and found himself in the position of acting General-Secretary after Chernenko was hospitalized throughout the latter half of 1981. The death of Chernenko & his immediate replacement with Gorbachev occurred almost simultaneously, with comparatively little attention being given to his funeral compared to previous Soviet leaders.
1982: Gorbachev began the process of withdrawing Soviet troops from Afghanistan, at first covertly & later openly after signing the 1988 Geneva Accord. The accord allowed the Soviet Union to formally renege on its earlier treaty with the Afghan Government on the grounds that Soviet troops were being employed in place of the Afghan Army to further Afghan interests at the cost of regional stability. This treaty also officially ended the CIA’s financing & supplying of Mujahideen fighters (though this continued despite all efforts). The ensuing reduction in Soviet prestige led to a falling out between Gorbachev & several Red Army commanders, but a few were appeased by promises of future funding. The accords were lauded across the West and certain Eastern Bloc nations for their progress towards eventual peace, even though they resulted in a great deal of animosity between the Afghan Government & the Soviet Union.
1983: Gorbachev considers opening up free & fair elections to avoid sabotage by regional conservative elites & prominent scholars in the face of his economic reforms which were reminiscent of those in China. However, many were made uneasy by the possible relinquishing of political power to other parties & increased freedom of speech would likely mean surrendering the popularity Gorbachev had so far gained to his political opponents. Eventually, this notion was abandoned.
1986: In Gorbachev’s second wave of reforms, he permitted the establishment of worker coops & encouraged entrepreneurship along similar lines to what had been seen previously in the industrial sector. This necessitated the issuing of loans to budding entrepreneurs under the condition that they became members of the Communist Party, at first a difficult task, but made easier over time as the economy grew. These businesses remained officially state-owned but functionally existed in a private market. To facilitate this Gorbachev allowed loyal regional officials to have some leeway in determining the direction their regions should take. This resulted in several opponents falling back into line to some extent, looking to gain unexpected personal benefit from the restructuring. This decentralization assisted greatly in the containing & cleanup of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, which resulted in the deaths of several workers & firefighters. While no Central Committee members were found to be directly at fault for the disaster, the actions of several elite party members were found to equate with criminal negligence & several were imprisoned. The corruption found to be involved in the event resulted in the reintroduction of several authoritarian measures originally taken under Andropov. Necessary modifications & improvements were made to numerous other nuclear power plants over the next 10 years.
1979-1988: Gorbachev looked to improve relations with the West & with China (Zhen Dynasty). The Emperor had worked with Gorbachev at times in reforming their nations economies. Animosity between the two powers had peaked in 1979 with the Chinese backing of the anti-Soviet Mujahideen, however, by 1988 the Dongfeng Emperor & Gorbachev were both looking to normalize relations in order to better both nations. Similarly, efforts were made to improve the standing of the Soviet Union with the West & Gorbachev’s willingness to speak amicably with many capitalist leaders proved to be to his credit. Despite the acceptance within the Communist Party that the arms race with the United States could not be maintained, the many diplomatic meetings between Gorbachev & Reagan affirmed that no “hot” war would take place. Similarly, normal relations slowly began to form between the Soviet Union and Several other Western nations.
1989: Amidst these reforms, Gorbachev & his allies covertly drafted a revised Union treaty to replace the 1922 USSR Treaty of Establishment. This treaty would reform the USSR as the Union of Eurasian Sovereign States (Selviand), which would further decentralize the power structure of the Soviet Union. The UESS would give each of the States involved full control over their own affairs, though their militaries & foreign policy would be unified under a common President. This would also allow current member states to opt out of the treaty & pursue their own independence, in order to ensure current secessionist movements did not spill into violence. Both of these proposals proved hugely unpopular with the Central Committee hardliners when presented in mid-1990, but Gorbachev's majority allowed it to be approved for revision by the Supreme Soviet. Throughout the next year additions were made & clauses were added as the treaty was viewed & altered by successive leaders from each SSR. The increased autonomy, mixed with earlier economic reforms made the treaty highly attractive to many Party leaders. However, Gorbachev's detractors within the Party made passing any amendment difficult & progress was slow.
1990: Ireland would elect its first female Prime Minister. Zofia O'Doherty, of the Labour Party.
1991: A handful of high-ranking military officers & Party officials launched an attempted coup against Gorbachev due to Gorbachev's announcement of a democratic referendum. The coup made use of the brief relaxing of laws relating to the press to produce mass propaganda across Moscow. The previous year, Gorbachev had been forced to maintain the State Committee on the State of Emergency, under the pretense that they would take control of the USSR if a state of emergency was declared. Among there number were the Interior Minister & the Head of the KGB, as well as three other leaders, collectively called the “Gang of Five”. While Gorbachev was away on holiday in Crimea they unlawfully called for a state of emergency, claiming that Gorbachev's actions as General-Secretary fulfilled the criteria & required a drastic response. Under this pretense they took control of much of Moscow, using Interior Ministry troops to seize vital areas of the city. This bid for power failed due to civilian disruptions of Interior Ministry units involved, which were held back by peaceful protests led by Moscow Party executive Nikolai Ryzhkov. Another arguably more significant factor was the total failure to win over the Red Army units stationed around Moscow, which previously refused outright to accept the Emergency Committee's efforts to gain their support. On the day of the coup, though the Internal Troops were able to threaten them with superior numbers, the Red Army still refused to move in support of the plotters. These events culminated in a brief firefight not far from the Kremlin in which the Interior Ministry troops, outmatched by the number of civilian counter-protestors and Red Army soldiers, were forced to surrender. In the aftermath, 4 civilians were found to have been killed by the Internal Troops, with another 2 executed for failing to comply with their orders. As this went on the leaders of the coup left for Gorbachev’s dacha in Crimea, having had their supporters among the KGB ensure he was unaware of the events. However, this particular endeavour had also failed; upon their arrival, they were met by Red Army officers and taken into custody. Gorbachev declared any and all actions of the State Emergency Committee null and void and part of a reactionary coup against the Soviet Union. The “Gang of Five” and six others implicated in the coup were given a fair trial and sentenced to death, along with twelve KGB officials and four Internal soldiers. The coup is remembered today as a bizarro, overly-bureaucratic and typically Russian counterpart to the violence of Tiananmen Square. The actions of the Committee marked a change in Gorbachev's attitude towards the Communist Party and a growing unwillingness to accept dissent within the Party.
1992: Gorbachev launches his referendum to implement the UESS treaty & it passes with 84% of the vote at which point it was sent to the Supreme Soviets of each Republic once again for approval. Association between the Party & the coup was too strong to be overcome by the hardliner's efforts to tie their image with Gorbachev's reformism. Partly to benefit from this, but also due to his increasing disillusionment with the Party, Gorbachev decided to abandon the traditional communist structure & founded his own party. This would become known at first as the Eurasian Social Democratic Alliance, but later changed its name to the All-Union People's Front. The AUPF presented itself as a merger of reformist & socialist values, a left-wing rejection of a Marxist-Leninist revolutionary project in favour of stability & continued growth. The ensuing 1992 election resulted in an overwhelming victory for the AUPF & a series of political reforms were undertaken to slowly democratize the government, such as establishing democratically & meritocratic selection for newly established parliaments, replacing the system of Soviets. Though the legislatures themselves continued to be referred to as Soviets & Supreme Soviets. This still allowed the AUPF to retain a firm grip on the public & the flow of information. The establishment of the Union of Eurasian Sovereign States was declared in December 1992.
1996: Ukraine splits peacefully from the UESS with Russia remaining in control of Ukraine. Ukraine initially saw the Union's continuation as a danger, but slowly the process of integrating them into the CIS has seen a stabilization in Russo-Ukrainian relations.
1912: January 1st, the Republic (Zhen Dynasty) is proclaimed under Yuan Shikai's Beiyang Government.
1915: Yuan Shikai proclaims himself the Emperor of China. Several provinces break away & become independent.
1916: Yuan abdicates due to unpopularity & a general lack of support.
1917: Sun Yat-sen establishes a separate government in Guangzhou to rival that of Zhao Kunlun's Beiyang Government. Eventually, Sun decides to launch the Northern Expedition, a conflict in which the new Guangzhou Republic decided to pre-emptively strike against the Beiyang Government. The Beiyang Military would find itself claiming several victories over the far less effective Nationalist forces.
1919: Due to a perception of general failure & humiliation, alongside Zhao's Military continuing to score victory after victory, Sun announced that he would accept Beiyang's authority & formally surrendered. Sun would be arrested but would be pardoned posthumously. Sun would be declared a "misguided" founding father of the new state. December 19th, the Zhen Dynasty (Zhen Dynasty) would be proclaimed (AKA the Second Song) under Zhao Kunlun as Emperor. Soon thereafter, Zhao would purge several warlords & politicians thereby seizing direct control of China.
1937: Second Sino-Japanese war begins.
1941-1945: The Siamese forces (Seri Sayam) fight in more theatres of war alongside the Japanese over the period of WW2: Bengal, Burma, Yunnan, Indonesia, Indochina & Malaya in a support capacity.
1942: The Indonesian Republic (Great Indonesian Republic) is declared "independent" although in reality, it was a Japanese protectorate in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
1943-1945: Volunteers from the native populace in Indonesia (Great Indonesian Republic) join the IJA to fight European colonialism in Asia.
1945: Sino-Japanese war ends in a victory for the Zhen Dynasty. The Zhen Dynasty retains control of Taiwan & the Pescadores from Japan. The Dutch would reinvade Madura & later Surabaya (Great Indonesian Republic) igniting the Indonesian war for independence.
1948: Malayan Union dissolves into the Federation of Malaya (Malayu) at which point the British award self-governance / America (Federative states of america) pulls out of Thailand Occupation Zone. Kingdom of Siam (Phra Hanuman) is born.
1949: Isan Republic (Phra Hanuman) set up & allowed a large degree of self-rule by the French. Indonesian sovereignty is recognized in the Round Table Conference. The end of the Indonesian War for Independence.
1951: Isan Republic reorganized into Kingdom of Isan (Phra Hanuman).
1952: Imperial Isan Army formed. Isan Kingdom assists the French in Laos & Cambodia for last two years of war.
1954: French depart South East Asia. King Savang used the IIA to crack down on Central Thais residing within the Kingdom, as well as on all democratic and communist elements within the nation's political system, effectively turning the state into an absolute monarchy. The following decade was spent reaffirming the region's independent identity, banning the use of Thai within the Kingdom.
1910-1950's: Tongmenghui resistance in the South of Zhen. Ends in the 50's.
1950's: The Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM, Young Malays Union), headed by Ibrahim Yaacob, begin to gain popularity on a platform of nationalism & the belief that the traditional hierarchy where Sultan is ruler should not be the norm anymore. The party itself aligns with central-left views, socialism, anti-imperialism and nationalism. It then renamed to Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM, Malay Nationalist Party).
1957: During the years before independence, KMM leaders shaped the government to become a federation of 11 states. Establishing a federation ruled by the people, the Malay Federation (Malayu) gained independence from the British in 1957. The powers of the Sultans can only extend to their individual states. The political system is headed by the Prime Minister and the President, elected officials that represent each constituency at a federal level.
1960: Trust territory of Thai Kra (Seri Sayam) is admitted to the United Nations.
1962: Riots in the West of Zhen. This leads to a massive destabilization in the West that forces the Zhen Government to intervene. The racial conflict would persist all the way up into modern day.
1963: Peninsular Malaysia (Malayu) does not annex Sarawak, North Borneo or Singapore.
1970: The Malaysian occupation of the Kra territories end, but negotiations bagged Siam only the provinces of Chumpon and Ranong, largely believed to have cost the CDL government some $28 billion in reparation payments to Kra. The remaining southern provinces were reorganized into the Kra Republic (Phra Hanuman), with the United Malay-Thai National League taking power and enshrining their role as the sole legal party in Kra.
1972: Siamese Army established by decree.
1974: Siamese Air Force established under the nominally civilian Siamese Meteorological Service, bypassing the restrictions imposed by the Pacific War treaty / The Socialist People's Republic of Thailand declared in Phimai. The TSPR lays claim to the entire former kingdom of Thailand. Isan Issara overthrows the Isan monarchy.
1975: The Siamese Navy established as the Maritime Boundary Service, in response to a huge influx of Vietnamese boat refugees with the fall of the Saigon government.
1978: TSPR aids the Vietnamese in invading Cambodia. Annexing the disputed temple of Preah Vihear & the immediate vicinity.
1980's: After the death of Ibrahim Yaacob, KMM was voted out of parliament due to corruption scandals made by the leaders. The
United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) led by Mahathir Mahmud formed a new government after elected in. During his rule, there was a period of rapid economic growth and urbanisation beginning in the 80's. The economy shifted from being agriculturally based to one based on manufacturing and industry. Numerous mega-projects were completed, such as the Petronas Towers, the North-South Expressway and the Multimedia Super Corridor.
2003: Anatoly Lukyanov & Vladimir Putin is elected as his sole replacement & restored the growth of the economy through a series of well timed interventionist efforts. Unlike many of his predecessors, who were given the task of merely rescuing the death spiral of the economy, Putin looked to implement an agenda to restore the Eurasian Union’s (Selviand) global position. He pursued the establishment of a Eurasian Federation, to bind the member states of the UESS closer together & closer to Moscow. He gave a far more even hand to economic reforms attempted by Lukyanov, managing to expand the growth of the Russian economy. Putin has also looked to establish a merit based technocracy within the AUPF, rather than previous models of advancement based on political agenda & near cronyism. Some Central Committee positions have also come to be filled by unelected officials chosen based on their success & advancement in other positions. Expansion of education & increased levels of both pressure & support placed on students is hoped to broaden the scope of this goal for an innovative technocrat class. Achieving this has necessitated some greater degrees of authoritarianism, including some crackdowns against indiscipline & corruption reminiscent of Andropov's years. President Putin has, however, not required the same degree of control over information as his forebears, due to the weight of pro-Putin media granting him massive public popularity & a lack of significant opposition
UMNO (Malayu) was voted out because of corruption scandal of the 1MFDB (1 Malay Federation Development Berhad). The opposition coalition led by former ruling party, reformed into the Malay People’s Front, consisting of centre-left leaning parties of Parti Sosialis Rakyat (PSR, People’s Socialist Party), Party Kebangsaan Bumiputra (PKB, National Indigenous Party) and National Party for Democracy (NPD). The party is led by Prime Minister Mukhriz Osman.
2004: Tsunami hits the Kra Republic & devastates the country.
2010: A coup is led by the Tikhonovna faction in the TSPR, displacing pro-reformers & alleged monarchist loyalists & establishing Mekong Socialism.
Delivered by The GRR History Department
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