Motto: Travail et progrès ("Work and Progress")
Anthem: Vers l'avenir
Capital City: Kigali
Official Language: Swahili, French, and German
Government: Unitary constitutional monarchy (de jure)
Stratocracy with free market characteristics (de facto)
Legislature: The Royal Court
Population: 6,200,000 (1964)
Driving Side: Left
Ruanda-Burundisches Reich or Ruanda-Urundi or simply Burwanda is a country located in central Africa bordering Mobutu's Popular Republic of Zaire to the west, British Tanzania to the east, and Idi Amin's Uganda to the north. It is a constitutional monarchy but effectively, the country is run as a military stratocracy ruled by foreign mercenaries from the Congo Crisis as well as managed for the interest of international companies behind the facade of a puppet native African dynasty. The country of Rwanda and Burundi separately gained independence on July 1st of 1962 by their former Belgian colonial masters. For a time both countries enjoyed their independence yet suffered from political instability, ethnic tensions between Hutu and Tutsi, as well as rampant corruption that hampered economic growth. The nearby conflict in the Congo exacerbated the situation as well with militias fighting in both countries.
In 1964 when the Congo Crisis begins to die down and mercenaries were being hunted by the UN and the Congolese government; a German mercenary by the name of Siegfried Mueller or "Congo-Mueller" seized control of neighboring Rwanda with help from British and French mercenaries as well as with backing from Belgian mining companies. Mueller was proclaimed "State Executive" in a manner similar to a CEO and he subsequently invaded neighboring Burundi to the south. Afterwards, a puppet monarchy was instated under Burundian King Ntare V and Ruanda-Urundi is proclaimed. Managed as a quasi-stratocracy and corporatocracy which seeks to reap the wealth of the continent for Belgian companies, mercenaries, and the locals with a hands-off approach by Mueller. Tutsi and Hutu identity is slowly replaced by a pseudo-scientific concept called "Sub-Saharan African Aryans" which states that both the Tutsi and Hutus are the master-race of the continents and were descendants of a divine Hyperborean race which migrated to Africa that built the pyramids and great civilizations in the continent.
"Burwanda" is the text-book example of a colonialist settler state which takes inspiration from the Congo Free State sans their cruelty. Mueller is effectively in charge of the country and his orders are to be taken as laws in Burwanda. Foreign investment saw the country growing economically (but not at the level of South Africa or Rhodesia) yet wealth inequality is rampant in the country with the wealth concentrated on the tribal chiefs and investors while few wealth trickled down to the common people. The promotion of a bizzare "African Aryan" identity is mind-boggling for foreign observers but it has helped to alleviate ethnic tensions between Tutsi and Hutus in an unexpected way. Now "Burwandans" see themselves as Aryans and are superior than their neighbours while those resisted fled to the Congo and ironically formed multiethnic resistance groups against Mueller's regime.
Both Burundi and Rwanda started as German colonies under German East Africa in 1899 after their first contacts with Christian missionaries. Earlier than that, the land was inhabited by tribals descended from the Bantu tribe which later split off into Hutu and Tutsi - labels arbitrarily enforced by German and Belgian colonial masters. Rwanda's kings welcomed the Germans and they became native collaborators while the Burundians did not. It took years of military subjugation as well as divide and conquer tactics to break the backs of the native and consolidate their colonials holding into one "Ruanda-Urundi". Famines ensued and the region was barely touched by the colonialists which led to tribal chieftains holding more power and authority.
In 1916, the region was invaded by Belgium in World War I and it easily folded to the Entente due to the lack of colonial garrisons in the colony. After the war, it became a League of Nations mandate before it was rewarded to Belgium as Belgian Ruanda-Urundi. The Belgians were the root for many of the colony's future problems. Belgian administrators lacked any interest in developing the colony or lending a hand to the locals. Instead they only focused on extracting resources from the country. The colonialists exacerbated ethnic tensions in the country by double down on the Hutu and Tutsi divide.
The divide was considered to be a racial one yet it had no basis on anything. As they're genetically similar and share a common ancestor. But rather it was based on occupation and status. Tutsis were nobles and cattle ranchers while the Hutus work on their lands. Tutsis were favored by the Belgians for their fair skin and taller stature while Hutus were treated as second-class in which the Belgians called them "short, too-dark skinned, ape-like, and undesirables". Tutsis were given privileges and the Hutus forced to work in plantations. Segregation was instated on both races and the Hutus as well as Tutsis grew to see themselves as those labels and the different treatment they received from the Belgians only reinforced that idea. Tutsis became the privileged class and the Hutu grew to resent them and even advocated for a violent overthrow of the Tutsi order.
The monarchical institutions of both Burundi and Rwanda survived many transitions of governments. After World War II, the country became an UN Trust Territory and the Belgians were expected to introduce majority rule to the country after decolonization. Majority rule meant Hutus gaining power over minority Tutsis and the Tutsis were cautious of it. Accelerating that process even though the Belgians left little governmental institutions nor intellectuals in the country. Power rests in the Mwamis (rulers) of Burundi (Mwambutsa IV) and Rwanda (Kigeli V) as well as their princes. In 1959, both rulers requested Belgium to grant their independence and the process accelerated when the Rwandan Revolution happened on the same year. Where Tutsis were murdered by vengeful mobs of Hutus on broad daylight.
Slowly but surely, new political parties emerged to promote the cause of independence. In Burundi, Union for National Progress (UPRONA) composed of Tutsis and in Rwanda, Rwandan National Union (UNAR) and Hutu-supremacist Parmehutu. In Burundi, the UPRONA won the 1961 elections with 80% of the votes and in Rwanda, the UNAR won the elections with Parmehutu as their coalition partners. The Belgians promised to give both countries their independence next year and so they did when July 1st, 1962 arrived.
Burundi claimed independence on 1 July 1962, and legally changed its name from Ruanda-Urundi to Burundi. Burundi became a constitutional monarchy with Mwami Mwambutsa IV, Prince Rwagasore's father, serving as the country's king. After Prince Rwagasore is allegedly assassinated by the Belgians - stripping the country away from a competent nationalist figure. On 18 September 1962 Burundi joined the United Nations. The situation in Rwanda in 1961 went like this; the suddenly pro-Hutu Belgians held a referendum in which the country voted to abolish the monarchy in which Mwami Kigeli claimed it was rigged. Rwanda was separated from Burundi and gained independence on the same day as Burundi.
Both countries suffered from political instability and there was little room for progress for the two little African countries sandwiched between bigger nations. Their Congolese neighbors was embroiled in a civil war which went from 1961 until 1965 known as the Congo Crisis. There was spillover of the conflict into Burundi and Rwanda where mercenaries and militias cared little for territorial boundaries. Outskirts of Burundi was made into a planning base for anti-communist forces in the Kivu region occupied by communist Shimba rebels by Belgian paratroopers and hired European mercenaries. Revenge killing was common and it was often racially-motivated. For every Hutu massacre on a Tutsi populace, the Tutsi would respond with a similar atrocity in an "eye for an eye" justice.
King Baoudin of Belgium
By 1964 when the conflict in the Congo died down; both the UN and the rightful Congolese government led by Patrice Lumumba began to focus on charging the European mercenaries who were accused of committing war crimes such as wanton massacres of suspected communists and extrajudicial killings of Congelese POWs. Mercenaries who defended the Belgian puppet Katagnga such as the likes of Siegfried Mueller, Made "Mike" Hoare, Bob Denard, Rolf Steiner, and Jean Schwarme appeared on Interpol's most wanted. The mercenaries wanted to go somewhere safe to lay low and they dreamed of creating a mercenary haven where men like them would be accepted and prosper. They found it in neighboring Rwanda.
On 1964, the mercenaries conducted a blitz-like offensive into the Rwandan border with shock and awe tactics that immediately overwhelmed the ill-trained and ill-equipped Rwandan Army. The Army simply turned in their guns and joined on the mercenary's side so as to stay safe and in the vain hopes of getting good accommodations under the Europeans. By May, they finally entered entered Kigeli after encountering little resistance in what would be known to the Rwandans as "The Great Fall". In an oddly poetic turn of events, the Tutsis fought together with Hutus to resist the mercenaries in taking over Rwanda and they subsequently fled north to Uganda to continue their resistance. Forming the all-encompassing Rwandan Patriotic Front and the Interahamwe.
Peace During the Rwandan Revolution
By October, Mueller consolidated his hold over Rwanda and re-established German Ruanda-Urundi of old - motioning that he has plans on incorporating neighboring Burundi. As Chief Executive, he mandated that state-owned mining companies be privatized for Belgian corporate interests and his mercenary band as well as disbanding the conventional armed forces for the privately-run "Force Publique" that enforced their iron rule over Rwanda. Paying Hutus and Tutsis large sums of money to enforce an unjust power structure and turn on their brethren. In addition, there was a massive immigration of Belgian colonists from the Congo to Ruanda in order to flee reprisals from Mobutu and Lumumba.
In addition he initially sought to favor the Tutsis over the Hutus until the violence began disrupting mining operations. In which case, Mueller promoted the pseudo-theory of "African Aryans" where he proclaimed that there was little difference between Hutu and Tutsi, and that they all came from an ancient Hyperborean-Aryan race. The Black Schutzstaffel was created to accommodate the Rwandans new identity as Aryans and promote African Aryan superiority. Missionaries and nuns were given free rein to operate in the country in the hopes of gaining Catholic sympathy for the new state as the so-called "last bastion of civilization in Africa".
That Took Over Burundi and Rwanda
On December, Chief Executive Mueller invaded Burundi without warning as the country was suffering from ethnic bloodbath and armed revolts. The combined force of the Black Schutzstaffel, Force Publique, and the "Les Infants Teribles" overwhelmed puny Burundian forces and deposed Mwami Ntare V after reaching Bujumbura. Subsequently, Mueller had Ntare V in chains and he tricked former Rwandan Mwami Kigeli V to return with grand promises of returning his throne to him. When Kigeli is captured by the Force Publique, he was put in a cage and was forced to fight Ntare V in a fight to the death match naked and armed with spears. Mercenaries bet on who would win with most putting their stock in Kigeli for his tall stature.
Both fought reluctantly until they realized that only one of them is going to come out of this alive. They fought to the death and when it seemed that Kigeli had the upper hand, Ntare V knocked him over and Kigeli unceremoniously died by landing his neck on a sharp rock. Afterwards Ntare V is declared the new Mwami of Ruanda Urundi with Mueller as the country's Chief Executive. For all intents and purposes, Ntare is just a puppet ruler and Mueller only uses his position to hunt and get a drink with his mercenary buddies in a bar. Nobody cared about Rwanda or Burundi, it's simply just another country in this world.
With a Belgian Woman
The combined population of Ruanda-Urundi stood at 6 million in 1965. With Rwanda having 3 million and Burundi - 3 million people. The population is young as 43.3% are aged under 15 and 53.4% were between 16 and 54. The annual birth rate stood at 40.2 births per 1,000 inhabitants, and the death rate at 14.9. Life expectancy in the country is 54.2 years (62 for females and 58 for males). The country has a high population density rate of 445 inhabitants per square kilometer (1,150/sq mi) which may be attributed to the effects of the Congo Crisis and the Great Fall that forced people from the countryside to move to the relative safety of the cities.
The population is predominantly rural with a few large towns; shanty houses and adobe dwellings spread evenly across the country. The urban cities is where opportunities lay for rural Ruandans and where rural youths and the unemployed go to. The Ruandan population is estimated to be around 70% rural in the outer hinterlands and 30% urban mostly concentrated on the cities of Kigali and Bujumbura. The country's ethnic make-up is divided between the Tutsis, Hutus, and the lesser Twa people. They all share a common ancestor but years of colonial rule and divide-and-conquer strategy divided them into primarily both Hutus and Tutsis once based on classes now racial. Exacerbated by the Belgian colonialists.
Tutsis make up 20% of the population and they're primarily concentrated in Burundi as well as urban cities while Hutus are the majority as they make up 70% of the country and they're primarily concentrated in Rwanda. The 10% are made out of White Europeans of Belgian, French, German, and British descent. The Belgians and few Germans had already established a presence here as business-owners and administrators while the "Great Fall" resulted in a large influx of new French, German, and British people (mostly mercenaries) coming into the country. The Whites quickly established themselves on top of the power structure.
Hutu-Tutsi Master Race of Africa
Tutsis form a minority in the country yet they hold many prominent positions of power. Tutsis started out as cattle ranchers and landowners. Their tall, European-like build, and lighter-skinned complexion were favored by the Belgian colonists and they were treated as first-class citizens with favorable privileges and amenities given to them. Hutus are considered as lower-class by the Belgian colonists for their darker skin complexion as well as "ape-like" African physical features. The Hutus form the majority and they once worked on the lands of Tutsis landowners as well as were used as miners working on mineral fields in the Congo. This different treatment between Tutsis and Hutus formed some sort of hierarchy with Tutsis on top and Hutus below that quickly led to racial tensions and resentment after both countries gained their independence.
But people knew that true power lies in the White European colonists, mercenaries, and corporate executives with their needs tended by Chief Executive Mueller. The country is one big minefield and resource-extraction colony. The White Europeans (Germans, Belgian, French, and British) form the upper strata of Ruanda-Urundi as mercenaries, business owners, administrators, and corporate executives. The whites often retreated to the life of their private clubs and turned a blind eye to the suffering of the people of Ruanda which they extract their resources from. Ruanda-Urundi experienced a wave of Pan-Africanist thought from nearby Uganda and Tanzania. Mueller and the colonists feared that both the Hutus and Tutsis would turn on them. Yet Mueller devised an ingenious plan that would eliminate the Hutu - Tutsi divide as well as turn their enemies to somewhere else.
Middle-Class in Ruanda
In our Ruanda-Urundi, Hutu and Tutsi differences were eliminated which means that the Rwandan Genocide may not happen but they were replaced by something even worse. Under Chief Executive Siegfried Mueller the German mercenary of the Congo Crisis. He promoted a pseudo-scientific theory called "African Aryans" on the spot. This came to be after he and Mike Hoare arrested a Hutu man after killing a Tutsi family in which Mueller reportedly measured both Tutsi and Hutu men's head then simply said: "I see no difference between them" in a sardonic tone. It was a simple lie of a pseudo-scientific theory to rile up the people of Ruanda to see themselves as one and focus their ire away from the Europeans and onto lesser "African Untermensch" of the Congo, Uganda, and Tanzania.
The pseudo-theory of African Aryans states that there is no difference between Hutu and Tutsi. Instead, they all belong to an ancient divine offspring of the Hyperborean race that once broke off from Germanic Aryans and went to Africa to build the Pyramids and other great African civilizations. This was concocted by Mueller who had little to no knowledge about the subject. Promotion of this line of thought invigorated both the Tutsis and Hutus who now see themselves as Aryans and things went downhill from there. Now African paramilitaries are formed such as the Black Schutzstaffel which terrorize villagers in neighboring Tanzania and Uganda while many African Aryan nationalists are openly demanding for Lebensraum for the people of Ruanda Urundi.
Amidst the chaos and racial tensions inflamed by Mueller's preposterous excuse for a national identity; he just sits back, relax, and hunt for exotic animals.
Ruanda-Burundi has one of Central Africa's largest economies where the country is placed as the sixth largest economy in Africa after Kenya and Tanzania. The GDP PPP of Ruanda in 1967 is $102 billion with a GDP (PPP) per capita of $1,500 when adjusted for today's inflation. Inflation rate stands at its lowest in 3% with the country's unemployment rate being a stable 10% owing to the country's abundant cheap menial labor for the purpose of resource extraction and social services. But the country has a high wealth inequality where wealth is concentrated in a white European minority and few trickled down to the country's natives. The country is effectively run as a corporatocracy where unfettered capitalism runs supreme and the free-market has a pervasive influence over day-to-day governing through corporate lobbying and bribery/corruption. Tribal chieftains are paid and tricked to signing disadvantageous agreements by companies to allow them to use their lands for mineral extraction and agricultural farming. Companies from America, Germany, France, the UK, Belgium, and even South China holds a share over the country's resources. In which all of their governments turned a blind eye to the immoral exploitation of Ruanda at the hands of MNCs and mercenaries.
All Sorts of African Celebrities
Ruanda is a land of untapped resources coupled with a large labor manpower. The country has precious minerals embedded deep in its lands such as tin, aluminium, and tungsten in which the mining industry accounts for 30% of the country's economy. A large amounts of the country's employed workers work in the mining fields of western Ruanda-Burundi. In addition, it has also extracted minerals from the neighboring Kivu region occupied by a war torn Zaire. Diamonds particularly, and there had been armed conflicts over the region waged between corporate mercenaries of the Force Publique and the Zairean Army. Leading the diamonds of the Kivu region be dubbed "Blood Diamonds". The Union Minière du Haut Ruanda (UMHR) has the largest stake on the country's minerals and mining operations. The country has a large agricultural industry which accounts for 55% of the country's exports. Coffee is the most valuable and most of the farmers run on subsistence farming. But there has been privately-ventured effort in mechanizing the agricultural sector and teaching farmers on how to operate heavy machinery. At the cost of unemployment rising as a result. In addition, it has a lucrative hunting industry where animal-based products like ivories, leopard skins, and much more are sold to private contacts at a high price.
The capital of Kigali is the international trading hub of Central Africa where investors invest in the country's mining industry after moving from the Congo when it was embroiled in a civil war. Kigali and Bujumbura has become one of Africa's most modern city as the country is surrounded by lesser developed nations such as the Congo states and Uganda. However only a 5% urban-class of Europeans corporate executives and middle-upper class Africans enjoy such special privilege and amenities of modern Kigali and Bujumbura as 60% lower-to-middle class Ruandans live in the countryside and earn less. Economic inequality is mostly divided between class lines rather than race as there are few readily trained post-colonial African civil servants to manage the country as well as entrepreneurs to establish business in the country. However, the spoils of Ruanda's mines are divided equally amongst the corporations, the natives, and Muller himself. With the 30% going to corporations from the Kivu mines, the natives getting 40% of Ruanda's resources as they're mining in free-for-all mines, and Mueller who gets a 30% cut into the business profits. Although the Ruandans themselves lack the technology and know-how on extracting Ruanda's riches which forces to work in mining companies.
In spite of it being a trading hub; one close look at its economy, you could see an entire rotten power and economic structure which relies heavily on ponzi and pyramid schemes. MNCs heavily invest in the country's industry but their investments "mysteriously vanish" or go somewhere else. Then they would be paid with the money of other new investors for the ponzi scheme to continue. Ruanda is often cited as the Swiss of Africa primarily due to its large secretive banks such as the Central Bank of Rwanda where it has been used to hide assets, evade taxes, and to commit financial crime. Ruanda is the second largest off-shore financial centers and tax havens which has put the country at the good graces of foreign powers.
The Chief Executive
Mwami Ntare V of Burundi
Chief Executive Siegfried "Kongo" Mueller
Given Free Rein
The government of Ruanda-Urundi is managed as a constitutional monarchy with a Mwami as its Head of State according to the "Ruandan Constitution of 1965" with a Chief Executive as the Head of Government. But of course the reality is, Ruanda is managed as a corporatocracy for the interest of a select white European minority and the Constitution is as useless as its rubber stamp Parliament. It is effectively an autocracy ruled by the Chief Executive with the assistance of foreign Belgian, French, and British mercenaries and European mining companies who holds a stake over the country's resources as political parties and assemblies were banned. Its Chief Executive, the German mercenary Kongo-Mueller, is the manifestation of the corruption and cruelty that goes on in Ruanda behind closed doors and away from prying media. He allows foreign MNCs to extract the resources of the country and placate the natives by feeding them Afro-Aryan nationalist rhetoric as well as promoting a consumerist culture filled with bread and circuses.
The Ruandan government is an allegory to the Congo Free State with the fact that a single person effectively runs the entire country as his private domain with corporate exploitation but there's another side to it. Ruanda is very decentralized and power isn't entirely concentrated on Mueller. As he has shown disinterest in actually managing the colony but allows his mercenary subordinates as well as tribal chiefs in the countryside to do it for him. There are many cliques in the country all vying for control. The first are the mercenaries who are divided between the Belgians, French, and the British who manage military affairs and have been in constant friction between each other and then the mostly-native Force Publique.
Enforcers of the Government
MNCs such as the Belgian-run UMHR reap the profits from the Ruandan mines while subjecting lower-class Ruandans as wage slaves. They have an influence over the government and displeasing them would mean jeopardy but they know that they rely on Mueller to keep everything in order. Finally, there's the African tribal chiefs who managed native lands and their trust territories autonomously from the mercenaries and companies. Their loyalty has been purchased with European luxury for the most part but African nationalists and intellectuals are a greater threat to Mueller's hold over Ruanda.
Things has mostly been stable under Mueller as the natives are now "pacified" and corporate demands "satisfied". With a robust economy and a secretive Swiss-like bank in the middle of Africa, what does Mueller have to worry about? Of course there's the specter of the Congo Crisis lingering about right next door that could jeopardize everything depending on who won in addition to RPF and Interahamwe attacks on Ruanda. Yet African nationalism and socialist thought is spreading every in Central Africa and decolonization is at full force with Uganda and Tanzania achieving its independence. One of them is a police state under a crazy cannibalistic tyrant and the other a Maoist state hostile to Ruanda. The future remains uncertain and if Mueller dies, the whole country will go down with him.
Ruanda is a politically isolated country in the middle of central Africa as few nations recognized the entity after Muller deposed both the monarchies of Rwanda and Burundi. It isn't a member of the UN but an observer state and nations de facto low-key recognize the regime by undertaking backhanded deals with Muller while denouncing them in public. There's no foreign ministry in Ruanda as anybody of importance would know to deal with Muller first then make deals with mining and mercenary companies. It has little to no allies with their "informal friends" and "associates" being the French government, Rhodesia, and South Africa.
With France, Ruanda is a part of the Francophone sphere and thus falls into their influence. De Gaulle and Massu are friends of Muller and they continue to supply the colony with guns. Rhodesia under Ian Smith enjoys cordial relations with Muller while Smith has voiced his distaste for the conducts of his regime personally in spite of lording over a white minority state. Ruanda has assisted the Security Forces in their Bush War against ZANU/ZAPU by lending Les Infants Teribles mercenaries to them. Relations are good with South Africa out of a need to fight against a common enemy - communism and African nationalism. The ANC is unhappy that the government maintains relations with the mercenary state and there had been talks to terminate relations between the two nations.
It maintains hostile relations with her neighbors; Zaire, Uganda, and Tanzania. Ruanda has "f*cked over" the Congo for many decades as Muller has supported rebel groups within the nation, particularly, Zaire in order to extract the riches of the Bukavu mines. Incursions from the Black SS and LIT also occur regularly along the Ruandan-Zairean border. Muller often paid bribes to Zairean officials to allow him to hunt in the Congolese territory and maintain Ruandan arm shipment routes. Both Uganda and Tanzania decry the Muller regime as a racist, white nationalist state which isn't far from the truth.
Using Soviet and Chinese arms; both Tanzania under Nyerere and Uganda under Idi Amin have supported rebels inside the country. With Uganda favoring the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front and the Hutu-led Interahamwe backed by Tanzania. Massacres of Ugandan and Tanzanian villagers suspected of aiding rebels often occur along the border by the Black SS. Whose favorite terror method was to cut peoples' hands off. This has led international condemnation of the African state.
But of course, the survival of Ruanda's economy and existence is tied to the War Economy or military-industrial complex as well as the corruption of political/financial elites around the world. Many financial elites (bankers and corporate businessmen) have shady financial operations in Ruanda represented through the UMHR mining company and many front organizations to cover their tracks. Politicians and leaders have off-shore accounts in the highly-private and secure Ruandan Central Bank to store embezzled funds and commit tax evasion. "Blood diamonds" were often sold in European market for wives of French and Belgian officials. There's a reason why no leaders, even the USA and the USSR, have ever made a sincere effort in toppling the Muller regime; they do not want their financial secrets to be revealed in a regime change.