On May 4th, the All-Malayan Communist Party (AMCP) was officially established by Isabelo delos Reyes, a Spain-born Filipino revolutionary in exile and a scholar of politics from Madrid in the city of Singapura, Malaya. Isabelo, considered to be “the Father of Malayan Socialism” and the AMCP agitated against what it considered Bruneian imperialist hegemony over the Pacific.
Taking inspiration from the structure of the Second International in Paris, the AMCP established the Workers’ Union Congress of Malaya (WUCM), which annually gathered to coordinate union strikes throughout the Empire, laying the framework for further communist activities in the future.
The Luzon Campaign came to a close on the 16th of November after the Philippine Republic won a decisive victory at Palanan.
On January 11th, coordinated subversive strikes against the Sulu fleet culminated in a fire at the port of Kota Selurong which rendered incapacitated 3 archaic carracks, a bellicose setback blamed on Republican spies.
Under the command of the female “Henerala” (Generaless) Agueda Kahabagan, the islands of Mindoro and Panay openly revolt against Sulu occupation, with several garrisons sympathetic to the cause of independence betraying their colonial masters and collaborating with the usurpers.
In December, two brigades were sent to the Mindanao region to agitate against the Sulu occupation, gather munitions, and recruit more soldiers. For the next five years, the Philippine Republic embarked on an island-hopping campaign as part of a protracted warfare strategy.
The Sulu Army briefly regained control of Southwestern Mindoro until Republican reinforcements from Panay crushed their counterattack under the leadership of General Artemio Ricarte.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, also known as the Eulsa Treaty, Eulsa Unwilling Treaty or Japan–Korea Protectorate Treaty, was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905. Negotiations were concluded on November 17, 1905. The treaty deprived Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty and made Korea a protectorate of Imperial Japan. It resulted from Imperial Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905.
In January, troops and police of the Russian Empire opened fire on a peaceful demonstration outside the Winter Palace and elsewhere in St Petersburg, killing and injuring around 1,000 people. The liberal press blamed Nicholas II.
In June, Sailors mutiny on the battleship Potemkin, part of the Black Sea Fleet. The mutiny triggered riots in Odessa, which were quashed by troops on the Tsar’s orders.
In October, Tsar Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, promising civil liberties (such as freedom of speech) and an elected parliament (Duma). As a result, restrictions are implemented on the absolute power of the Russian monarch, and a de facto constitution (the Fundamental Laws of 1906) is issued.
After completing Hajj and attaining the title of “Haji”, Prince Haji Farid was appointed the Governor of Gurun; a large and rich, yet unruly province of Bruneian Malaya. Plagued by separatists formed from expelled Moluccan, Visayan, Tagalog, and Javanese minorities who had developed a distinct culture over time away from Malaya, Haji Farid made it his mission to crush dissent and resolve the empire's hold on the province. He commenced a complete overhaul of the officials that governed Gurun, particularly those rumored to either be corrupt or harbor separatist sentiment; and replaced them with the most fervent Malay nationalists and loyalists from the educated upper class in Gurun.
He also began to crack down on certain student organizations in various schools and colleges that advocated greater autonomy or even entertained the idea that citizens of Gurun were culturally distinct, and encouraged the creation of youth organizations that advocated Pan-Malay nationalism and loyalty to Bruneian Malaya instead.
Non-Islamic religions, such as forms of animism brought to the lands by Moluccan immigrants, experienced suppression as well alongside native aboriginal belief systems; in an effort to strengthen cultural unity with the Malay Archipelago.
The first instances of an all-out campaign to eliminate Marxist elements in Malaya occurred in Gurun. Assassinations, summary executions, and mass genocide often ensued organized acts of civil disobedience.
In June, the Second State Durma of the Russian Empire was dissolved following an attempted coup; triggering the arrest of some of its members and a fundamental change in the Russian electoral law.
At the 23rd Workers’ Union Congress of Malaya in Singapura on December 16th of 1907, a General Strike was ordered by the secretariat to protest the situation in Gurun. Several tens of thousands (50,000-80,000) gather outside the Sultan’s palace, Istana, in Kota Batu led by dozens of imams and ulema sympathetic to Marxism in order to peacefully state their demands. The Sultan’s forces opened fire on the demonstrators, killing and wounding hundreds. The event is dubbed the “Kota Batu Massacre” and deals a serious amount of damage to both the legitimacy and the prestige of the Bolkiah regime.
Having intercepted a communique between the Mindoro Republican Army Group and the Central Luzon Republican Army Group suggesting that a siege of Kota Selurong could occur soon, the Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul-Kiram Bolkiah II, evacuated himself and his family from their palace in the city along with a convoy of the Sulu Navy on the 6th of May.
On January 8, 1909; the Arabian Sultan Omer was assassinated, likely due to his continuous attempts to reform Arabia. He was succeded by his younger brother, Cemal II.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 also known as the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, was made by representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on August 22, 1910. In this treaty, Japan formally annexed Korea following the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 by which Korea became a protectorate of Japan and Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907 by which Korea was deprived of the administration of internal affairs.
By October 25, the Republican Army had amassed almost 20,000 troops to storm Kota Selurong from all sides. Using to great effect the use of indigenous bamboo canons, the revolutionaries were able to take the fortress-city, effectively giving them overlordship over the entirety of Luzon, considered to be the cultural homeland of the Tagalogs.
On November 1st, the Philippine Republic officially declared its independence from the Sultanate of Sulu. However, only Japan, Siam, and Dai Viet issued proclamations recognizing the sovereignty of the new state in the East Indies. Both Malaya and Sulu remained belligerent about the situation.
With practically no oceangoing flotilla, the Philippine Republic remained susceptible to counter-attack. President Aguinaldo declared his intention to build a “Visayan Sea-wall” around major islands and cities to protect Republican resources from falling into enemy hands in the event of a reclamation offensive.
Following a failed campaign of national Westernization and a succession crisis among other factors, the mandate of the Qing Dynasty to rule in China finally collapsed during the Xinhai Revolution; the Republic of China was established, but it's ethno-political factions eventually seized the momentum to subjugate the remains of the territories of the old Empire into various cliques.
Following the evacuation of the Qing governor fled from Dihua (Ürümqi), a band of Yunnanese fighters led by Yang Zengxin filled the power vacuum, quelled the ensuing rebellion, and established Yang as the provincial leader.
Sultan Raiz Zafar Bolkiah I died on May 4th of 1911, and Raiz Zafar's eldest son, Ghalib Mansur, abstained from the throne. This called for Haji Farid to return to Kota Batu and assume the throne as the 12th Sultan of Bruneian Malaya two days later, on the 6th of May.
On the 13th of November, the Sultan reconvened the Alliance of the Four Houses - a trans-national alliance in Southeast Asia founded originally during the 17th Century, now composed of the Sultanates, Kedatuans, and Kingdoms of Bruneian Malaya, Sulu, Siam, and Dai Viet - rebranded as the modern “League of the East Indies” to negotiate a much more globalized system of trade that could challenge Western markets outside of each country’s policies on protectionism as well as to discuss the possibility of military collaboration against both separatist democratic movements in the wake of the successes of the Chinese and Tagalog Revolutions and vulnerability to Western interventionism in Southeast Asia.
In Malaya, the bellicose fracturing of China led to the passage of new provisions by the Privy Council of Malaya outlawing Communist, Socialist, and Marxist movements, as decreed by its Sultan, Haji Farid, who, inheriting the paranoia of his grandfather, oversees a regime of brutal political repression.
Upon assuming the throne, Haji Farid Bolkiah I made sure to replace every major official across the empire; especially those closest to the throne. All of his grandfather's old advisors and officials were immediately dismissed, and replaced with the most zealous and loyal administrators the Sultan could find from his network. He made sure that many of the officials were easily replaced, and had no way of creating income without the gold provided by the Sultan himself. He was also swift to dismantle industrial monopolies, citing market stimulation as reasons for such; although it is suspected that the Sultan simply did not trust having wealthy bourgeoisie have more money than himself. Non-Islamic religious institutions and dhimmi citizens were also taxed heavily, and conversion to Islam was highly encouraged. Languages other than Malay and Arabic were also highly discouraged, and were not taught beyond private universities.
Heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and Franz Ferdinand's wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, was assassinated in Sarajevo on the 28th of June. The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia. The conspirators' motives were consistent with the movement that later became known as Young Bosnia. The assassination would directly to the First World War when Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, which was partially rejected. Austria-Hungary then declared war on Serbia, triggering actions leading to war between most European states.
The Spanish Empire joins the Central Powers. In response, Arabia and Malaya join the Entente.
The Twenty-One Demands are drafted on the 25th of March.
The United States of America declared its official neutrality regarding the First World War on the 7th of May, a guarantee not to intervene in European affairs that they would not break until the end of the conflict.
Japan and China reach a series of agreements which ratified the first four sets of goals of the Twenty-One Demands on the 25th of May.
Malaya along with Sulu invades the Spanish territories in the East Indies, while Spain launches offensives against Arabia in North Africa.
In February, a series of public protests began in Petrograd, which lasted for eight days and eventually resulted in the abolition of the monarchy in Russia. The total number of killed and injured in clashes with the police and government troops in Petrograd is estimated to be around 1,300 people.
On March 15, as a culmination of civil unrest in Russia, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated and also removed his son from the succession. The following day Nicholas’ brother Mikhail announced his refusal to accept the throne. A Provisional Government is formed to replace the Tsarist government, with Prince Lvov becoming the leader.
In May, a telegram sent to the Allied Powers by Foreign Minister Pavel Milyukov stated the Russian Provisional Government’s intention to continue the war. The note was leaked by spies of the German Empire resulting in protests and increased support for the Bolsheviks. Following this, Milyukov resigned and members of the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks joined the Provisional Government. Public outrage culminates into the Russian Civil War between the communist Bolsheviks and the republican Provisional Government.
On the 8th of November, the anti-republican Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, took control of the Winter Palace, the last remaining holdout of the Russian Provisional Government.
The Decrees on Land (proclaiming abolition of private property and the redistribution of the land amongst the peasantry), and Peace (proposing an immediate withdrawal of Russia from the First World War), are issued by the new Bolshevik government. Subsequent workers’ decrees outline measures for an eight-hour working day, minimum wage and the running of factories. The death penalty is abolished once again.
As the scales tip towards the Entente's favor, Arabia launches a massive counter-offensive against Spanish North Africa; sweeping across the Sahara all the way to Morocco. Attempts to invade mainland Spain are made, but end in failure.
Malaya finally expels the Spanish Empire from Asia.
In March, the Comintern (Communist International or Third International) was formed in Moscow, with the aim of spreading Communist revolution all over the world.
Allied and German representatives sign treaty of Versailles.
Sun Yat-sen established a revolutionary base in Guangzhou and set out to unite the fragmented nation. He welcomed assistance from the Soviet Union (itself fresh from Lenin's takeover) and he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Communist Party of China.
In Japan, newspapers had begun to give extensive coverage of the racist laws meant to exclude Asian immigrants such as the "White Americas" policy; the anti-Asian immigrant laws by the U.S. Congress in 1882, 1917 and 1924; and the "White Canada" policy together with reports about how Asians suffered from prejudice in the United States, Canada and in places ruled by Europeans like India.
Throughout the 1920s, the port of Yokohama became a point of refuge for Asian revolutionaries fleeing political persecution, including those fleeing from the monarchies of Southeast Asia. This harmed Japan-Malaya relations significantly, as both sides begin to villainize the other.
On the 10th of January, during the Treaty of Versailles, Cairene Arabia managed to successfully negotiate its claimed territory from the Spanish Empire and regain its great power status.
On June 8th, Malaya annexed Sulu under the pretext of a “benevolent assimilation” into the Bruneian Empire. Because Malaya did not recognize the sovereignty of the Philippine Republic, officials and militants unwilling to submit to the Malayan prerogative were considered to be insurgents, and the Filipino-Malayan War began.
Beginning with the landing of Malayan forces at Lingayen Gulf on the 15th of June, the Filipino forces were quickly defeated in a series of battles on the Luzon mainland by superior Malayan drilling and modern equipment. Particularly, Malayan infantry were equipped with semi-automatic self-loading rifles, whilst Tagalog forces could only field bolt-action rifles.
On February 16th, Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo signed the decree of total and unconditional surrender to the Malayan forces who were able to occupy the entirety of Luzon in a little less than a year of fighting. General Artemio Ricarte, however, together with a band of Aguinaldo’s other most trusted generals, continued to fight a decentralized guerilla war in Mindoro and West Mindanao in the name of the Republic.
In December, a 1922 treaty between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
On June 15 or the Dhu al-Qa'dah 1, the Arabian Sultan Musatafa bin Cemal declared that Arabia was now to be renamed the Circassian Caliphate, and that the national language would shift from Arabic to Circassian. Such was preposterous and further alienated the Arabs, rapidly increasing revolutionary sentiment among the majority Arab population. Despite this, there was no initial violent reaction; and there would be none for the next three months, as strategically expected by the Mamluk Sultan, who knew fully well that for the next three months of Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and al-Muharram; the faithful Muslims among the Arabs would refrain from combat.
On September 13 or Safar 1, Mustafa would be assassinated on his way to Medina.
On September 20, the Sochi Palace Brawl would erupt. The Mamluk leaders could not agree whom among them should succeed Mustafa, and the argument escalates into a brawl; which marks the beginning of the 7th Fitnah. Following the brawl, the Mamluk leaders would gather support and organize their personal armies to wage a civil war for the throne.
On the 24th of January, the sudden death of Soviet Premier Vladimir Lenin triggered a power vacuum amongst members of the Soviet Politburo. After presenting (possibly forged) signed evidence of succession, Leon Trotsky became the Head of State of the U.S.S.R.
Josef Stalin retained his position as General-Secretary of the Soviet Union, but had little to no power following the elimination of his political allies by the Trotskyist faction.
On February 31, Bahadir al-Ramin would form an agreement with the Abbasids in Qahira. He agreed that in exchange for their support, he would re-establish the Abbasids as the caliphal dynasty.
The Abbasid Caliphate and Sultanate of Qahira is once more declared in Qahira, and garners massive support from the Arab majority.
On the 12th of March, Sun Yat-sen, leader of the democratic revolution in China succumbed to cancer.
In the wake of Sun’s death, one of his protégés, Chiang Kai-shek, seized control of the Nationalist Party (KMT) and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule in the Northern Expedition (1926–1927). Having defeated the warlords in the south and central China by military force, Chiang was able to secure the nominal allegiance of the warlords in the North and establish the Nationalist government in Nanking.
In early 1927, the KMT-CPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The CPC and the left wing of the KMT had decided to move the seat of the KMT government from Guangzhou to Wuhan, where communist influence was strong.
However, Chiang and Li Zongren, whose armies defeated warlord Sun Chuanfang, moved eastward toward Jiangxi. The leftists rejected Chiang's demand to eliminate Communist influence within KMT and Chiang denounced them for betraying Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People by taking orders from the Soviet Union.
On 1 August 1927, the Communist Party launched an uprising in Nanchang against the Nationalist government in Wuhan. This conflict led to the creation of the Red Army and the beginning of the Chinese Civil War.
On August 4, the main forces of the Red Army left Nanchang and headed southwards for an assault on Guangdong. Nationalist forces quickly reoccupied Nanchang while the remaining members of the CPC in Nanchang went into hiding.
In September, the CPC began courting the USSR for aid. Trotsky publicizes his anti-KMT stances and begins exporting equipment to the Mao-led CPC faction - applauding Mao for refusing to cooperate with the Nationalist government, citing that “If the Chinese revolution were to triumph under its present bourgeois-nationalist leadership, it would very quickly go to the right, demonstrate its good intentions to the capitalist countries, soon gain recognition on their part, offer them concessions on new bases, obtain loans, in a word, enter into the system of capitalist states as a less degraded, less colonial, but still profoundly dependent entity. Furthermore, the Chinese republic would hold in relation to the Soviet Union in the best variant the same position as the present Cairene Arabia - cold hostility.”
Days after recognizing the Nationalist (KMT) government in Nanjing, Yang Zengxin survived an assassination attempt by Xinjiang nationalists led by Fan Yaonan. Yang’s ensuing political neglect of the region’s religious minorities would soon escalate into open rebellion, however. Gansu warlord Ma Zhongying of the Hui Ma clique invaded in support of the coup. Soon various other groups rebelled against Yang, often fighting against each other including the breakaway First East Turkestan Republic.
Persia invaded and annexed the Mamluk State of Khuzestan during the 7th Fitnah.
France invades the Mamluk State of Bornu.
The September 18 Incident (the Mukden Incident: military clashes between Japan and China in North China); culminated in effective results for the Japanese and within five months, most of Manchuria is under Japanese control.
Chiang Kai-shek, who led the central government of China, decided that China must avoid all-out war with Japan due to domestic turmoil and inadequate preparation. Therefore, he pursued a strategy of appeasing Japan while struggling for real national unity and over time sufficient strength to confront the Imperial army.
The Malayan People’s Party (MPP) was founded by the Tondo-born Gurun-based writer Suripto Hayat on October 13. The movement’s platform was centered upon the immediate balkanization of the Bruneian Empire, estate redistribution, taxation reductions, and greater governmental transparency.
The MPP firmly criticized Malaya’s increasing military expenditure, which had led to a proportionate increase in foreign investment. The inability of Malaya’s feudal-like economic system to cope with the dissonance between classes, as well its bloated foreign debt to the United States was described by Suripto Hayat himself: "In Gurun we see our so-called leaders growing fat and rich on money amassed from taxing the poor. They have fine automobiles and fine homes for themselves, but for us they have only fine and empty words. They have learned to promise as much as the Anglo-Americans and to deliver as little."
Malayans joined the People’s Party for a variety of reasons. The party fearlessly exposed the wrongdoings of politicians, was truly compassionate about the poor and oppressed, was uncompromising in its stand on independence, and possessed integrity in terms of living up to its record of not being after the people’s money. Its members perceived the movement as being very honest, as it was founded by a small group of modest middle-class citizens. Although the MPP was nominally both anti-Islamist and anti-Communist, both Islamists and Communists supported the party because on one hand, educated Muslims saw the People’s Party as capable of paving the way towards a much more liberalized Islamic state (such as Arabia); whilst electoral Communists saw it as an opportunity to pressure the Malayan autocracy into adapting at least some tenets of democracy.
On November 8, the MPP was officially outlawed by the Malayan government. Publication of its newspapers and opinions moved underground, its fliers and pieces printed by illegal presses and funded by shadow sponsors sympathetic to the cause of balkanization.
The British Empire invades the Mamluk States of Zanzibar and Assudan.
Manchukuo, a Japanese-sponsored Chinese government in Manchuria is established as a supposed successor to the Qing Dynasty, with China’s last surviving Emperor, Pu Yi, placed as its figurehead.
The Soviet Union invades and annexes Circassia, putting an end to any of the organization among the Mamluk states fighting for dominance in Arabia.
Italy would attempt to invade the Mamluk states of the Maghreb, resulting in the Libyan Confrontation; where Italian soldiers come into conflict with Arabian soldiers moving in to secure the Maghreb.
The surviving Mamluk states surrender to the Abbasid Caliphate and Sultanate of Qahira; marking the end of the 7th Fitnah.
Despite the contribution provided by Bahadir and his Mamluks, he was assassinated by an unknown party soon after the Seventh Fitnah; and the Mamluks were purged. This would unfortunately result in the vulnerability of Arabia in the following Second World War, as many of Arabia's military officials had included Mamluks.
To ensure that Mamluks never rose again, and also to encourage industrialization; slavery was finally abolished, and a new sultanate system was implemented. The sultan would be elected among the people and by the people, and would reign for a term of 5 years before a new sultan is elected.
The first of the new sultans to be elected would be Badr al-Ramin, who would be best known for his part in the formation of the Alliance of Islamic Countries, also known as Tada'i; as well as his part in leading Arabia during the Second World War.
Driven from their mountain bases such as the Chinese Soviet Republic, the CPC forces embarked on the Long March across China's most desolate terrain to the northwest, where they established a guerrilla base at Yan'an in Shaanxi Province. During the Long March, the communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).
Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought, was developed as the political ideology of the Chinese Soviet Republic. In his writings, Mao despised Islamism (Cairene Arabia and Bruneian Malaya) as a form of liberalism, whereby he denounced non-secular theocracies as regimes that “banked on the idea that the surplus of democratic freedoms and popularization of worker organization meant that the only way the capitalist aristocracy could thrive was through the inclusion of the lower-class into political parties while preventing elections from serving as media for political reform that could otherwise hurt the interests of the wealthy.”
In Xinjiang, Yang Zengxin completed his reclamation offensive against major rebel outposts and made peace with the KMT factions who opposed his rule. Social, political, and religious reforms in Xinjiang would mark a relatively peaceful era for Uighurs in comparison to the rest of China.
Comprehensive negotiations between Yang and the Soviet Union led to the signing of a non-aggression pact on April 16th, effectively securing the last major threat to his clique’s independence in the region.
In March, summits between Anti-Chiang Chinese revolutionaries (including members of the CPC), exiles of the Philippine Republic (led by President Emilio Aguinaldo), refugee democratic revolutionaries from Indochina, survivors of the Kota Batu Massacre, and the Japan-based Black Dragon Society culminated in the official introduction of a political doctrine into the Imperial Japanese Army calling for a military exploitation of a non-military term proposed by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck: the phrase "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere".
In September, the Empire of Japan began to draw-up plans for a potential invasion of Malaya and the political divisions which would succeed it. The Imperial Japanese Army planned the Sphere in an attempt to create a Great East Asia, comprising Japan, Manchukuo, China, and parts of Southeast Asia, that would, according to imperial propaganda, establish a new international order seeking "co-prosperity" for Asian countries which would share prosperity and peace, free from both Western colonialism and “the scourge of Islamism”. Military goals of this expansion included naval operations in the Indian Ocean and the isolation of Australia. This would enable the principle of hakkō ichiu while also securing Japanese interests in the region.
On the 12th of December 1936, bodyguards of Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng stormed the cabin where Chiang Kai-shek was staying and detained the KMT Nationalist leader. A telegram was sent to Nanjing to demand an immediate end to the civil war against the CPC, and to reorganize the Nationalist government by expelling pro-Japanese factions and adopting an active anti-Japanese stance. As conflicting reports unfolded, the Nationalist government in Nanjing was sent into disarray.
The following day, the events were reported to the Trotsky-led USSR by the CPC, The Trotskyist government, critical of the “Chinese United Front” idea proposed, threatened to halt all aid sent to the Chinese Soviet Republic if collaboration with the KMT and the participation of Chinese Communists in the KMT government were to be re-established; citing that the USSR was more than capable of deterring Japanese aggression.
Mao opted to ignore this warning and the USSR closed all diplomatic channels with the CPC, culminating in the expulsion of its attaché in Moscow.
On the 16th December, Zhou Enlai arrived in Xi'an for negotiations, accompanied by fellow CPC diplomat Lin Boqu. Chiang was immediately opposed to negotiating with a CPC delegate, and refused to withdraw his opposition even when it became clear that his life and freedom were largely dependent on Communist goodwill towards him.
Madame Chiang reportedly made her way to her detained husband on December 22, who had travelled to Xi'an hoping to secure his speedy release, fearing military intervention from factions within the Kuomintang. In the afternoon of the 22nd however, her car was ambushed by officers loyal to Wang Jingwei, a longtime rival of Chiang. When this is revealed to the Nationalist KMT leader in passing by Lin Boqu, it invariably affects his decision in the negotiations.
On the 24th of December, Chiang received Zhou for a meeting, the first time that the two had seen each other since Zhou had left Whampoa Military Academy over ten years earlier. Zhou began the conversation by saying: "In the ten years since we have met, you seem to have aged very little." Chiang nodded and said: "Enlai, you were my subordinate. You should do what I say." Zhou replied that if Chiang would halt the civil war and resist the Japanese instead, the Red Army would willingly accept Chiang's command. Chiang vaguely responds that he would look into the situation, and that he would invite Zhou for further talks in Nanjing.
Under the pressure of time constraints, and fearing KMT retribution, Chiang is released even before the negotiations come to a proper agreement on the night of the 24th. Zhou is not invited back to Nanjing despite previous correspondence.
On December 30, Chiang is assassinated by one of his own bodyguards sympathetic to the cause of the CPC, in a bellicose move which angers the KMT faction.
The ensuing power vacuum left authority over the Nationalist government in Nanjing in the hands of the Pan-Asianist anti-USSR ideologue Wang Jingwei. Beginning January 5, Wang assumes the role of Chairman of the National Government of the Republic of China in a snap election - with most members of the government responsible for counting the votes held at gunpoint by Wang anti-Chiang sympathizers.
Beginning in January, Chairman Wang Jingwei attempted to cool tense relations with Japan and slowly re-integrate the CPC back into the Nanjing government to strengthen his legitimacy as leader of China. On the 9th, the Nanjing government signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan much to the dismay of the pro-USSR faction in both the KMT and the CPC.
Wang Jingwei used Pan-Asianism, basing his views on Sun Yat-sen advocating for Asian people to unite against the West in the early 20th century, partly to justify his efforts at working together with Japan. He claimed it was natural for Japan and China to have good relations and cooperation because of their close affinity, describing their conflicts as a temporary aberration in their history. Furthermore the government believed in the unity of all Asian nations with Japan as their leader as the only way to achieve their goals of removing European and Islamist imperialist powers from Asia.
Still upset over the 1936 withdrawal of the USSR’s support from the CPC and the incompetence of Mao in forming a Chinese United Front against Japan, many Maoists adopted the political position of the left wing of the KMT, under the leadership of Wang Jingwei, believing that an otherwise deadly resistance war would lead to the wholesale subjugation of Chinese autonomy (which was already severely limited by the 21 demands) to the Empire of Japan.
Talks with the Japanese Empire remained belligerent due to the question of Manchuria, which remained occupied by the Kwantung Army. Wang, pressured by the threat of CPC elements in the KMT to secede, continued to advocate against the independence of Manchuria in public.
In private, talks between Wang and the Japanese government began to discuss the possibility of the Japanese interventionism in the Chinese Civil War. Attaches from Japan began surveying the military situation of the Sinkiang, Xibei San Ma, Yunnan, and Guangxi Cliques as early as June. Wang also expressed to the Japanese government his intent to declare neutrality in the event of a large-scale conflict in Asia.
On the night of the 7th of July, Imperial Japanese units stationed at Fengtai crossed the Sino-Japanese border to conduct military exercises. Japanese and Chinese forces outside the town of Wanping—a walled town 16.4 km (10.2 mi) southwest of Beijing—exchanged fire at approximately 23:00. The exact cause of this incident remains unknown. When a Japanese soldier, Private Shimura Kikujiro, failed to return to his post, Chinese regimental commander Ji Xingwen (219th Regiment, 37th Division, 29th Route Army) received a message from the Japanese demanding permission to enter Wanping to search for the missing soldier; the Chinese flatly refused. Although Private Shimura returned to his unit, by this point both sides were mobilizing, with the Japanese deploying reinforcements to surround Wanping.
At 04:45 (20:45 UTC) Wang Lengzhai had returned to Wanping, and on his way back he witnessed Japanese troops massing around the town. Seeing himself as outnumbered, he ordered his men to ceasefire and surrender to the Japanese.
The following morning, the Chinese (Nanjing) and Japanese governments engaged in comprehensive peace talks, despite the CPC’s call for retaliation. Japan agreed to slowly demobilize the Kwantung Army in Manchuria over a period of 3 years in order to avoid further border provocation, in exchange for Wang’s recognition of Manchurian independence. Both sides scapegoat the incident on rebellious officers and commit to a purge of their respective militaries in order to stabilize the state of Sino-Japanese alliance.
On the 1st of August, ironically on the 10th anniversary of the Nanchang Uprising, the Chinese Soviet Republic was declared an enemy of the Reorganized National Government of China.
Mao Zedong and the CPC, weakened by years of political influence from the KMT, effectively retained little power upon retreating to the Shanxi base area. By September, much of the CPC had already defected to the Left-KMT.
Several thousands of CPC loyalists are exiled or impose upon themselves self-exile in the Philippines and Malaya as war refugees, quickly establishing communication with local labor unions and Communist insurgency cells. Exiled CPC members continued to work as advisers to these cells for years after Wang’s consolidation of power in China.
Re-elected on February 16, 1938, Badr al-Ramin began to modernize the Arabian military with the latest equipment and doctrine. Badr al-Ramin would also begin to construct oil wells, seeking to exploit Arabia's massive oil reserves both for its own purposes and for export. Italy, under Benito Mussolini, would also attempt to procure sovereignty over Tunisia; to which Arabia would warn them to stay out of North Africa, which they would for a while, knowing fully well that they would not be able to take on Arabia alone.
In lieu of rising political tensions Badr al-Ramin founded the Tahaluf Al-Duwal Al-'Iislamia (Tada’i), declared on February 17, 1939 in Qahira in the presence of the Abbasid Caliph shortly after the Hajj season; consisting of the founding members of itself, Malaya, Algharb, Alfida, and Albania.
After achieving victory in the Spanish Civil War, Francoist Spain joins the Axis, because of ideological sympathies and irredentism with regards to the Maghreb. Spain was promised the Maghreb. Germany also promised military and economic assistance in the form of wheat and oil, which was provided in quantity after the signing of the German-Soviet Credit Agreement.
On 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union, and one day after the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union had approved the pact, Germany invaded Poland. The Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. This event marks the beginning of WW2. Polish government evacuated to Britain; several Polish military units and assets fought their way into neutral or Allied territory, with a significant body of troops making their way to the Middle East, while others dispersed and formed the core of the Polish Home Army. Polish intelligentsia and clergy were targeted for elimination from here on out. Polish prisoners of war captured by the Soviets were deported to Siberia.
During the early morning of 9 April 1940 Germany occupied Denmark and invaded Norway, ostensibly as a preventive manoeuvre against a planned, and openly discussed, Franco-British occupation of Norway known as Plan R 4. After the occupation of Denmark, envoys of the Germans informed the governments of Denmark and Norway that the Wehrmacht had come to protect the countries' neutrality against Franco-British aggression. The operation to occupy Denmark and Norway, Unternehmen Weserübung (Operation Weser Exercise) was ultimately successful, ending on July 10 with the German occupation of Denmark and Norway.
On May 10, 1940, Germany initiated Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), wherein German armoured units made a surprise push through the Ardennes, and then along the Somme valley, cutting off and surrounding the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium to meet the expected German invasion. British, Belgian and French forces were pushed back to the sea by the German armies. German forces began Fall Rot (Case Red) on 5 June. The sixty remaining French divisions and the two British divisions in France made a determined stand on the Somme and Aisne but were defeated by the German combination of air superiority and armoured mobility. German tanks outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France, occupying Paris unopposed on 14 June. After the flight of the French government and the collapse of the French army, German commanders met with French officials on 18 June to negotiate an end to hostilities. On 22 June, the Second Armistice at Compiègne was signed by France and Germany. The neutral Vichy government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain superseded the Third Republic and Germany occupied the North Sea and Atlantic coasts of France and their hinterlands.
The Battle of Britain begins, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. This air battle would last from 10 June 1940 to 11 May 1941, where Germany would realize that attaining air and naval superiority over Britain is nigh-impossible. This would delay and ultimately force the cancellation of Operation Sea Lion.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina took place from 28 June to 4 July 1940 as a result of the ultimatum given by the Soviet Union to Romania on 26 June 1940 threatening the use of force. This was consented to by Germany in the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact dividing Europe into spheres of influence.
On 30 August 1940, the Second Vienna Award, known also as the Vienna Diktat, assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania, including all of Maramureș and part of Crișana, from Romania to Hungary.
The Greco-Italian War took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941. It turned into the Battle of Greece when British and German ground forces intervened early in 1941.
Germany initiated Axis overtures towards Iran, promising Iraq and the Arabian Caucasus, as well as technological and military support in exchange for oil supplies, in addition to that currently being provided by Romania and the Soviet Union.
Axis tensions with Arabia prompt the start of planning for an invasion of Arabia, with offensives being planned against the European holdings of Tada’i and landings in North Africa. This is known as the Plan Orient, a broad offensive against Arabia with the goal of eliminating Arabian European possessions and taking the Middle East itself. As a result, plans for Unternehmen Barbarossa push the start date forward to late 1942 or 1943.
Vichy France was allowed to deploy reinforcements to French Africa to suppress the Free French movement, and to resume industrial war production for both its own army and the Axis powers.
The invasion of Yugoslavia began on 6 April 1941 during World War II. The order for the invasion was put forward in "Führer Directive No. 25", which Adolf Hitler issued on 27 March 1941, following the Yugoslav coup d'état against a pro-Axis government, which angered Hitler greatly. Hungary at first abstained from participating, but Upon the proclamation of an Independent State of Croatia in Zagreb on 10 April, Hungary joined the invasion, its army crossing into Yugoslavia the following day. The invasion was mostly successful, concluding on 18 April, with the occupation of Yugoslavia and the physical creation of the Independent State of Croatia.
At the same time as the invasion of Yugoslavia, Unternehmen Marita (Operation Marita), the German invasion of Greece, begins. The German Army reached the capital, Athens, on 27 April and Greece's southern border on 30 April, capturing 7,000 British, Australian and New Zealand personnel and ending the battle with a decisive victory. The conquest of Greece was completed with the capture of Crete a month later.
After conferring with his advisers, the Sultan of Malaya, Haji Farid, orders an imposition of an oil blockade upon the Empire of Japan.
In response to this, Japan attempted to acquire an oil deal with Algharb but Haji Farid convinces the Grand Vizier of Algharb to back out.
Due to the threat of resource shortage and economic collapse, Japan is forced to invade Malaya. Because Haji Farid assumed that Japan would never go to war with Malaya out of fear of Tada’i, Malaya was caught off guard and the surprise invasion of its territories began on the 7th of December with the invasion of Philippine Luzon by the Imperial Japanese Army stationed in Formosa.
Hours after the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China executes the “Wang Directive” ordering a full-scale reclamation of the country against the Sinkiang, Xibei San Ma, Yunnan, and Guangxi Cliques in order to impose of the central government there.
A day later, the aforementioned cliques established an uneasy truce through the formation of the Western United Front against Wang’s Japan-backed Republic of China. The Wang Reclamation had begun.
On December 20th, 1941, Dai Viet and Siam, through their foreign ministers in Tokyo, formalized their participation in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere with Japan and aided the war effort through multiple simultaneous offensives against the Malayan archipelago. Despite multiple communiques addressed to Wang Jingwei’s government, he, with the backing of the legislature, refused to consign China to war against Malaya and Malaya’s allies.
January - Manila fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on the 2nd, although resistance to the Japanese occupation continued elsewhere in the country.
General Masaharu Homma decreed the dissolution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission, a caretaker government, with Vargas as its first chairman.
The Wha-Chi or Squadron 48, a Filipino-Chinese Anti-Japanese guerilla organization, established its base near Mount Arayat. Led by exiled Anti-Wang coalitionists and Filipinos of Chinese descent alike, it eventually grew to become one of the strongest guerilla movements in the region.
Other guerilla movements including the HUKBALAHAP, a Filipino communist group, and the Malayan National Front (MNF), a Malayan restorationist organization, set-up bases to contend with the Japanese all across the Philippines. The MNF proves to be the most belligerent faction, not above looting and war-crimes in order to achieve their end.
Haji Farid diverts all military forces to escorting the government administration in their escape to the Malayan colony of Gurun (known as Australia in the West).
Japan, Dai Viet, and Siam achieve swift victories all across Malaya because of the Malayan military diverting all efforts to escorting Haji Farid’s administration instead of actually fighting the enemy.
Tada’i, angered by the invasion of Malaya, declared war on Japan, Siam, and Dai Viet minutes following the wholesale collapse of the frontline.
A massive Tada’i fleet gathered in the Mediterranean, then sailed to the Indian Ocean to meet-up with the Indian Ocean Fleet of Arabia.
Once the Tada’i fleet had reached halfway to the Asia-Pacific, the Axis Powers of Europe declared war on Tada’i. This general offensive is known as the Plan Orient, and involves attacks against Anatolia, Thrace and North Africa, with the goal being to attack the Middle East held by Arabia itself.
May - Without Tada’i reinforcements, Malaya loses the Battle of Laut Karang (Coral Sea).
July-November = Japan engages in a successful campaign in Irian Jaya (Papua).
On December 2nd, the Conference of Cairo is held: Tada’i officially joined the Allied Powers under the pretext that any other country that declared war on another Allied Power during the war would be considered an enemy by all Allied Powers; thus allowing Arabia to divert forces from the fortified Arab-Persian and Arab-Russian Borders to combat the Axis forces.
As the British Empire joined the war against Axis Asia, while Siam began to push into Bengal.
Tensions with Arabia and Axis pressure push Vichy France to join the Axis attacks on Arabia, with French mechanized forces pushing across the Sahara desert and the French naval forces tipping the balance of power in the military more towards the Axis.
Marching through Bulgaria and the other Balkan nations, German, Italian, Hungarian, Romanian and Bulgarian troops attack Arabian Thrace, under Unternehmen Gertrude (Operation Gertrude). The Independent State of Croatia begins mustering its army with support from the other Axis Powers, while the Hellenic State is given approval from Germany to raise their own army. The Hellenic State and Bulgaria are promised their respective southern coast and gains from Thrace.
Gebirgsjäger and Alpini forces are deployed to support the push into Anatolia after the fall of Adrianople (Edirne) and Constantinople (Istanbul), supported by the Romanian Navy and the Regia Marina.
The difficulty of Anatolia’s mountainous terrain allow Arabia to use minimal armored divisions in the region, and divert them elsewhere.
The Jund Altayaran deploys from various air bases across Arabia, shooting down all German aircraft and maintaining air superiority.
The Tada’i Fleet turns around in the Indian Ocean, and makes a return for Arabia.
Germany initiates a strategic bombing campaign against Arabia, while German heavy surface units are moved to the French and Spanish Atlantic coast. U-boats enter the Mediterranean to support Italian naval operations. The Italian and Vichy naval forces begin operations to control the Mediterranean.
Axis landing in Libya, Algeria and Morocco, Unternehmen Herkules (Operation Hercules), was carried out with the support of the Regia Marina and the French Navy. Despite its weight, the Germans managed to utilize the Tiger I, which was impervious against even the most dedicated anti-tank weapons available in 1942.
On December 8, KALIBAPI — Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Tagalog for the "Association for Service to the New Philippines") — was formed by Proclamation No. 109 of the Philippine Executive Commission (Komisyong Tagapagpaganap ng Pilipinas), banning all existing political parties and creating the new governing alliance.
January - Japan launches the invasion of Gurun, performing landings across the northern and eastern coast of the Gurunese continent.
Japan encounters heavy resistance on the Gurunese continent, as Malaya manages to pull off a defense. Japanese army doctrine was heavily centered on infantry, and would not fare as well on the wide open deserts of Gurun as they did in the jungles of Malaya.
Unternehmen Barbarossa (Operation Barbarossa), the invasion of the Soviet Union, begins after the winter. The Red Army, somewhat recovered from the purges and in possession of great numbers of modern T-34 and KV-1 tanks, but saddled with entrenched complacency due to the Axis campaign against Arabia and gross mismanagement by officers like Marshal Grigory Kulik, is pushed back by German-led Axis forces, equipped with the Tiger I, Panzer IV tanks and StuG III assault guns with the 7.5cm gun and the 7.5cm PaK 40 infantry anti-tank gun, which can engage the T-34. Germany won great battles of encirclement, capturing large numbers of men and materiél, and pushing all the way to the outskirts of Moscow.
However, defense in depth, particularly in Moscow and Leningrad, as well as Soviet manpower and materiél reserves allowed the Soviets to regroup their last reserves near Moscow and Leningrad to hold on until the beginning of the rasputista season, while transferring industry to the Urals allowed for war production to continue. On the part of the Germans, the Panther tank and the Ferdinand tank destroyer appeared, as well as the approved Amerika Bomber, the Ju 390, which allowed the Germans to disrupt Soviet production in the Urals.
USSR releases large amounts of captured Polish troops from the gulags, where they link up with Polish exiles in the Middle East and establish several independent units under ACCSA command. A falling-out with the British leads to the Polish government-in-exile moving to the ACCSA.
During the offensive into the USSR, the population of the Baltics and the Ukrainian Banderists initially greeted the Germans as liberators from Soviet oppression. Latvia, Estonia and Ukraine provide volunteers for the SS, while a collaborationist Lithuanian territorial defense army is created. These units will form the core of later anti-Soviet resistance movements (Forest Brothers).
April 20, 1943: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
The Polish Home Army secures and releases hard evidence of the Holocaust, in part (Poles, Jews, Catholic clergy, other undesirables are being worked to death, some evidence of gasworks). This is mostly ignored by the rest of the world.
On May 6, 1943, during his first visit to the Philippines, Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō promised that a state separate from the occupied territories of Malaya would be established for the country, in effect granting the Philippines its Republican Independence back. The announcement was met jubilantly by members of the Filipino public.
In order to further promote its Fascist rhetoric, KALIBAPI adapted a heightened sense of Anti-Islamism and historical revisionism to paint the Japanese as liberators of the Philippines from Islamic imperialism.
June - KALIBAPI founded the Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence on the 19th. The PCPI invited much of the intelligentsia for talks regarding the future of the Republic.
Former President Emilio Aguinaldo, having studied new forms of governance during his time in Europe (holding a particular fascination for the principles of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler) constantly proposed the idea of establishing a homegrown National Socialist revolution in the Philippines to the PCPI during their gatherings. Utilizing his vast network of connections with the Japanese, he coerces most of the Committee to approve of the proposal via intimidation tactics.
To secure the Persian Corridor with the USSR, the British launched Operation Countenance against Iran in coordination with the Soviet Union. The British attacked from northern British India while the Soviets attacked from the north. In coordination with the USSR and Britain, the Jund Al Iraq attacked Iran from the west.
Vichy French, Spanish and German surface units engage with Western Allied naval units in the Atlantic, in addition to the U-boat campaign against Allied shipping, to attempt to contest control over the Atlantic and prevent an Allied landing in Morocco.
Axis forces follow up their successes in North Africa with Unternehmen Aïda (Operation Aida), the Axis push into Egypt. With control of Malta and Gibraltar, the Axis is better able to resupply its forces and readies for a push towards the Suez Canal. Germany also initiates Operation Salam, a long-range desert patrol effort led by Hungarian explorer László Almásy. Vichy France and Francoist Spain secure Morocco and Algeria while Germany and Italy secure Libya and push towards Egypt.
Aside from the push in the desert, the state of Axis naval forces allowed for an Italian-French landing in Palestine, Unternehmen Atlas (Operation Atlas), to land Axis troops in Palestine and push towards the Suez Canal. Notably, the Vichy French forces fielded the modern Char G1R, now with the ARL 42 3-man turret and a 7.5cm L/40 gun.
To tie the Arabs up further, the Vichy French army pushes into Ethiopia and Sudan after overrunning the buffer states in the area. The French field chasseurs alpins mountain troops and later, goumier collaborationist forces raised from Berber tribes who had good relations with Spanish colonial forces in Morocco, while propaganda leaflets are dropped by plane, calling for Ethiopians to rise up against their Arab oppressors.
The difficult terrain of Ethiopia make it difficult for the Vichy French forces to traverse, and allow Arabian forces to easily destroy armored divisions in Ethiopia
The Jund Altayaran prevents the Axis air force from gaining air superiority, and continuously harasses the Axis forces on their way to the Suez; many of the local ground forces focus on defending Arabian air bases in order to limit the Luftwaffe’s operational range in Misr (Egypt).
The Luftwaffe and the Regia Aeronautica continue to contest the skies, along with the air forces of the other Axis powers, as well as strategic bombing attacks to disrupt Arabian war production. The Bomber B, the Fw 191, and the Amerika Bomber, the Ju 390, along with the Ju 188 and the He 177, begin replacing the older bombers used previously, while the Italians field the potent Reggiane Re.2005 Fiat G.55 and Macchi C.205 fighters.
The returning Tada’i Fleet arrives in Egypt, and undocks with a large number of ground forces including massive armored divisions.
The coastal defence of Egypt prevent landings, while the Tada’i ground forces prepare to defend the Nile
The armored divisions of the Western Jund Al Sham and Southern Jund Al Anadul move into Filastin to deter Axis landings in the Palestinian Coast.
The Jund Al Sham attempts to secure the Suez, while the Jund Altayaran engages Axis aircraft and attacks Axis naval forces around the northern mouth of the Suez.
With the reinforcement of the Arab army, the Axis begins a make-or-break push for the Suez Canal, supported by the latest Panther tanks and the Ferdinand tank destroyers, as well as larger numbers of Tiger I tanks. The 350,000 strong
German-Italian Panzer Army reaches El Alamein in the Nile Delta, under Erwin Rommel and Ettore Bastico. The Panther and the Tiger acquitted themselves honorably, supported by 8.8cm anti-aircraft guns used as anti-tank guns, in addition to a healthy amount of Panzer IV, StuG III and PaK 40s available, along with the 15cm Hummel and 10.5cm Wespe self-propelled guns, as well as 15cm and 21cm Nebelwerfers. The Italians fielded the P26/40 tank, comparable to the Panzer IV, as well as the Semovente da 75/18 and da 75/34 assault guns. The Luftwaffe and the Regia Aeronautica engage the defenders and the aircraft of the Jund Altayaran. Ultimately, the Battle of El Alamein ends with Axis forces disengaging.
The Jund Al Anadul, joined by the returning marines; reinforce El Alamein and engage the Axis forces in open combat with a much larger force several times the number of the invading forces at 600,000; with forces diverted from the Zagros Front, the Bilad Al Sham Army, and armies from the Anadul Front, under the command of the Moshir Ayda Qadir Mohammed.
Unternehmen Typhon (Operation Typhoon) begins. Germans, despite the rasputista, break through the Soviet defense lines in significant numbers and penetrate the suburbs of Moscow. Heavy urban fighting begins and the winter takes its toll on the German units, who are not used to campaigning in the snow. Skillful Soviet resistance and bad weather forced the Germans to retreat 150-200 miles from Moscow by December.
In the South, the Germans launch Fall Blau (Case Blue) to capture the resources of the Caucasus. The diversion of large Soviet forces to fight the Iranians allowed Army Group South to continue to score victories in Southern Russia and then split into 2 forces - Army Group A and Army Group B. Army Group A was responsible for Unternehmen Edelweiß (Operation Edelweiss), the German drive for the Caucasus while Army Group B was tasked with the implementation of Unternehmen Fischreiher (Operation Heron), the push towards Stalingrad.
September 20, 1943, the KALIBAPI's representative groups in the country's provinces and cities convened and elected from among themselves fifty-four members of the Philippine National Assembly, the legislature of the country, with fifty-four governors and city mayors as ex-officio members. The PNA ratified the constitution drafted prior and recently approved by the Japanese establishing the “Social Republic of the Philippines” and effectively turning the Philippines into a police state.
Three days after establishing the National Assembly, its inaugural session was held at the pre-war Legislative Building and it elected by majority Benigno S. Aquino as its first Speaker and José P. Laurel as President of the Social Republic of the Philippines, (who was inaugurated on October 14), at the foundation of the new Social Republic, the Legislative Building.
Former President Emilio Aguinaldo and General Artemio Ricarte raised a new Philippine flag, a deviation from one used during the Philippine–Malayan War (which featured an anthropomorphic sun) during the inauguration. This was the first time since the Japanese occupation that the flag of the Philippines was properly displayed and the anthem played. The Philippine Social Republic had been born.
On the same day, a Pact of Alliance was signed between the new Social Republic and the Japanese government that was ratified two days later by the National Assembly. The Philippine declaration of war on Malaya followed mere hours after. Cordial relations were soon established with Siam, Dai Viet, and the Axis Powers.
November - The Greater East Asia Conference (大東亜会議, Dai Tōa Kaigi) was an international summit held in Tokyo from November 5 to 6, in which Japan hosted the heads of state of various component members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The event was also referred to as the Tokyo Conference. The Conference addressed few issues of substance, but was intended from the start as a propaganda show piece, to illustrate the Empire of Japan's commitments to the Pan-Asianism ideal and to emphasize its role as the liberator of Asia from Islamic influence.
December - Artemio Ricarte was appointed Field Marshal of the Social Republic’s Armed Forces, which he was also given the difficult task of establishing. Exiled revolutionaries, descendants of those who fought during the Philippine-Malayan War, and sympathizers with military experience of other nationalities currently residing in the country were granted positions in the officer corps.
On the 29th, a General Conscription Law was passed for all capable men between the ages of 22 to 50. Divisions formed under Ricarte’s military command were mandated to be sent on the frontlines to fight alongside the Imperial Japanese Army as auxiliaries.
In early 1944, the first Filipino volunteer companies from Ricartista’s auxiliary program linked-up with the Imperial Japanese Army in Gurun.
The Jund Al Arminiya moves in to secure the Caucasus, joining Soviet forces to repel the German Army Group A
Tada’i Fleet passes through the Al-Suways and enters the Mediterranean, and engages the Axis Naval forces
Jund Al Anadul moves in to liberate Thrace, supported by the Tada’i Fleet and Jund Altayaran Al Anadul, before sweeping across Balkans
The Soviets launch Operation Iskra, expelling the German-led Axis forces from the vicinity of Leningrad and pushing them back 60-100 miles from the city.
The 6th Army, the force of Army Group B tasked with attacking Stalingrad directly, is forced to surrender within the city after the Soviets launch Operation Uranus, where the weak minor Axis armies defending the flanks of the 6th Army are destroyed.
Fighting and offensives in southern Russia and the Ukraine force the overextended German forces to fall back, abandoning Kharkov, Kiev, the Crimea and other areas.
In May 1944, Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War, was launched against the Vichy French and Francoist Spanish forces in Morocco. The goal of Operation Torch was to open a second front in Europe, as per request of Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union.
On the 20th of May the first effective combat divisions of the Philippine Social Republic land in Northern Gurun including the 1st “Maharlika” Infantry Division, the 2nd “Makabayan” Infantry Division, the 1st Kempeitai-Yoin Motorized Division, and the 1st “Tiradores” Ranger Division. Over 28,500 Filipino soldiers, most without proper gunnery training, are utilized as auxiliaries during the Pacific Summer Offensive of 1944 in an attempt to break the Japanese-Malayan stalemate.
On 6 June 1944, Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Western Europe commenced with the Normandy landings. A 1,200-plane airborne assault preceded an amphibious assault involving more than 5,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on the 6th of June.
On July 20 1944, the impending defeat of Germany drove the coup plotters against Hitler to act. Claus von Stauffenberg successfully assassinated Adolf Hitler and Operation Valkyrie was launched. German troops retreated from France, the Low Countries and Russia into the 1939 borders of Germany, Italy and Romania, while the occupation of Denmark and Norway came to an end. Carl Goerdeler and Ludwig Beck, the nominal heads of state and government, call for a ceasefire and negotiations for a separate peace with the Western Allies.
Tada’i continues to sweep across North Africa and the Balkans, also pushing into Central Africa and Europe
Warsaw Uprising on August 15th, 1944. German garrison driven out of Warsaw. Smaller insurrections happen in Bialystock and Lublin that achieve limited success.
The Western Allies break off negotiations and begin an offensive against the Siegfried Line. The large number of troops from the Eastern Front and Norway ensure this offensive is stalled. Furthermore, anger against the failed initiative of the Stauffenberg government emboldens supporters of Hitler, Strasserists and most monarchists alike. The Stauffenberg government is overthrown by a revolt led by Otto Ernst Remer, and many of the surviving putschists are imprisoned in the Spandau Prison.
Poland and the Baltics are occupied by Tada’i forces. Polish provisional government established. Poland is a ruined hellscape, with 16% of its population dead, including many scholars, professionals, and clergy.
The structure of the new government is settled as follows - the monarchy is restored, however Crown Prince Wilhelm is to give up his claim in favor of Princess Victoria Louise, who was more apolitical yet retains the same high standing. However, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz is appointed as "Reich Regent'' and takes over the titles and powers assumed by Adolf Hitler, with the agreement they revert to the formal head of state upon his death. Otto Strasser becomes chancellor and prepares for negotiations for a separate peace with the Soviet Union.
A ceasefire and prisoner exchange took place. Along with the returning prisoners of war came members of the National Front, who were restored to rank in the German army. Most importantly, German leaders asked for weapons and supplies to rebuild the shattered German Army for an offensive in the West. In return, Germany will share atom bomb technology and a delivery platform with the Soviet Union. Notably, the Soviets began providing raw materials, allowing for the resumption of production of strategic bomber aircraft, as well for the construction of a great quantity of nuclear devices for both nations.
Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein (Operation Watch on the Rhine) was launched in December of 1944 against the Western Allied Forces, commencing the Battle of the Bulge. The Battle of the Bulge consisted of an offensive through the Ardennes to retake Antwerp by 45 divisions. Notably, the Germans managed to take Elsenborn Ridge in the north, using aircraft, tanks, artillery and experienced infantry freed up by the cessation of hostilities in the Eastern Front, and by risking an intelligence coup by fielding the experienced paratroops of von der Heydte for Operation Hawk, who managed to seize an important crossroad. St. Vith in the center and Bastogne in the south fell as well due to veterans of the Eastern Front and the increased amount of firepower released. In the north, Germans were able to continue on towards Liege and Verviers. The Tiger II heavy tank and the derived Jagdtiger heavy tank destroyer makes their debut in the fighting, along with the Jagdpanther heavy tank destroyer, as well as the Sturmpanzer IV "Brummbär'' and Sturmtiger heavy assault guns. Large numbers of improved Panther and Panzer IV tanks are utilized, as well as Jagdpanzer 38(t) Hetzer and Jagdpanzer IV/70 (V) tank destroyers, StuG III and IV assault guns and Soviet supplied T-34-85 tanks. The Soviets manage to fill out the artillery park of the Strasserite German forces, compensating for the Allied proximity fuse with the weight of fire of Soviet pieces and the mobility of self-propelled German pieces such as the 15cm Hummel and the 10.5cm Hummel-Wespe. Notably, the Germans fielded the StG-44 assault rifle in large numbers.
Unternehmen Nordwind (Operation North Wind), began on 31 December 1944 in Rhineland-Palatinate, Alsace and Lorraine in southwestern Germany and northeastern France. The goal of the offensive was to break through the lines of the British 7th Army and French 1st Army in the Upper Vosges mountains and the Alsatian Plain, and destroy them, as well as the seizure of Strasbourg. The Germans utilized the technological superiority of armor and the weight of artillery fire to compensate for Allied weight of armor and technological superiority of artillery, with veteran infantry from the Eastern Front tipping the balance in favor of the Germans.
Unternehmen Zahnarzt (Operation Dentist) was launched by the Germans to attempt to eliminate the Third Army. The plan was to initiate a pincer movement to encircle and destroy the British 3rd Army. On March 9, the USSR declared war on the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and launches several offensives against them through Manchuria and Mongolia.
March-September - As the USSR sweeps across Asia, numerous nations are liberated; many joining the Soviet cause, easing the process further. However, fierce resistance is encountered in Indochina; and the Soviets find themselves unable to engage Japan due to having a weaker navy.
August - Berlin falls, and Axis Europe is defeated.
September - Tada’i forces arrive in the East Indian Ocean and engages the Japanese and Japan-allied fleets.
As part of peace concessions, Germany provides the Soviet Union with the 4 nuclear devices it had in its possession before its defeat, Gerät (Gadget), Kleiner Junge (Little Boy), Dicker Mann (Fat Man) and Dünner Mann (Thin Man). Gadget and Fat Man were implosion-type plutonium bombs, while Little Boy and Thin Man were uranium gun-type devices. Several specially-modified Me 264 and Ju 390 Amerika Bomber strategic bombers were provided as well to deliver the bombs. These had an extensively modified bomb bay with pneumatic doors and bomb attachment and release systems, reversible pitch propellers that gave more braking power on landing, improved engines with fuel injection and better cooling, and the removal of protective armor and gun turrets.
September 26 - A nuke is dropped on Sasebo, and Japan surrenders. The Philippine Social Republic, rallying the other Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere states to carry-on, refused to follow Japan into surrender, and continued fighting.
September 27 - Launching an aircraft from Taiwan, the USSR drops a devastating nuke on Manila. The Philippine Social Republic surrenders.
September 28 - A Nuke is dropped on Singapore. Siam surrenders.
September 29 - A Nuke dropped on Saigon. Dai Viet surrenders.
September 30 - The Polish government-in-exile returns to Poland. Independent Polish State is re-established as the Prusso-Polish Commonwealth. Stauffenberg is released and goes into exile in Poland, where he eventually becomes heavily involved in the establishment of the post-war Polish Armed Forces.
Population exchanges with Germany begin; Germans deported to Germany, Poles to Poland. The concentration camps, however, remain, first as impromptu hospitals for their former inmates, and then as labor and death camps for captured SS personnel, including the Dirlewanger Brigade and Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski. The Strasser-led German government does not complain, and abets this by only making surface level inquiries regarding the fates of SS personnel and listing them as KIA, as members of the Black Front and the SA are chosen to supervise the return and expulsion of deportees, organizations which the SS attacked and humiliated politically.
Trotsky and Strasser make plans to reform post-war Germany into a National Bolshevik state, to be known as the Reorganized National Government of Germany or the Reorganisieren Reichregierung.