Motto: Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit (Unity and Justice and Freedom)
Anthem: Song of Germany
Capital City: Bonn
Official Language: German
Demonym: West German
Government: Federal, authoritarian republican military junta
Legislature: Bundestag (Suspended)
Population: 58,590,000 (1965)
Currency: Deutschen Mark
Driving Side: Right
In the aftermath of World War II, Germany was split by four foreign powers as determined by the Potsdam Agreement of 1945. The eastern sector was given to the Soviets which would later become the Prussian Republic. Whereas the western sector was divided between the Americans, British, and French. President Henry Wallace of the USA gave West Berlin to Bukharin's USSR after relenting to Soviet pressure. A military crisis in 1949 where a column of American tanks "unknowingly" crossed the Soviet zone nearly triggered an international crisis and bringing the world closer to war - thus the Iron Curtain fell upon Europe. But it was immediately settled and it resulted in the formation of both Germany's as independent states in the same year. West Germany was initially managed as a democracy with Konrad Adenauer being West Germany's first democratic Chancellor on 1950. The foundations for a capitalist, conservative Germany was built under the CDU and Denazification was never pursued as a policy - resulting in many Nazi war criminals creeping in back to West German bureaucracy.
But in a terror bombing on 1955 which would change everything; a bomb was detonated within the Bundesrat building in Bonn which killed both the Chancellor and President as well as most German officials in the building in a well-timed execution. The Bundeswehr under Hans Speidel and Adolf Heusinger immediately made their move to seize the reins of power and installed a provisional military junta to oversee a smooth transition to what remained of the civilian government. But a change of plans within the coup plotters resulted in the position of President falling to former General Heinz Guderian's hands who played the role of President Hindenburg with Franz Halder by his side - fearing a backslide to Weimar democracy once again. Martial law has been declared and the state is currently attempting to root out subversive elements such as communist KPDs and the democratic-minded SPD.
The citizen would have to contend to live under an emergency government that has lasted for 10 years with rumors abound that it may not last long. As President Guderian is nearing death and even Speidel himself attempting to negotiate with the opposition. But the specter and vestiges of Nazism remain so ingrained among West Germans and it would take the conservative militarists to jeopardize everything.
After the conclusion of WWII, Germany was divided into four zones/sectors of occupation: French, British, American, and Soviet zones of occupation as agreed upon in the Potsdam Agreement in 1945. The west of Germany fell to Allied occupation as the Western front capitulated when the Reich could not withstand the Soviet onslaught to the east. The Allies intended to try Nazi leaders for war crimes in military tribunals as scheduled in Nuremberg but the actions of a few Jewish ultranationalist radicals led by Abba Kovner in the Nekam plot jeopardized everything.
As Kovner's Nekam plot succeeded in killing nearly all of the Nazi higher-ups and SS prisoners with the effect of solidifying the Germans' fears of a "Jewish threat" and legitimizing post-war Nazism. The Allied authorities' policy of Denazification failed to enact much change in West Germany as the Americans tacitly allowed several Nazi bureaucrats and civil servants to resume their roles. Even the scientific and military minds of Nazi Germany were quietly smuggled out of the country by the OSS through Operation Fjord and the ODESSA Network.
Tensions were present along the Allied - Soviet border in divided Germany throughout the late 40s. Many east Germans migrated to the west in order to escape the Soviets and their crippling economic policy of collectivization in the eastern zone. The number of British and American Army personnel more than tripled to the hundreds of thousands in 1947. Walls were fortified along the border and the entire border became heavily militarized which would later earn the nickname of the "Iron Curtain".
Thousands of east Germans perished by minefields or sniper rounds as they attempted to pass through military checkpoints. Meanwhile in western Germany, life slowly returned to normal as post-war reconstruction continued. But President Henry Wallace did not contribute much to the Marshall Aid as he preferred to focus more on America's internal affairs. President Henry Wallace's isolationist attitude and attempts to appease the Soviet Union in order to stave off a potential conflict perhaps did more harm to Europe as a whole. In the case of Germany, Henry Wallace did not pushed forward Allied request to put Berlin under joint occupation between the West and the Soviets.
Post-war economic reconstruction continued at a sluggish pace due to the lack of Marshall Aid funding in the 40s. West Germany did not grew to be the economic power it was in real life and the issue of east German refugees only exacerbated the situation. The economic divide between west Germans (Wessies) and east Germans (Ossies) contributed to some sort of national consciousness that "the West German was distinctly different from the East". There had also been concerning reports of guerrilla Werwolf SS activity in West Germany even in the late 40s (which proved to be false) and the threat of Nekam terrorists on west German civilians.
With the threat of Nekam radicals chirping away any remaining west German's goodwill towards the Jewish people post-Holocaust. But the US have left something of a political legacy in West Germany. American authorities reintroduced the liberal democratic system in Germany and legalized political parties such as the SPD and the CDU to run on local elections. However, American authorities proved either inefficient or apathetic in regards to tackling the issue of lingering Nazism in West German society.
On 1948, President Henry Wallace was "deposed" in a palace coup as Congress and the military threatened Wallace into resigning. Instead of the post going to his Vice President, the duty fell upon the military with war hero General Eisenhower rising to become "Provisional President". Wallace was deposed due to his meekish attitude towards the Soviet Union to the point that the American public believed that Wallace was in bed with the communists. In a show of power and to demonstrate that the US is not to be pushed over; Eisenhower amassed American forces along the Iron Curtain and sent a column of tanks to the border.
In a move that would bring the world one step closer to another war, the "German Crisis" of 1948 signaled the start of the Cold War. However the situation was defused rather quickly and it brought the attention that a West German "bulwark and shield" was needed in order to counter the Soviets. Thus on 1949, Allied authorities relinquished political authority to local German governors and allowed for national elections to take place. The Federal Republic of Germany was officially declared and established on 1949.
The 1949 West German federal elections was the first free and fair elections that was held on post-Germany after a decade of Nazi rule over the country. Konrad Adenauer of the center-right Christian Democratic Union, previously the Mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933 and 1945 - 1946, won the elections with 31% of the vote against Kurt Schumacher of the SPD with a close 29.2% and Franz Blucher of the FDP with 11%. The CDU, CSU, and the FDP entered into a coalition to fight against the SPD and contain the influence of the Soviet-funded western KPD. Less influential was the Socialist Reich Party led by former Wehrmacht officer Ernst Otto Remer and the Communist Party of Germany - West Germany. Both contributed to the polarization of West Germany and would take years later to discover that both were on Soviet payroll. Ernst Rememr was particularly notorious for attempting to reintroduce Nazism back to West Germany and his comments in regards to "showing the Soviets the way to Bonn" in the case of a SARPAC invasion of the west.
The establishment of West Germany was used to create a West European "shield and sword" against a perceived looming Soviet threat on the eastern side of the Iron Curtain. The industrial buildup of West Germany and a future rearmament was on America's priority list but western Europe distrusted the prospect of a strengthened German nation right after WWII. Both America and western Europe argued over the extent of West German repayment and if she was permitted to form a military. But Adenauer was a proponent of German rearmament and worked tirelessly along Ludwig Gerhard to put the West German economy on a stable footing with their dreams of turning West Germany into the industrial powerhouse of Europe. Constitutional amendments and measures known as Basic Law was introduced on 1949 with the stated function of regulating political radicalism and maintaining German democracy.
The Federal Border Guards was formed on 1951 that could be considered as the nucleus to a West German army and Reinhard Gehlen was covertly recruited to form the Gehlen Organization - the spy arm of West Germany tasked with maintaining internal security and rooting out the KPD. Critical to the West German nation-building was the former Wehrmacht and confronting their role in the war. The SS, which was rightfully condemned as a criminal organization, had been used as a scapegoat by the West German government for much of the Third Reich's war crimes and the memoirs of German generals such as Guderian, Manstein, Halder, and others shaped public as well as Western opinions in favor of a "clean Wehrmacht".
The Wehrmacht had been far from being an apolitical military, often supporting the Reich's initiatives, and were an actor of war crimes in the Eastern Front which they dubbed as a "total war of extermination against Slavs and Bolsheviks". The memoirs of these generals were crucial to build public support for West German rearmament and it was ironically these men that would later lend a hand to the Republic's downfall. The sanitization of the Wehrmacht and the Adenauer's administration's refusal to "Denazify" the government led many Nazi party officials slowly creeping in back to the country's bureaucracy and slowly subvert it from within by forming far-right secret armies and paramilitaries. On 1954, West Germany would finally earn the permission from America and the west to form her own military - the Bundeswehr.
Mobilized During the Coup
The development of West Germany ran concurrently with the Prussian Republic. Initially for much of the 50s, West Germany was more prosperous than her eastern counterpart due to American foreign aid which kickstarted the recovery of West Germany and subsequent post-war economic miracle known as the "Miracle on the Rhine". In contrast, Prussia was lagging behind as it bore the brunt of the Soviet invasion and was required to pay off hefty economic compensation while the West light-handedly did not. Consumer goods production was high and the country was seemingly on the right track after the war. Culture became more liberalized and freedom of expression guaranteed for a while.
Yet everything changed on 1955 when during a Bundesrat session in Bonn; a bomb was detonated in the center of the building hid inside a briefcase and it blew up half of the building off. This tragedy would later be known as the "Broken Windows" incident that would basically kill West German democracy prematurely. The bomb killed 98 parliamentary members and all of the cabinet members. Konrad Adenauer, Theodor Heuss, Ludwig Erhard and others were subsequently killed from the intense blast of the briefcase bomb. To this day, the incident became the subject of conspiracies among the public. With some accusing the Bundeswehr of doing it in order to provide a pretext of taking power while official narratives concluded that the SPD-KPD was behind the incident.
Sworn in as Chancellor
On November, the Bundeswehr led by General Hans Speidel and Adolf Heusinger immediately seized power as tanks rolled on the street of Bonn and Munich as well as suppressing the news of the bombing from the public. With only days later that the Speidel revealed himself as the "guardian of German stability and the protector of the constitution" to the public as well as accused the KPD of being the mastermind of the attack. Speidel, seizing the reins of the Chancellorship, put the country under martial law and suspended the constitution while giving full rights to the Polizei to conduct arrest warrants on suspected KPD members. Speidel represented the Constitutionalist tendency within the Bundeswehr to remain apolitical and had hoped to relinquish political control to what remained of the civilian government. But in a power struggle episode between the Constitutionalist and Militarist faction of the Bundeswehr led by Guderian-Witzleben; the Militarist won and successfully continued martial law as they saw fit.
Under the "Joint Committee for National Security", the Bundeswehr has played a role in directing West German public policy and demonstrating an unhealthy amount of political power as they continue to sideline the civilian government. Heinz Guderian rose to become Bundespresident with him playing the role of President von Hindeburg who once attempted to bring stability to the Weimar Republic. Hans Speidel became Chancellor under Guderian and he continued to advocate for moderation and reformism within the government. Economic growth stagnated under martial law as general strikes and student activism continue to shake the nation. The government promises a return to democracy yet it seemed like a faraway dream for the people. Dissatisfaction with the economy and the erosion of democracy led to the formation of rebel groups such as the Red Army Faction and the Armeeverband on 1965 and '67 led by Meinhof and Brandt.
Into Their New Apartment
West Germany has a population of 58 million in 1965. 8 million of them were refugees from eastern Germany who fled during the Soviet occupation zone years until the Bundeswehr coup of 1955. A great deal portion of West Germany's population lives in Bavaria. In 1958, the West German government erected a comprehensive security systems of land mines, military forts, barbed wire fences, and border guard posts to prevent West German refugees from fleeing the country after the coup and to prevent "Prussian spies" from coming into the country. West Germany has a very demanding criterion for immigration and the country is virtually restricted to people outside of Europe owing to its anti-immigrant policies.
The fertility rate in West Germany is 2.80 with an infant mortality rate of 19.7 for 1.000 children on 1965. The birth rate is 65.4 and the median age in West Germany is 36.2. Life expectancy is 77.1 with an HDI of 80.3. West Germany has one of the highest living standards in Western Europe owing to its post-war economic success. Though the average West German is richer than their Prussian brethren; they do not fare well when it comes to quality education and healthcare which are entirely privatized by the government. Currently, there's a growing trend of West Germans and former Prussian exiles attempting to immigrate back to the more freer Prussian Republic with deadly results.
Memory in West Germany
West Germany is a majority German and the government takes pride in calling it an ethnically homogenous county for Germans only. The government claims that 99% of West Germans are native Germans but there might possibly be an undocumented number of Jews, Sorbs, Frisians, Danes, and more inside West Germany. The junta takes German nationalism seriously to the point of actively encouraging pro-natalist policies of pressuring young women to settle down and create families in order to breed German children against the tide of low birth rates. 60% of the population of West Germany is rural and agrarian where most live in the quaint idyllic countryside. The largest city in West Germany is Munich. Other major cities include Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Bonn, Hamburg, and much more.
West Germany like Prussia is officially secular but recent years have saw the junta doubling down on their Christian rhetoric. Religion in West Germany is split between Evangelical Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. With Roman Catholicism concentrated in the south and Protestants in the north. 50% of West Germans are Protestants while 45% are Catholics. But recent years have saw Atheism or Agnosticism growing in numbers among the youth as a reaction to the ultraconservative junta and although irreligiosity is not punishable; the junta often equates Atheism with Marxism and is attempting to combat it in every way possible.
Recent years have saw West Germans drifting even further from their German brothers in the east. Westerners view the Prussians as pejoratively as "Ossies" while Prussians call West Germans as "Wessies". The development of a distinct and socialist Prussian identity in the east exacerbated the cultural division between the two nation and many feared that an unified German nation might become a past memory. With the Prussians snickeringly calling their brothers in the west as "Rhinish" and "Bavarians". West Germans in general are more conservative and traditionalistic than their progressive-minded Prussian counterparts. This is due to a great deal of the population living in the conservative countryside and the nature of the regime itself. Matters like homosexuality and abortion are shunned and discussions about them seldom occur in the west. Women are expected to stay in home and become housewives but this did not stop women in the west to enjoy all the amenities that Paris could offer and what remained of personal freedom they could enjoy in the west.
The West German junta is claiming to build a new German society with one that is based on nationalism, corporatism, traditionalism, and communalism. West German society is highly militarized where young women in their twenties are conscripted into the Bundeswehr and the children are fed with anti-communist propaganda in schools. Youth groups similar to the Hitler Youth exists in the West and the country is not a safe place for dissenting political views as far-right groups tacitly supported by the regime continue to terrorize pro-democracy activists and dissidents. West German is highly elitist in that industrialists and Junkers continue to have privileged positions in government over the common masses. Endemic corruption and social oppression is only adding fuel to a growing flame which would soon engulf West Germany - left-wing student activism.
Unlike Prussia, the West German leadership did not underwent significant Denazification efforts and much of the high to low-ranking officials are former members of the Nazi Party now taking the mantle of social conservatives and avowed anti-communists. This lack of punitive justice towards Nazis has led to the normalization and affirmation of National Socialist values from the grounds up as if nothing changed in Germany. Anti-semitism isn't actively combatted nor is Germany's Nazi past confronted in a meaningful manner. Instead the government engages in historical revisionism - claiming that everything was the fault of Hitler himself, the Holocaust was done by Eastern Europeans, perpetrating the clean Wehrmacht myth, and that the ordinary German had no role in the Nazi's wrongdoings. This has led to an increasing nationalist sentiment in West Germany which could transform into something much worse than German chauvinism...
West German culture is very much influenced by the local culture of the regions people inhabit in. Bavaria constantly pops into people's mind whenever someone mentions West Germany and so is the image of Bavarian men drinking beer during Oktoberfest on the Alps mountainside and German women dressed in dirndl. West Germany remains a very traditional society and there exists a generational divide between the older conservative generation who are weary of their Nazi pasts and the younger generation who are growing up to question everything around them and embracing the counter-culture movement brewing from the West.
West Germany maintains one of the largest economies in Europe as they are the third largest in Europe before the French and after the United Kingdom with a GDP of $607 million. This figure was all the more impressive as in a short span of time after World War II, West Germany's economy recovered at a rapid pace and grew to great heights never seen before after the disastrous economic mismanagement of the Third Reich. This economic aid was kickstarted by the revitalization of the coal factories in the Rhine and American economic assistance in order to prop up Germany as the "shield of Western Europe".
An economically healthy and powerful Germany was paramount for NATO and American foreign policy in Europe. The economy grew at an impressive 5% figure and a GDP per capita of $18,300. In comparison to her Prussian neighbors, West Germany has a larger economy. But figures have shown that unemployment is on the rise after the country opened itself to foreign markets and inflation rising to 20% after eliminating price controls. In addition, foreign debt is mounting as the government continues to borrow high interest loans from the French and accepting massive amounts of American aid. The West German economy relies on high rates of reinvestment and high stock market prices which could lead to an economic bubble that could spell doom to its economy if popped.
West Germany is a leader in industry as the country is home to one of the world's largest and most competitive companies such as Siemens, Krupp-Thyssen, IG Farben, Daimler, BMW, Volkswagen, and more. It is a leader in automobile, home appliance, and chemical manufacturing. Compared to her eastern counterpart, West Germany is more industrially prosperous and innovative due to inheriting a bulk of Germany's industry in the Rhine. By 1964, the West is suffering from a shortage of blue-collar workers in the labor force as many native Germans turned to the tech industry for work. Her eastern neighbor has largely solved this issue by inviting foreign workers into the country but the government is yet to come with a plan in tackling the labor crisis.
The country has little worker's rights as unions are technically banned by the state under the Anti-Extraparliamentary Act of 1955 and wages have been low with around $4 per hour. The lack of labor rights has increased socialist sentiments throughout the years. West Germany is an industrial-oriented nation as they export goods such as machinery, computer parts, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products. Agriculture is mostly concentrated in the south where Bavarians and Badeners grow rye, wheat, and tomatoes. The south also has a notable industry of beer-making and their beers are famous throughout the world due to Oktoberfest as a symbol of their "German-ness".
The Federal President
General Heinz Guderian
General Hans Speidel
The Crushing of a Protest
West Germany was originally conceived as a federal republic with a democratic government in 1949 in order to break away from its Nazi past. The state did not claim to be a successor to the previous Weimar government due to its stigmatized failures of a democratic experiment but nonetheless, aspects of it were incorporated in this new FRG government including a parliamentary system and its federal structure. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany is the constitution of West Germany since 1949 and lays the framework of a de jure democratic government with respect to the rule of law. However, since 1953, West Germany has become an authoritarian military junta ruled by the Bundeswehr with the constitution suspended and elections withheld after a "terrorist attack" killed the country's leadership and most of the Bundestag. To fill the power vacuum and prevent a descent into anarchy; the Bundeswehr led by General Hans Spiedel seized power with stated "consent" from the Bundeswehr as both the President Theodor Heuss, Chancellor Adenauer, and the Speaker of Parliament were killed.
Since 1955 after the "October Crisis", West Germany has been a de facto authoritarian military junta with right-wing nationalist tendencies. Acting Bundespresident is ex-Wehrmacht general and "respected" war hero Heinz Guderian and the Interim Chancellor is General Hans Speidel of the Bundeswehr. The new West German government made assurances that they would return their power to civilian democratic mandate in the near future but such promises are constantly being made in order to prevent civilians from revolting and a return to democracy seems like a pipe dream under Guderian. Not helping are the fact that the German state has continued its policy of covertly recruiting ex-Nazis into its bureaucracy/ranks as well as pardoning war criminals like Speer to serve the new government. Building up a secret army of ex-Wehrmacht veterans in subverting the growth of communism at home and prepare guerilla group in the case of a SARPAC invasion.
During the German Autumn of 1960
Many fear for a return to Nazism but the government so far seems to be a run-off-the-mill military dictatorship with non-Hitlerite nationalist trappings. Under the Joint Committee for National Security (JCNP) which has been established over the country; elections and parliament are suspended, military curfews are instated, martial law declared, the federal system was being sidelined by the military "Wehrkreis" authority, and freedom of press and speech are curtailed for the sake of stability under the "Law for the Maintenance of Order" and the "Anti-Radical Bill". The government has covertly supported neo-Nazi groups like the Socialist Reich Party and the National Democratic Party to combat the growth of the underground CDU - SPD. The government has tacit support of the American government as the CIA sees the Guderian - Speidel regime a safeguard of stability in Western Europe as a part of the Shield Iniative - building up European nation's military on the periphery.
Heinz Guderian was picked to become the largely ceremonial President in order to bring a stabilizing unifying figure into government as well as to court the ex-Nazis in government and the military. Fittingly, Guderian has been compared to President Hindenburg of old and his connections with Wehrmacht veterans helping to bolster the image of West Germany as a revival of German power after WWII against the forces of communism and liberalism. Guderian has connections with Wehrmacht and few SS veterans and could pull in favors in giving him political backing in exchange for reinstating their ranks in the Bundeswehr. Halder and Manstein serves along by Guderian's side in propagating the clean Wehrmacht myth in order to justify their mandate over Germany. Guderian was not even considered to be acting President anyway by constitutionalist elements of the JCNP led by Hans Speidel. For the Bundeswehr is supposed to be the shield of Germany and not the law-makers nor oppressors of the German people as Speidel had envisioned.
Furthermore, Chancellor Speidel has different ideas in how the government should be managed. Advocating for a quick return to civilian rule after the Bundeswehr had done its job in securing the government from a power vacuum; Speidel was defeated during a political debate against the militarist hardliner General Ferdinand Schorner. Speidel was a man who believed that the military should play little role in politics and his lost in the power struggle meant that military hardliner elements prevailed in instating a military dictatorship. Ferdinand Schorner, the so-called Butcher of Germany, advocates for the total militarization of .
But Speidel managed to secure his power base and position with the help of his American connections who wanted to keep hardliner and neo-Nazi elements at bay. Speidel, though a man of the right and a moderate authoritarian, respects the rule of law and democracy enshrined by the constitution. Speidel has assembled a group of his own known as the Stuttgart Four which consists of Ludwig Erhard, Walter Scheel, General Hans Speidel, and Hans von Manteuffel. The Stuttgart Four will attempt to build a network of democratic resistance groups and like-minded reformist officials within the government to push forward their reforms for a democratic Germany whether Guderian or Schorner likes it or not. Pulling strings on Guderian and calling in favors while battling against the military hardliners and the neo-Nazis of Schorner and Oberlander.