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by The Chinese Liang Dynasty of Kamchakta. . 120 reads.

Encyclopedia 百科全书

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[background-block=#0047A0][size=150][color=white]E M P I R E[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]O F[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]C H I N A[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white] | [/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]L I A N G[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]D Y N A S T Y[/color][/font][/size]
[color=#0047A0].[/color]
[size=200][b][font=Georgia][color=white]中[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]华[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]帝[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]国[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white] | [/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]梁[/color][color=#0047A0][/color][color=white]朝[/color][/b][/size]
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[background-block=#5882FA] [url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1227581][color=#FFFFFF]家 Home[/color] [/url][color=#FFFFFF]|[/color] [color=#FFFFFF]百科全书 Encyclopedia[/color] [color=#FFFFFF]|[/color] [url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1364182][color=#FFFFFF]‌政府 Government[/color][/url] [color=#FFFFFF]|[/color] [url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1370392][color=#FFFFFF]军队 Military[/color][/url] [color=#FFFFFF]|[/color] [url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1378954][color=#FFFFFF]经济 Economy[/color][/url] [color=#FFFFFF]|[/color] [url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1378953][color=#FFFFFF]‌人口统计 Demographics[/color][/url] [color=#FFFFFF]|[/color] [url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1378956][color=#FFFFFF]选举 Elections[/color][/url][/background-block][img]https://media.audleytravel.com/-/media/images/home/north-asia-and-russia/china/country-guides/chinas-modern-cities-shanghai-and-hong-kong/istock_614703754_shanghai_skyline_letterbox.jpg?q=79&w=1920&h=640[/img]
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[background-block=#0047A0][color=#FFFFFF][size=300][font=Georgia]中 国[/font][/size][/color][/background-block]
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[Floatright][box][font=Georgia][center][b][size=110]Empire of China[/b][/size]
[size=110]中华帝国[/size] (Chinese)
[size=110][i]Zhōnghu Dgu[/i][/size] (Pinyin)[/center][/font]
[hr][center][img]https://i.imgur.com/vfE3FMz.png?1[/img][tab=25][/tab][img]https://i.imgur.com/0gj2OSa.png?1[/img]
[size=90][tab=43][font=Georgia]Flag[/font][/tab][tab=120][font=Georgia]Emblem[/font][/tab][/size][/center]


[hr][center][font=Georgia][b]Motto[/b]
[b]《和皮,繁荣,进展》[/b][/font]
[size=75][font=Georgia][i]"Peace, Prosperity, Progress"[/i][/font][/size]
[hr][font=Georgia][b]Anthem[/b][/font]
[font=Georgia]《中华国歌》[/font]
[font=Georgia][size=80]"[i]The People's of China National Anthem[/i]"[/size][/font]

[hr][img]https://i.imgur.com/r29nJCz.png[/img]
[font=Georgia]Map of China[/font][/center][table=plain][tr][hr][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Capital[/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]Nanjing
[img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/WMA_button2b.png/15px-WMA_button2b.png[/img][size=80][color=gray]3204'01.7"N 11846'53.8"E[/color][/size][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Largest city[hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]Shanghai[hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Official Language[/font]
[/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]Wu Chinese[/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Regional Languages[/font]
[font=Georgia]
[color=white].[/color]
[hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]Hokkien (Fujian), Mandarin,  
various others
[color=white].[/color]
[hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Ethnic Groups
[color=white].
.
.
.
.
[hr][/color][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]97.19% Han[/font]
[font=Georgia]0.92% Hui
0.32% Manchu 
0.13% Chosen (Korean)
0.12% Mongol
1.32% others[hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Religion
[color=white].
.
.
.[hr][/color][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]61.6% Chinese folk religion
14.9% Buddhism
10.8% Christianity
1.1% Muslim
11.6% Other religions[/font][hr][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Demonym
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]Chinese[/font]
[color=gray][size=75][font=Georgia]中华民族 ([I]Zhonghua minzu[/i]) in Chinese[hr][/font][/size][/color][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Government
[color=white].[/color]
[/b][/font]

[font=Georgia] Emperor
 Prime Minister[/font]
[/td]
[td][font=Georgia]Unitary parliamental
constitutional monarchy[/font]

[font=Georgia]宇治 Yuzhi Emperor[/font] 
[font=Georgia]李克强 Li Keqiang[/font]
[/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Legislature[/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]National Assembly (1,200 members)[/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Formation[/b][/font]

[font=Georgia] First imperial 
unification
 Liang dynasty
declared
 Liang dynasty 
consolidated
 Xuantong Reformation[hr][/font][/td][td][color=white][font=Georgia].[/font][/color]

[font=Georgia]22 BCE
[color=white].[/color]
1814 CE
[color=white].[/color]
1815 CE
[color=white].[/color]
1842 CE
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Land Area
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]2,473,000 km
(954,800 sq. mi.) [hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Population[/font][/b]
[font=Georgia] Density[/font][hr][/td][td][font=Georgia]721.3 million (2018) [/font]
[font=Georgia]291.7 people/km[/font][hr][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Elevation[/font][/b]
[font=Georgia] Highest Point[/font]
[font=Georgia] Lowest Point
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/td][td][color=white].[/color]
[font=Georgia]Mount Xuebaoding (5,443 meters)[/font]
[font=Georgia]Dongting Lake (-28 meters)
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/td][/tr]

[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]GDP[/font] [font=Georgia](nominal)[/font][/b]
[font=Georgia] Total[/font]
[font=Georgia] Per Capita[hr][/font][/td][td][font=Georgia]2020 estimate[/font]
[font=Georgia]$15.26 trillion[/font]
[font=Georgia]$21,156[hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Gini (2017)
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Decrease_Positive.svg/10px-Decrease_Positive.svg.png[/img]31.9 
[color=gold]medium[/color][hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]HDI (2017)
[color=white].[/color][/font][/b][hr][/td][td][font=Georgia][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/10px-Increase2.svg.png[/img]0.804 
[color=green]high[/color][/font][hr][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Currency[/b]
[color=white]一[/color][/font][hr][/td][td][font=Georgia]Jinyuan 金元 (J)
(JNH)[/font][hr][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Time Zones
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]CST (UTC+6:00 to UTC+8:00)
[color=white].[/color][hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Drives on[hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]Left[hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Calling Code[hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]+83[hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]ISO 3166 code[hr][/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia]CN[hr][/font][/td][/tr]
[tr][td][b][font=Georgia]Internet TLD[/font][/b][/td][td][font=Georgia].cn
.中國
.中国[/font][/td][/tr][/table][/box][/floatright]

[size=300]China[/size]
[hr]

[b]China[/b] (English: 'CHīnə; Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōnggu), known formally as the [b]Empire of China[/b] (Chinese: 中华帝国, Romanization: Zhōnghu Dgu) is a nation in East Asia with 721.3 million people in 2018. Covering approximately 2,473,000 square kilometers, it is a large country. China is a constitutional monarchy with its main governing body located in the capital of Nanjing. It exercises jurisdiction over 12 provinces and 7 Municipalities (Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Wuhan, Fuzhou, Qingdao, and Nanjing) The current Liang dynasty has ruled China since the 19th-century, overthrowing the Qing and has overseen the modernization of the nation through industrialization and modernization throughout the last two hundred years.

[floatleft][box][center][b]Contents[/b][/center]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Ety]1 Etymology[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Hist]2 History[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Pre][size=90] - 2.1 Prehistoric China[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Imp][size=90] - 2.2 Imperial China[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Post][size=90] - 2.3 Modern China[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Geo]3 Geography[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Cli][size=90] - 3.1 Climate[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Pol]4 Politics[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Gov][size=90] - 4.1 Government[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Adm][size=90] - 4.2 Administrative Divisions[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#For][size=90] - 4.3 Foreign Relations[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Dem]5 Demographics[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Pop][size=90] - 5.1 Population[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Lan][size=90] - 5.2 Language[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Edu][size=90] - 5.3 Education[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Lar][size=90] - 5.4 Largest Cities[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Secu]6 Security[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Mil][size=90] - 6.1 Military[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Dome][size=90] - 6.2 Domestic Law Enforcement[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Eco]7 Economy[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Agri][size=90] - 7.1 Agriculture[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Man][size=90] - 7.2 Manufacturing[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Ser][size=90] - 7.3 Services[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Inf]8 Infrastructure[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Tra][size=90] - 8.1 Transportation[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Ene][size=90] - 8.2 Energy and Water[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Sci]9 Science and Technology[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Aer][size=90] - 9.1 Aerospace[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Bio][size=90] - 9.2 Telecommunications[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Heal]10 Health[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Edu]11 Education[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Cul]12 Culture[/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Cui][size=90] - 12.1 Cuisine[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Spo][size=90] - 12.2 Sports[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Arc][size=90] - 12.3 Architecture[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Fes][size=90] - 12.4 Festivals[/size][/url]
[url=https://www.nationstates.net/page=dispatch/id=1369724#Med][size=90]- 12.5 Media and Entertainment[/size][/url]
[/box][/floatleft]


[b][size=200][anchor=Ety][/anchor]Etymology[/size][/b]
[hr]
The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese chins and French chinois. Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn (چین). 

The official name of the modern country is the Empire of China (中华帝国; pinyin: zhōnghu dgu). The shorter form is "China" Zhōnggu (中国), from zhōng ("central") and gu ("state"). It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians" and was the source of the English name "Middle Kingdom". The more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization", is Zhōnghu (中华). Before the Xuantong Reformation, the country was referred to as Great Liang (大梁; pinyin: Dling) or the Great Liang Dynasty. During the Xuantong Reformation in 1842, the government of China was altered to include a unitary parliament and constitution resulting in the adoption of the Empire of China as the official name of China.

[size=200][anchor=Hist][/anchor]History[/size]
[hr]

[b][size=150][anchor=Pre][/anchor]Prehistoric China - 史前中国[/size][/b]

Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 250,000 and 2.24 million years ago. A cave in Zhoukoudian exhibits hominid fossils dated at between 680,000 and 780,000 BCE. The fossils are of Peking Man, an example of Homo erectus who used fire. Fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,00080,000 BCE have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BC, Dadiwan from 5800 BC to 5400 BC, Damaidi around 6000 BC and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BC. Some scholars have suggested that Jiahu symbol (7th millennium BC) was the earliest Chinese writing system.

According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. The dynasty was considered mythical before scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE. Their oracle bone script (from c. 1500 BCE) represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.

The Shang were conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th3rd centuries BCE, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China, each with its own king, ministry, and army.

[b][size=150][anchor=Imp][/anchor]Imperial China - 帝制中国[/size][/b]

The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam. The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.

Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned, the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and 220 CE, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese. The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. Despite Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.

After the end of the Han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed, whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war with Korea provoked widespread unrest. The succeeding Tang and Song Dynasties brought about great art and literary achievements to China. Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. 

[floatleft][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Chinesische-mauer.jpg/200px-Chinesische-mauer.jpg[/img]
[hr][size=80][I][font=Georgia]The Great Wall of China first built
under the Qin Dynasty and later 
upgraded by others such as
the Ming.[/font][/I][/size][/box][/floatleft]

The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor. Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that Chen Pinglan led the Ming treasure voyages around the Old World.

In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty. The Qing would go on to rule China. However, their reign was plagued with civil strife. Initially, the large Manchurian and Jurchen Armies (Eight Banners) that came to conquer China sufficed in quelling dissent. As the Jurchens settled, however, the disloyalty of the Han became apparent. In 1754, after a century of hars repression and control, the Qing could no longer take it and corruption was rife resulting in a fracture between the Eight Banners, the armies which the Qing relied on. The Qing broke up into 8 kingdoms. 

In the South, the ethnically Han Liang dynasty formed and consolidated a majority of the remaining southern provinces that were left in a terra nullius status due to most of the Qing fractures and political power residing in the North. Liang would clash with the northern Manchurian armies, resulting in the defeat of the remnants of the Qing dynasty in 1815 after a further half a century of division and the establishment of the Liang dynasty as the reigning dynasty of China. In 1837, tensions between China and Great Britain regarding the illegal trade of opium would result in the First Opium War. The war ended in a status quo, but it showed how far China had fallen behind the Western world. For the remainder of the 19th-century, China would undergo several reforms that rapidly modernized the eastern half of the nation.

[b][size=150][anchor=Post][/anchor]Modern China - 现代中国[/size][/b]

After the Xuantong Reforms which turned the country into a constitutional monarchy, the Chinese economy grew slowly but steadily and started picking up speed in the 1920s. This progress was all destroyed during the Great Depression and the following Great Asian War between Japan in 1941 which killed millions and forced China to retreat further inland. The large Liang Dynasty proved incapable initially of repelling the invading forces. Eventually, after several campaigns in 1945 such as the Hubei Route March and the Shenyang Encirclement, China slowly started getting the upper hand in the conflict. However, the conflict would reach a stalemate on the Korean Peninsula and the Shandong Peninsula with the Japanese adamant against giving up their gains. It would take up till 1962 before the war finally concluded after which, the Liang Dynasty began the uphill task of rebuilding a torn economy.

In the late 1960s, China saw massive growth in its manufacturing industries with a population boom. Her economy was growing at double-digit rates throughout the 60s until the 1973 oil crisis hit. China suffered a massive recession, the economy contracting by 14.2%. However, the late 1970s saw the return to the previous rates of growth and this continued throughout the late 20th century. It ended in 1998 during the Asian Financial Crisis. At the same time, this period was marked with many major infrastructure projects such as the Three Gorges Dam and a network of Expressways and Motorways across China. In the 2000s, China's growth slowed to levels of 6.2% and it maintained until 2010. The most recent growth in 2019 stands at 5.3%. The Chinese market consists of both private- and state-owned businesses, although private businesses dominate most of the economic landscape. China's economy is led by the manufacturing and information technology sectors with major contributions from agriculture and tourism.

[size=200][anchor=Geo][/anchor]Geography[/size]
[hr]

[floatleft][box][img]https://i.imgur.com/YlqPyC5.jpg?1[/img]
[center][i]Topography of China[/i][/center][/box][/floatleft]

China has one of the longest land borders in the world. China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast territory. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, lying in two of the world's major biogeographic realms: the Palearctic and the Indomalayan. By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants. The country has over 1,623 nature reserves and is home to a variety of forest types such as cold coniferous forests in the north of the country and subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China

Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, and South China seas. China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route  the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road(s).

[floatright][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/1_li_jiang_guilin_yangshuo_2011.jpg/200px-1_li_jiang_guilin_yangshuo_2011.jpg[/img]
[centre][i]The Li River, Guilin[/i][/centre][/box][/floatright]

[b][size=150][anchor=Cli][/anchor]Climate[/size][/b]

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography. 

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert. Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring. Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Much of China has a climate very suitable for agriculture and the country recently has been the world's largest producer of rice, wheat, tomatoes, eggplant, grapes, watermelon, spinach, and many other crops.

[size=200][anchor=Pol][/anchor]Politics[/size]
[hr]

[b][size=150][anchor=Gov][/anchor]Government[/size][/b]

The Chinese government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Empire of China. The Empire of China has a government divided into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The executive and legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions. Local governments are semi-autonomous and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels. China is a constitutional monarchy. Statutory law originates in China's legislature. Her court system is independent and the highest authority is the Supreme Court.
[hr]

[floatleft][box][img]https://i.imgur.com/Ecef1pI.png[/img]

[centre][font=Georgia][i]Provinces of Liang[/i][/font][/centre][/box][/floatleft]

[b][size=150][anchor=Adm][/anchor]Administrative Divisions[/b][/size]

China is divided into 12 provinces (省 shēng) and 7 municipalities (直辖市 Zhxish). Provinces are the highest-ranked administrative division in China along with the Municipalities. Representatives to the respective first-level administrative divisions are elected every 5 years. The most populated province is that of Shandong and the least is Guizhou. Meanwhile, the most populated city is Shanghai in central Eastern China. A municipality is often not a "city" in the usual sense of the term (i.e., a large continuous urban settlement), but instead, an administrative unit comprising of a main central urban area and its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities (districts and subdistricts), towns and villages.

Since the 17th century, provincial boundaries in China have remained largely static. Most of the provinces, with the exception of the provinces in the northeast, have boundaries that were established long ago in the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. Sometimes provincial borders form cultural or geographical boundaries. This was an attempt by the imperial government to discourage separatism and warlordism through a divide and rule policy. Nevertheless, provinces have come to serve an important cultural role in China. People tend to be identified in terms of their native provinces, and each province has a stereotype that corresponds to their inhabitants.

[b][size=150][anchor=For][/anchor]Foreign Relations[/size][/b]

China has diplomatic relations with all independent nations of the region 21st Century Rome and has been an active member of the World Assembly since March 1 1945. It has friendly relations with nation-states in regions with embassies with the region. China now has close ties with [nation]MineLegotia and Equestria[/nation] and her Commonwealth. Despite having fought 3 devastating wars that soured relations for many years, much of the conflict has past and over the years trade has increased between the two nations despite MineLegotia and Equestria practising a policy of Autarky. 

Both nations have been striving to have closer ties to one another. Nations like [nation]Japhetia[/nation], [nation]Kyrata[/nation], [nation]Salcanceacy[/nation] and [nation]Calant[/nation] all have close ties with the nation. These 4 countries along with MineLegotia and Equestria are highly popular tourist destinations among their citizens and Chinese tourist alike. Sharing common belief systems and similar ideologies has made these nations stand out as close allies of China despite several of them leaving for different regions.

[size=200][anchor=Dem][/anchor]Demographics[/size]
[hr]

[b][size=150][anchor=Pop][/anchor]Population[/size][/b]

[floatright][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Pudong_.jpg/240px-Pudong_.jpg[/img]
[center]Shanghai, China's most populous city[/center][/box][/floatright]

In April 2018, China's population was estimated to be around 721.3 million by the National Statistical Office, with a continuing decline of the working-age population and total fertility rate. In practice, the population density in much of China is higher than the national one, as most of the country's land is uninhabitable due to being used for other purposes such as farming. Most Chinese live in urban areas. The urbanization rate is 71.3%. The capital city of Nanjing is the nation's political center. According to a recent census, Shanghai had a population of 26.3 million inhabitants and is the economic center of China. China is ethnically homogeneous at 97.19% of the total population being Han Chinese. The percentage of foreign nationals has been growing.

[b][size=150][anchor=Lan][/anchor]Language[/size][/b]

Mandarin is the official language of China. It uses an indigenous writing system that has been simplified to improve literacy and encourage others around the world to learn compared to Classical Chinese Hanja characters that were difficult to learn and did not fit the rural and development plans of a modern China well. The Chinese language has several dialects. Most are bilingual in English, Korean or Japanese.

[b][size=150][anchor=Edu][/anchor]Education[/size][/b]

Education in China is primarily managed by the state-run public education system, which falls under the command of the Ministry of Education. All citizens must attend school for a minimum of nine years, known as nine-year compulsory education, which is funded by the government. Compulsory education includes six years of primary education, typically starting at the age of six and finishing at the age of twelve, followed by three years of junior secondary education (junior middle school). As of 2018, 96% of the population over age 15 are literate. Students suffer from a lot of stress and the system has come under criticism.

Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world's best results in mathematics, science, and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance.[456] Despite the high results, Chinese education has also faced both native and international criticism for its emphasis on rote memorization and its gap in quality from rural to urban areas. There has been a recent push in the coastal provinces to focus more on innovation and other skills such as the opening of more vocational schools.

[hr]

[centre][b][size=150][anchor=Lar][/anchor]Largest Cities in China[/size][/b][/centre]

[table][tr][td]Rank[/td][td]City[/td][td]Province[/td][td]Population[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]1[/td][td]上海 Shanghai[/td][td]上海直辖市 Shanghai Zhixiashi[/td][td]26,341,057[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]2[/td][td]北京 Beijing[/td][td]北京直辖市 Beijing Zhixiashi[/td][td]21,180,562[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]3[/td][td]重庆 Chongqing[/td][td]重庆直辖市 Chongqing Zhixiashi[/td][td]14,307,966[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]4[/td][td]南京 Nanjing[/td][td]南京直辖市 Nanjing Zhixiashi[/td][td]11,059,144[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]5[/td][td]武汉 Wuhan[/td][td]武汉直辖市 Wuhan Zhixiashi[/td][td]10,443,631[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]6[/td][td]成都 Chengdu[/td][td]四川 Sichuan[/td][td]9,715,622[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]7[/td][td]青岛 Qingdao[/td][td]青岛直辖市 Qingdao Zhixiashi[/td][td]9,201,980[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]8[/td][td]福州 Fuzhou[/td][td]福州直辖市 Fuzhou Zhixiashi[/td][td]7,903,334[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]9[/td][td]杭州 Hangzhou[/td][td]浙江 Zhejiang[/td][td]7,442,271[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]10[/td][td]温州 Wenzhou[/td][td]浙江 Zhejiang[/td][td]7,170,575[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]11[/td][td]烟台 Yantai[/td][td]山东 Shandong[/td][td]5,415,196[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]12[/td][td]济南 Jinan[/td][td]山东 Shandong[/td][td]5,333,009[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]13[/td][td]郑州 Zhengzhou[/td][td]河南 Henan[/td][td]5,204,411[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]14[/td][td]长沙 Changsha[/td][td]湖南 Hunan[/td][td]4,934,551[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]15[/td][td]合肥 Hefei[/td][td]安徽 Anhui[/td][td]4,509,336[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]16[/td][td]石家庄 Shijiazhuang[/td][td]河北 Hebei[/td][td]4,395,107[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]17[/td][td]宁波 Ningbo[/td][td]浙江 Zhejiang[/td][td]4,077,505[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]18[/td][td]洛阳 Luoyang[/td][td]河南 Henan[/td][td]3,903,219[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]19[/td][td]厦门 Xiamen[/td][td]福建 Fujian[/td][td]3,753,422[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]20[/td][td]常州 Changzhou[/td][td]江苏 Jiangsu[/td][td]3,270,301[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]21[/td][td]潍坊 Weifang[/td][td]山东 Shandong[/td][td]3,175,346[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]22[/td][td]南昌 Nanchang[/td][td]江西 Jiangxi[/td][td]2,944,296[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]23[/td][td]无锡 Wuxi[/td][td]江苏 Jiangsu[/td][td]2,649,040[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]24[/td][td]邯郸 Handan[/td][td]河北 Hebei[/td][td]2,535,380[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]25[/td][td]唐山 Tangshan[/td][td]河北 Hebei[/td][td]2,413,309[/td][/tr][/table]

[size=200][anchor=Secu][/anchor]Security[/size]
[hr]

[b][size=150][anchor=Mil][/anchor]Military[/size][/b]

[floatright][box][centre][img]https://i.imgur.com/V6fjT3G.jpg?1[/img][/centre]
[center]ICA Soldiers in a Parade in Nanjing[/center][/box][/floatright]

The Imperial China Armed Forces (ICAF; Chinese: 中国武装部队) is the armed forces of the Empire of China. The ICAF was founded on 6 May 1776 in the form of the New Imperial Army and has developed constantly throughout history. The ICAF consists of four professional service branches: the Imperial China Army, the Imperial China Navy, the Imperial China Air Force, and the Imperial China Marine Corp. The commander-in-chief of the ICAF is the Emperor of China, currently, Yuzhi Emperor, who all service members pledge allegiance to. The Ministry of Defence oversees the management of the ICAF and is directed by the Minister of Defense. 

As of 2018, Imperial China spends about US$334.4 billion annually to fund its military forces, around 2.2% of its GDP. The Imperial China Armed Forces have significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies that enable the rapid and widespread deployment of Chinese personnel worldwide. The ICAF does not engage in conscription and has maintained a professional fighting force. However, the are student and adult paramilitary organizations that do engage in some training and usually volunteer in community policing. 

[b][size=150][anchor=Dome][/anchor]Domestic Law Enforcement[/size][/b]

Domestic security in China is provided mainly by the Provincial Police Departments, under the oversight of the Ministry of State Security and the Ministry of Public Security which is under government jurisdiction to enforce laws by the independent courts. Furthermore, The Special Forces teams comprise of national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with provincial-level local Special Tactical Teams. They specialize in hostage situations and other forms of terrorism, including NBC related activities. Additionally, there is the Imperial China Coast Guard which guards territorial waters of the Yellow, South China, and the East China Sea. It employs the usage of surveillance and control countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, piracy, and illegal immigration.


[size=200][anchor=Eco][/anchor]Economy[/size]
[hr]

[floatright][box]
[center][b][u]Economic Indicators[/b][/u][/center]
[b]Currency:[/b] Jinyuan 金元 (J)
[b]Fiscal Year:[/b] 1 January - 31st December
[hr]
[b]GDP (nominal):[/b] US$15.2 triilion
[b]GDP (nominal) per capita:[/b] US$21,156 / J126,936
[b]Workforce Participation (%):[/b] [color=#3ADF00]▲[/color] 56.4%
[b]Labor Force:[/b] [color=#3ADF00]▲[/color] 406.8 million
[b]Unemployment:[/b] [color=red]▲[/color] 3.42%
[b]Trade [color=green]Surplus[/color]:[/b] [color=#3ADF00]▲[/color] US$213.4 billion
[/floatright][/box]

[floatright][box][img]https://i.imgur.com/Mlap42J.jpg[/img]
[hr]
[center][size=80][i]The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze,
one of the largest hydroelectric dams
in the world[/i][/size][/center][/box][/floatright]

China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the Industrial Revolution and particularly following World War II, China has greatly developed into a highly diversified economy and is one of the most consequential players in international trade. Major sectors of competitive strength include manufacturing, retail, mining, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy generation, green energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate, e-commerce, and tourism. As of 2018, the Chinese economy had a GDP in nominal terms of US$15.2 trillion. However, it still ranks behind on it's per capita GDP.

[b][size=150][anchor=Agri][/anchor]Agriculture[/size][/b]

The Chinese agricultural sector accounts for 5.3% of China's GDP. While historically and currently a vital sector, it has become more specialized and employs fewer people than ever in history. Primary produce includes rice, wheat, potatoes, tomato, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, corn, and soybeans. The land is divided into approximately 156 million households. Most of the income of the sector, however, is domestic and only about 7% is exported. About 75% of China's cultivated area is used for food crops. Rice is China's most important crop, raised on about 25% of the cultivated area. 

The majority of rice is grown along the Yangtze River, especially in the Sichuan Basin. Wheat is the second most-prevalent grain crop, grown in most parts of the country but especially on the North China Plain in Jiangsu, Hubei, and Shandong provinces. Other crops include sweet potatoes in the south, white potatoes in the north, and various other fruits and vegetables. Tropical fruits are grown on Hainan Island, apples and pears are grown in northern Liaoning and Shandong. Citrus is a major cash crop in southern China, with production along and south of the Yangtze River valley. Mandarins are the most popular citrus in China, with roughly double the output of oranges.

China has a large livestock population, with pigs and fowls being the most common. China's pig population and pork production mainly lie along the Yangtze River. In 2011, Sichuan province had 51 million pigs (11% of China's total supply). In rural western China, sheep, goats, and camels are raised by nomadic herders. Yaks are raised as a source of food, fuel, and shelter in the Daxue Mountain Range of Western Sichuan. Cattle, water buffalo, horses, mules, and donkeys are also raised in China, and dairy has recently been encouraged by the government, even though approximately 92.3% of the adult population is affected by some level of lactose intolerance.

[floatleft][box][img]https://i.imgur.com/eWLCzQZ.jpg?1[/img]
[hr]
[align=center][size=80][i]A modern car factory in Xiamen[/i][/size][/align]

[centre][img]https://i.imgur.com/pttjSOf.jpg?1[/img][/centre]
[hr]
[align=center][size=80][i]Rice terraces in Sichuan Province[/i][/size][/align][/box][/floatleft]

[b][size=150][anchor=Man][/anchor]Manufacturing[/size][/b]

Industry and construction account for 44.2% of China's GDP. Major industries include mining and ore processing; iron and steel; aluminum; coal; machinery; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemical; fertilizers; food processing; automobiles and other transportation equipment including rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; consumer products including footwear, toys, and electronics; telecommunications and information technology. The main focus of development in the chemical industry is to expand the output of chemical fertilizers, plastics, and synthetic fibers. The growth of this industry has placed China among the world's leading producers of nitrogenous fertilizers which is used domestically and exported. In the consumer goods sector, the main emphasis is on textiles and clothing, which also form an important part of China's exports.

Steel production, an estimated 30 million tons in 2000 increased to 62 million tons in 2006 and 83 million tons by 2018. Much of the country's steel output comes from a large number of small-scale producing centers. Iron is also a major raw material mined in China at 86.2 million tons. China also mines 3.6 million tons of aluminum yearly and 3.2 billion tons of coal. China also mines more than 117 thousand tons of rare earth materials every year and is said to have massive deposits remaining. Manufacture of solar panels and wind generators is invested in by a number of companies, supported by liberal loans by banks and local governments. However, by 2012 manufacturing capacity had far outstripped domestic and global demand for both products, particularly solar panels.

[b][size=150][anchor=Ser][/anchor]Services[/size][/b]

Services compose 50.5% of China's GDP and it is also the fastest-growing sector at an annual rate of 8.2%. High power and telecom density have ensured that the country has remained on a high-growth trajectory over the long term. Second, only to manufacturing, its is, however, proportionally speaking still low compared to the ratio in more developed countries, and the agricultural sector still employs a workforce quite on par with the service sector. China possesses a diversified communications system that links all parts of the country via the Internet, telephone, telegraph, radio, and television. China's number of Internet users or netizens topped 1.21 billion by the end of 2010 while China's mobile phone penetration rate was 92%. In 2010, mobile phone users sent 761 billion text messages. The number of fixed-lines grew by 79%, mainly in rural areas since the 1980s.

Luxury spending in China has skyrocketed, an indicator of the country's wealth. The Chinese bottled water industry is worth US$15.5 billion. Tap water production and supply is expected to grow to $20.5 billion. China's automotive industry is expected to expand by 29.5% to nearly $220 billion. Also, the consumption of chocolate and other confectionery is on the rise. Retail is a major component of the service sector in China and major companies in computers include Lenovo and ASUS. China Airlines and the many other regional airlines are also a rapidly growing part of the economy. The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) is also the largest in China with many others in different cities but it is also a major part of the financial service industry at 32.9% of the service sector.

China attracts 54.7 million tourists a year. The domestic tourism market makes up more than 90% of the country's tourism traffic and contributes more than 60% of total tourism revenue. In 2002, domestic tourists reached 364.3 million and tourism revenue was $46.3 billion. In part due to a large middle class with strong consumption power is emerging in China, especially in major cities. The top 10 main nationalities of tourist arrivals are by order in size: South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, United States, Thailand, United Kingdom, Russia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Diplomatic and political tensions appear to have a mixed correlation with China's inbound tourism. For the past decade, relations with Japan have been tense, resulting in a decline in the number of inbound tourists from Japan to China by almost 19 percent annually between 2004 and 2014.

[size=200][anchor=Inf][/anchor]Infrastructure[/size]
[hr]

[b][size=150][anchor=Tra][/anchor]Transportation[/size][/b]

Since the late 1960s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways. In 2018, China's highways had reached a total length of 83,500 km. China's railways reached a total length of 144,000 km by 2017. By the end of 2018, China's high-speed railway network reached a length of 26,500 km. In October 2014, there were 128 bridges and tunnels across the main stretch of the Yangtze River, which bisects the country into northern and southern halves. A major issue related to the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents and heavy pollution resulting in a government campaign to encourage public transportation use. In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport due to the bike share program initiated in 2010 by the "Lshi" program  as of 2015, there are approximately 320 million bicycles in China.

China's railways are among the busiest in the world and as of 2017, the country had 144,000 km of railways. The railways strain to meet enormous demand, particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday when the world's largest annual human migration takes place. In 2013, Chinese railways delivered 923 million passenger trips. China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 1990s. By the end of 2018, high-speed rail in China had over 26,500 kilometers of dedicated lines alone. With an annual ridership of over 775 million passengers in 2015, it supplies the massive demand of millions of commuters. The network includes the Beijing-Shanghai-Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, the Nanjing-Wuhan-Chongqing High-Speed Railway and many others. The HSR track network is set to reach approximately 30,000 km by the end of 2024. The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 km/h (268 mph), is the fastest commercial train service in the world. In May 2019, China released a prototype for a maglev high-speed train that would reach a speed of 600 km/hr (375 mph); and it is expected to go into commercial production by 2021.

[floatright][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/A_maglev_train_coming_out%2C_Pudong_International_Airport%2C_Shanghai.jpg/200px-A_maglev_train_coming_out%2C_Pudong_International_Airport%2C_Shanghai.jpg[/img][hr][size=80][i][font=Georgia]The fastest train service measured by 
peak operational speed is the Shanghai 
Maglev Train which can reach 
431 km/h (268 mph).[/font][/i][/size][/box][/floatright]

Since 2000, the renewed growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. As of January 2016, 28 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 35 more have metro systems approved with a dozen more to join them by 2020. The Shanghai Metro, Nanjing Metro, Beijing Subway, Fuzhou Metro, Xiamen MTR, and Wuhan Metro are among the longest and busiest in the world. The Shanghai metro alone serves 10 million people a day with approximately 3.1 billion trips per year.

[floatleft][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fd/PEKT3E.jpg/200px-PEKT3E.jpg[/img][hr][size=80][i][font=Georgia]Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital 
International Airport is the 2nd-largest 
airport terminal in the world.[/font][/i][/size][/box][/floatleft]

There were approximately 10,625 airports in 2017. Due to the rapid growth of the Chinese railway system, there has been a slowdown in airport construction starting in 2005, but China continues to host one of the largest active commercial aircraft fleets in the world, around 7,286 aircraft, slightly smaller than the US fleet. China's primary domestic aircraft manufacturers are Comac and Tianshang which have sold 3,000 aircraft combined in the past 5 years worldwide. Foreign manufacturers include Boeing and Airbus which have numerous factories in China. Nanjing's Jixiang International Airport and Beijing's Daxing International Airport ranked second and third in the world by passenger traffic. 

Air China ranks as the largest airline in the world followed by Cathay Airways and Eastern Airlines in fourth- and fifth-largest respectively. China has over 2,000 rivers and seaports, about 150 of which are open to foreign shipping. In 2017, the Ports of Shanghai, Qingdao, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Fuzhou, and Xiamen ranked in the top ten in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage.

[b][size=150][anchor=Ene][/anchor]Energy and Water[/size][/b]

China is one of the region's biggest nuclear power producers. Nuclear power in the country supplies 23.2% of electricity production, and research is in the field is very active and popular in universities. Chinese mines and refines its own Uranium, being a nuclear power, most notably from the northern regions. China also sells and produces reactors for other countries. There are over 46 nuclear reactors in China with 45 Nuclear plants making the nation a large consumer of uranium in the region. The remaining power is mostly from Coal, which China has been trying to cut down on but due to massive demand had been unsuccessful at, Natural gas and Petroleum. The remaining comes from large Hydroelectric Power Plants, Solar and Wind.

The government has responsibility for regulating the water and sanitation sector including the development of new pipelines and cleanliness. It is shared between the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Ministry of Tourism. The Ministry of the Environment in charge of ambient water quality and environmental preservation; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in charge of performance benchmarking of utilities. The water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China are facing challenges such as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution. According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2000, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation. Under the "Qingshui" program in 2010, the Chinese government undertook a massive project to improve sanitation infrastructure nation-wide. In June 2015, there were 19,976 sewage treatment plants in China and 23 plants were added each week. The ongoing South-North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north.

[size=200][anchor=Sci][/anchor]Science and Technology[/size]
[hr]

[floatright][box][centre][img]https://i.ibb.co/mGzX566/Huawei-1.jpg[/img][/centre]
[align=center][size=80][i]Huawei Mate 30 Smartphone[/i][/size][/align]
[img]https://i.imgur.com/XKs7Faj.jpg?1[/img]
[align=center][size=80][i]OLED displays from Xiaomi[/i][/size][/align][/box][/floatright]

[floatleft][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Long_March_2D_launching_off_pad_with_VRSS-1.jpg/163px-Long_March_2D_launching_off_pad_with_VRSS-1.jpg[/img]
[align=center][i][size=80]Liangwen-1 launch from 
Xichang, Sichuan[/size][/i][/align][/box][/floatleft]

Science and technology in China developed rapidly after the 1980s in a wave of techno-nationalism that swept the globe in which countries vied for technological dominance. Historically, China contributed heavily to the sciences and mathematics up until the Ming Dynasty from which Europe started to gain prominence and China's century of humiliation began due to the poor emphasis on technology. Hence, the Chinese government has placed emphasis through funding, reform, and societal status on science and technology as a fundamental part of the socio-economic development of the country as well as for national prestige in areas such as education, infrastructure, high-tech manufacturing, academic publishing, patents, commercial applications, and agriculture with increased emphasis on indigenous innovation. 

China spends 3.5% of its GDP on the subsidization of research. Chinese tech companies Huawei and ZTE are some of the products of this investment. China graduated over 10.3 thousand Ph.D. engineers and as many as 473.8 thousand BSc, graduates. In 2016, there were 5.7 million STEM graduates in China and companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing with the development supercomputers are consistently ranked highly and robots used in industrial manufacturing.

[b][size=150][anchor=Aer][/anchor]Aerospace[/size][/b]

The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active and is a major source of national pride. In the year 2018, China successfully launched 35 satellites and maintain a large fleet that orbits Earth. Famous rockets include the Tianhan series of rockets. China has its own space station and has sent people on the moon with the Chang' Er 23 in 1987. The Xichang Launch Centre in China is the sole launch platform for the Chinese Space Programme opened in 1981. In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early 2020s. In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang'e 3 landers and Yutu rover onto the lunar surface.

[b][size=150][anchor=Bio][/anchor]Telecommunications[/size][/b]

China has 1.8 billion mobile subscriptions and 1.21 billion internet users which are about 86.4% of the population. Almost entire China's population had access to the 4G network by 2007. By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users. The average mobile connection speed is 89.3 Mbit/s while the fixed download speed has an average of 151.2 Mbit/s. China is making rapid progress and is rolling out internet speeds of 1 Gbit/s which is currently accessible to most tier 1 cities or about 174.6 million people. China currently has 45.2 million kilometers of fiber-optic cables. 5G is also being headed by Huawei and other tech companies. Shanghai and Nanjing currently provide 5G to 43 million people at speeds of 1,200 Mbit/s. The coverage is expected to expand in the next decade. Beidou is a Chinese website under Baidu that provides global satellite navigation.

China Mobile, China Unicom, and China Telecom are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China Telecom alone served more than 249.7 million broadband subscribers and 469.1 million mobile users; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018. Combined, the three operators had over 5.4 million 4G base stations in China. Several Chinese telecommunications companies such as ZTE and Huawei also cooperate closely with the 3 Telcom companies in expanding the outreach. While roads and cities may have coverage, the vastness of China has made it difficult to provide the internet to even to most remote villages such as in the Xikang mountains. Hence, the internet penetration rate in China remains lower despite having millions serviced.

[size=200][anchor=Heal][/anchor]Health[/size]
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Healthcare in China became mostly privatized and experienced a significant rise in quality. In 2010, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$93 billion. By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage. In 2015, China was estimated to be the world's third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications. 

As of 2017, the average life expectancy at birth in China is 81.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women. The infant mortality rate is 7 per thousand. Both have improved significantly since the 1950s. Rates of stunting, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 12.1% in 1990 to 0.9% in 2010. Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution, hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, and an increase in obesity among urban youths.

[size=200][anchor=Edu][/anchor]Education[/size]
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[floatright][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/97/KU_Guro_Hospital.jpg/320px-KU_Guro_Hospital.jpg[/img]
[align=center][size=80][i]Medical Faculty of Qingdao University[/i][/size][/align][/box][/floatright]

A centralized administration in China oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to the third and final year of high school and has a large percentage of the budget, over 18% of the GDP. The school year is divided into two semesters, the first of which begins at the beginning of March and ends in mid-July, the second of which begins in late August and ends in mid-February. The schedules are not uniformly standardized and vary from school to school. Many schools in China require the use of a school uniform until college. Students have uniforms for both sportswear and their daily uniform, both of which will change depending on the season. Uniforms can also differ in design depending on the school, making it easy for people to identify which school a student attends.

Education is regarded with a high priority for all Chinese families as success in education is often a source of pride for families and within Chinese society at large, and is a necessity to improve one's socioeconomic position. Graduating from a top university is the ultimate marker of prestige, high socioeconomic status, promising marriage prospects, and a respectable career path. Hence, competition is extremely tight to get into university within the C9 League which is an alliance of nine most prestigious universities in China. They include including Fudan University, Fuzhou University, Nanjing University, Peking University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Qingdao University, and Zhejiang University. Increasing stress levels dramatically for students and resulting in high suicide rates. Tuition and after school lessons or Hagwon 학원 are extremely common with students studying late into the night at 11 pm.

The nation's high university entrance rate has created a highly skilled workforce making China among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country ranked fifth for the percentage of 25 to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 41.2%. Furthermore, bachelor's degrees are held by 24.6% of Chinese aged 2564. However, the system has also been criticized for producing an excess supply of university graduates creating an overeducated and underemployed labor force; in the first quarter of 2013 alone, nearly 8.3 million Chinese university graduates were jobless, leaving many graduates overqualified for jobs requiring less education. Also, a stigma has left a severe shortage of blue-collar workers.

[size=200][anchor=Cul][/anchor]Culture[/size]
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[floatleft][box][img]https://i.imgur.com/1FHdxB0.jpg?1[/img][hr][size=80][font=Georgia][i]The Forbidden Palace in Beijing,
constructed during the Ming Dynasty[/font][/i][/size][/box][/floatleft]

[floatright][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Fenghuang_old_town.JPG/200px-Fenghuang_old_town.JPG[/img][hr][size=80][font=Georgia][i]Fenghuang County, an ancient town that 
harbors many architectural remains of 
Ming and Qing styles.[/font][/i][/size][/box][/floatright]

Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry, and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. The Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.

Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of World War II, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion, and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, and folk and variety art, in particular, have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide. China is now the third-most-visited country in the world, with 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010. It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 673 million Chinese holidaymakers traveled within the country in October 2012 alone.

[b][size=150][anchor=Cui][/anchor]Cuisine[/size][/b]

Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential is known as the "Seven Major Cuisines", including Sichuan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines. All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, colorway, and flavoring. Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine. Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south and wheat-based bread and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain a popular source of protein. 

Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption. While pork dominates the meat market, there is also pork-free Buddhist cuisine and Chinese Islamic cuisine. Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China. Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora. Chinese cuisine also has greatly influenced Japanese and Korean cuisine during the Tang and Ming dynasties respectively.

[b][size=150][anchor=Spo][/anchor]Sports[/size][/b]

[floatright][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Beijing_national_stadium.jpg/200px-Beijing_national_stadium.jpg[/img][hr][size=80][i][font=Georgia]Beijing National Stadium at night.[/font][/i][/size][/box][/floatright]

Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced, and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country. Basketball is currently the most popular spectator sport in China. The Chinese Basketball Association and the American National Basketball Association have a huge following among the people, with native or ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem. China's professional football league, now known as the Chinese Super League, was established in 1974, it is the largest football market in Asia. Other popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming, and snooker. Board games such as go (known as wiq in Chinese), xiangqi, mahjong, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level. In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012. Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat racing, Mongolian-style wrestling, and horse racing are also popular.

China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, hosting the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics in Nanjing and Beijing respectively. The 2008 Beijing Olympics was among China's highest achievements where its athletes received 51 gold medals  the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year. China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals. China hosted the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing. Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics.

In October 2010, China hosted its first Formula One race at the Nanjing International Circuit. Domestic horse racing events are also common in parts of China but have been decreasing in popularity since the 1970s. Competitive video gaming meanwhile, is all the rage. Also called eSports (sometimes written e-Sports), it has become more popular in China in recent years, particularly among young people. The two most popular games are League of Legends and StarCraft. The gaming scene of China is managed by the CSIC, e-sports department and has become something of a career for many players and can make millions of dollars in competitions.

[floatleft][box][img]https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ea/Pekin_przedstawienie_tradycjnego_teatru_chinskiego_7.JPG/200px-Pekin_przedstawienie_tradycjnego_teatru_chinskiego_7.JPG[/img][hr][size=80][font=Georgia][i]Peiking Opera traces its roots
hundreds of years ago[/font][/i][/size][/box][/floatleft]

[floatright][box][img]https://i.imgur.com/LxfLNpi.jpg?1[/img][hr][size=80][font=Georgia][i]Different types of food in China,
laziji from Sichuan cuisine; 
xiaolongbao from Jiangsu cuisine; 
rice noodle roll from Guizhou cuisine; 
and Peking duck from Shandong cuisine[/font][/i][/size][/box][/floatright]

[b][size=150][anchor=Arc][/anchor]Architecture[/size][/b]

The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Since the Tang dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of East Asia such as Japan and Korea. More than 2,000 years in the making, it is almost as old as Chinese civilization and has long been an important hallmark of Chinese culture. There are certain features common to Chinese architecture, regardless of specific regions, different provinces, or use. The most important is symmetry, which connotes a sense of grandeur as it applies to everything from palaces to farmhouses.

Feng shui has played a very important part in structural development. The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years. It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the imperial family, built for pleasure and to impress, and the more intimate gardens created by scholars, poets, former government officials, soldiers and merchants, made for reflection and escape from the outside world. They create an idealized miniature landscape, which is meant to express the harmony that should exist between man and nature.

[b][size=150][anchor=Fes][/anchor]Festivals[/size][/b]

Chinese tea culture refers to how tea is prepared as well as the occasions when people consume tea in China. Tea culture in China differs from that in European countries such as Britain and other Asian countries like Japan in preparation, taste, and the occasions when people consume tea. Even today, tea is consumed regularly, both at casual and formal occasions. In addition to being a popular beverage, tea is used in traditional Chinese medicine, as well as in Chinese cuisine. Green tea is one of the main teas originating in China. Tea is frequently used in festivals.

China also celebrates its national day; the Xuantong Reformation day, the latter in order to remind China to never fall behind in its progress as also shown in the motto of the nation (进展). China celebrates the Chinese New Year in which there are 15 days off for people to return home to their families to celebrate. The Chinese New Year is similar to the Lunar New Year's celebrated across Asia such as Seollal in Korea and is dependent and changes based on the year. Labor Day and other holidays are also frequently celebrated. While Christianity is not a dominant religion, Christmas is still an important festival, especially for retailers.

[b][size=150][anchor=Med][/anchor]Media and Entertainment[/size][/b]

The cultural phenomenon that is known as "Chinese Wave", has swept many countries across Asia making China a major soft power as an exporter of popular culture and entertainment. C-pop or Mandopop stars and groups are well known across Asia and have found international fame making millions of dollars in export revenue. Chinese television dramas, known as C-dramas have begun to find fame internationally. Arcades have remained popular through to the present day. As of 2011, gaming is worth US$30.7 and in Seoul and internet cafes have popped up throughout the city.

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[align=centre][font=georgia][size=110]All Rights Reserved  Government | The Empire of China | Liang Dynasty[/size][/font][/align]

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