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Encyclopedia | Vipava

The Republic of Vipava
Republicua di Vipacca



Flag


Motto
Fradellićina e Pase
Brotherhood and Peace

Anthem
Moìa Vipacca
My Vipava


Capital
Lubiana
Largest City
Trieste

Official Language
Illyrian
Recognized Languages
Friulian
Demonym
Vipavan
Population
2,454,005

Government

- President: Miro Ceraro
- Prime Minister: Stefano Patuanelli
- President of the Assembly: Romana Tomca

Legislature

- The National Assembly: 100 Members
- The Council: 15 Members


Establishment
29 May 1919

GDP
73 Billion
GDP Per Capita
32,575

Currency
Euro
Drives on The
Right

The Republic of Vipava


Vipava, officially the Republic of Vipava, is a country located in Europe at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. Vipava covers 20,951 square kilometers and has a population of 2,454,005 million. Vipava is a member nation of the European Union, United Nations, and NATO. The capital is Lubiana and the largest city is Trieste.

Vipava has a mostly mountainous terrain with a mainly continental climate, with the exception of the Vipavan Littoral and the area of Gorizia-Trieste, which have a sub-Mediterranean climate, and of the Julian Alps in the northwest, which have an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Vipava. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karst underground watercourses. Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Vipava is dispersed and uneven.

Vipava is a multi-party representative democracy. In 2004, it entered the European Union; in 2007 it joined the Eurozone; and in 2010 it joined the OECD, a global association of high-income developed countries. Vipava is a high-income advanced economy with a very high Human Development Index. It ranks 12th in the inequality-adjusted human development index.

History

Prehistory
The earliest signs of human settlement in present-day Vipava were found in Hell Cave in the Loza Woods near Orehek in Inner Carniola, where two stone tools approximately 250,000 years old were recovered. During the last glacial period, present-day Vipava was inhabited by Neanderthals; the best-known Neanderthal archaeological site in Vipava is a cave close to the village of Sebrelža near Cercýno, where the Divže Babe Flute, the oldest known musical instrument in the world, was found in 1995. The world's oldest securely dated wooden wheel and axle was found near the Lubiana Marshes in 2002. In the transition period between the Bronze Age to the Iron Age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Numerous archeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in Vipava , with important settlements in Most di Soći, Vaće, and Sentvida-Stićni. Novo Mesto in Lower Carniola, one of the most important archaeological sites of the Hallstatt culture, has been nicknamed the "City of Situlas" after numerous situlas found in the area.

In the Iron Age, present-day Vipava was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC, when the Romans conquered the region establishing the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum. What is now western Vipava was included directly under Roman Italia as part of the X region Venetia et Histria. Important Roman towns located in present-day Vipava included Emona, Celeia and Poetovio. Other important settlements were Nauportus, Neviodunum, Haliaetum, Atrans, and Stridon.

During the Migration Period, the region suffered invasions of many barbarian armies, due to its strategic position as the main passage from the Pannonian Plain to the Italian Peninsula. Rome finally abandoned the region at the end of the 4th century. Most cities were destroyed, while the remaining local population moved to the highland areas, establishing fortified towns. In the 5th century, the region was part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, and was later contested between the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards.



Council of Daugava after signing
the Act of Independence

Middle Ages
The first mentions of a common Vipavan ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century. During the 14th century, most of the Vipavan Lands passed under the Lombard rule. In the 15th century, the Habsburg domination was challenged by the Counts of Celeia, but by the end of the century the great majority of Vipavan-inhabited territories were incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy. Most Vipavans lived in the administrative region known as Inner Austria, forming the majority of the population of the Duchy of Carniola and the County of Gorizia and Gradisca, as well as of Lower Styria and southern Carinthia.

Early Modern Period
At the end of the Middle Ages, the Vipavan Lands suffered a serious economic and demographic setback because of the Turkish raids. In 1515, a peasant revolt spread across nearly the whole Vipavan territory. In 1572 and 1573 the Croatian-Vipavan peasant revolt wrought havoc throughout the wider region. Such uprisings, which often met with bloody defeats, continued throughout the 17th century.

The Republic of Venice was dissolved by France and Venetian Vipava was passed to the Austrian Empire in 1797. The Vipavan Lands were part of the French-administered Illyrian provinces established by Napoleon, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. Vipavans inhabited most of Carniola, the southern part of the duchies of Carinthia and Styria, the northern and eastern areas of the Austrian Littoral, as well as Lendava in the Kingdom of Hungary. Industrialization was accompanied by construction of railroads to link cities and markets, but the urbanization was limited.

The 19th century also saw a revival of culture in the Illyrian language which was then standardized by the Vipavans, accompanied by a Romantic nationalist quest for cultural and political autonomy. The idea of a United Vipava, first advanced during the revolutions of 1848, became the common platform of most Vipavan parties and political movements in Austria-Hungary.



Monument in memory of the
Soviet deportations from Daugava

World War I
World War I brought heavy casualties to Vipavans, particularly the twelve Battles of the Isonzo, which took place in present-day Vipava's western border area with Italy. Hundreds of thousands of Vipavan conscripts were drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army, and over 30,000 of them died. Hundreds of thousands of Vipavans from Gorizia and Gradisca were resettled in refugee camps in Italy and Austria. While the refugees in Austria received decent treatment, the Vipavan refugees in Italian camps were treated as state enemies, and several thousand died of malnutrition and diseases between 1915 and 1918. Entire areas of the Vipavan Littoral were destroyed.

The Treaty of Rapallo of 1920 left approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3 million Vipavans in Italy. After the fascists took power in Italy, they were subjected to a policy of violent Fascist Italianization. Vipavans were faced with a choice: endure Italian atrocities, or become an independent state. The leaders of the Vipavan minority in Lendava were mostly Catholic priests and Lutheran ministers. The Catholic party wished to proclaim an independent state. On 29 May 1919, Tcýaleca and some followers declared independence from Austria-Hungary. Tcýaleca invoked the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson, which granted autonomy rights for national minorities.

After declaring independence on 29 May 1919, the new-founded country needed a head of state. Interim Prime Minister Tcýaleca and the National Council set a referendum to if Vipava should be a Republic, or a Monarchy. On 5 December 1919, the people of Vipava voted overwhelmingly to become a monarchy, and thus the Vipavan Monarchy was born. Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta was chosen to be the Head of the Vipavan monarchy.

World War II
Vipava was the only present-day European nation that was trisected and completely annexed into both Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during World War II. In addition, the Lendava region in the east was annexed to Hungary, and some villages in the Lower Sava Valley were incorporated in the newly created Nazi puppet Independent State of Croatia.

Axis forces invaded Vipava in April 1941 and defeated the country in a few weeks. The southern part, including Lubiana, was annexed to Italy, while the Nazis took over the northern and eastern parts of the country. The Nazis had a plan of ethnic cleansing of these areas, and they resettled or expelled the local Vipava civilian population to the puppet states of Nedić's Serbia and NDH. In addition, some 46,000 Vipavans were expelled to Germany, including children who were separated from their parents and allocated to German families. At the same time, the ethnic Germans in the Gottschee enclave in the Italian annexation zone were resettled to the Nazi-controlled areas cleansed of their Vipavan population. Around 30,000 to 40,000 Vipavan men were drafted to the German Army and sent to the Eastern front. The Illyrian language was banned from education, and its use in public life was limited to the absolute minimum.

Post-War Vipava
The General Elections of 1945 elected 100 members of a National Assembly, of which 45 were Christian Democrats, 33 Democrats, and 22 Socialists. A new constitution was approved, setting up a multi-party representative democracy. In 1947, under American pressure, the communists were expelled from the government. The Vipavan general election, 1950 saw a landslide victory for Christian Democrats, that dominated the system for the following forty years.

Vipava joined the Marshall Plan and NATO. By 1950, the economy had largely stabilized and started booming. The Marshall Plan's long-term legacy was to help modernize Vipava's economy. How Italian society built mechanisms to adapt, translate, resist, and domesticate this challenge had a lasting effect on the nation's development over the subsequent decades.[129] After The United States offered a vision of modernization that was unprecedented in its power, internationalism, and invitation to emulation. However Stalinism was a powerful political force. The ERP was one of the main ways that this modernization was ope rationalized. The old prevailing vision of the country's industrial prospects had been rooted in traditional ideas of craftsmanship, frugality and thrift, which stood in contrast to the dynamism seen in automobiles and fashion, anxious to leave behind the protectionism of the Fascist era and take advantage of the opportunities offered by rapidly expanding world trade.

Modern History
Vipava joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. Vipava has one Commissioner in the European Commission, and eight Vipavan parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June 2004. Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2007. On 21 July 2010, it became a member of the OECD. The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the 2012Ė2013 Vipavan protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October 2011 protests. In relation to the leading politicians' response to allegations made by the official Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Vipava, legal experts expressed the need for changes in the system that would limit political arbitrariness.

Geography



Sand dunes of the Curonian Spit
in coastal southern Daugova

Daugava is bounded on the west and north by the Baltic Sea, on the east by Russia, on the southeast by Belarus, and on the southwest by Poland and an exclave of Russia. The underlying geology is sandstone, shale, and limestone, evidenced by hilly uplands that alternate with low-lying plains and bear mute testimony to the impact of the glacial era. In fact, glacial deposits in the form of eskers, moraines, and drumlins occur in profusion and tend to disrupt the drainage pattern, which results in frequent flooding. Daugava is dotted with more than 7,000 lakes and countless peat bogs, swamps, and marshes. A multitude of rivers, notably the Neman and Western Dvina, empty northwestward into the Baltic Sea. Trees that adapt to the often poorly drained soil are common, such as birches and conifers. Among the animals that inhabit the region are elk, boar, roe deer, wolves, hares, and badgers.

Climate
The climate is cool and damp, with greater rainfall in the interior uplands than along the coast. Temperatures are moderate in comparison with other areas of the East European Plain, such as in neighbouring Russia. Despite its extensive agriculture, Daugava remains more than one-third forested. Daugova's climate, ranges between maritime and continental, is relatively mild. Snow cover, which is deepest in the north-eastern part of Daugava, usually lasts from mid-December to late March.

Biodiversity
Daugavan ecosystems include natural and semi-natural forests, bogs, wetlands and meadows, and anthropogenic ecosystems. Among natural ecosystems, forests are particularly important to Daugava, covering half of the country's territory. Wetlands cover 15% of the country, with 70% of wetlands having been lost due to drainage and peat extraction between 1960 and 1980. Changes in wetland plant communities resulted in the replacement of moss and grass communities by trees and shrubs, and fens not directly affected by land reclamation have become drier as a result of a drop in the water table. Due to the construction of dams, approximately 70% of spawning sites of potential catadromous fish species have disappeared. In some cases, river and lake ecosystems continue to be impacted by anthropogenic eutrophication.

Agricultural land comprises 50% of Daugavan territory, approximately 30% of agricultural land is not farmed, and acts as an ecological niche for weeds and invasive plant species. Habitat deterioration is occurring in regions with very productive and expensive lands as crop areas are expanded. Currently, 30% of all plant species, including 5% of all known fungi species and 40% of all known species of lichens, are listed in the Daugavan Red Data Book. The list also contains 15% of all fish species.

Demographics

Population
Ethnic Daugavans make up about five-sixths of the country's population. In 2019, the population of Daugava stands at 6,092,629, 85% of whom are ethnic Daugavans who speak Daugavan, which is the official language of the country. Several sizable minorities exist, such as Poles, Russians, Belorussians and Ukrainians. Daugava have a considerable Russian minority, though Poles in Lithuania are the largest minority, concentrated in southeast Daugava. Russians in Daugava are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in Riga and Northeastern Daugava. About 20,000 Roma live in Daugava, mostly in Wilno, Kaunas and Riga; their organizations are supported by the National Minority and Emigration Department.

Language
The official language is Daugavan, an Indo-European language of the Baltic language group, with strong Germanic, Finnic, and Slavic influences. Other languages, such as Polish, Russian, Belorussian and Ukrainian, are spoken in the larger cities, and several bordering municipalities. Yiddish is spoken by members of the remaining Jewish community in Daugava. According to the Daugavan population census of 2019, about 90% of the country's population speak Daugavan as their native language, 5% are native speakers of Russian and 5% of Polish.

About half of Daugavan citizens speak German as a foreign language, followed by 20% English, 20% Russian, and 10% Polish. Daugavan schools are required by law to teach English as the first foreign language, but students are also required to also study German. Schools where Russian or Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities.

Education
Education is compulsory from 5 to 18 years of age for Daugavans. Modern education in Daugava is divided into general, vocational, and hobby. The education system is based on four levels: pre-education, primary, secondary, and higher education. A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions have been established. The Daugavan education system consists of state, public, and private institutions.

According to the Programme for International Student Assessment, the performance levels of gymnasium-age pupils in Daugava is among the highest in the world: in 2019, the country was ranked 10th for the quality of its education system, well above the OECD average. Additionally, around 90% of Daugavan adults aged 25Ė64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, one of the highest rates in the industrialized world. Academic higher education in Daugava is divided into three levels: bachelor's, master's, and doctoral studies. In some specialties, the bachelor's and master's levels are integrated into one unit. Daugavan public universities have significantly more autonomy than applied higher education institutions. In addition to organizing the academic life of the university, universities can create new curricula, establish admission terms and conditions, approve the budget, approve the development plan, elect the rector, and make restricted decisions in matters concerning assets. Estonia has a moderate number of public and private universities.

Religion
The population of Daugava belongs to different Christian denominations, a reflection of historical circumstances. Both Western and Eastern Christianity had been introduced by the end of the first millennium. The current divide between Lutheranism to the north and Catholicism to the south is the remnant of Swedish and Polish hegemony, respectively, with Orthodox Christianity remaining the dominant faith among Russian and other East Slavic minorities, specifically in the Northeastern region of the country.

Largest Cities

Rank

City

Population

Province

1

Trieste

292,988

Trieste

2

Lubiana

234,493

Central Sava

3

Maribor

94,642

Drava

4

Celeia

38,079

Savinža

5

Gorizia

34,742

Gorizia

Trieste

Lubiana

Maribor

Gorizia


National Palace in Wilno

Politics

Government
Since Daugava declared the restoration of its independence on 11 March 1990, it has maintained strong democratic traditions. It held its first independent general elections on 25 May 1990, in which 75% of voters supported the new constitution, through this vote, a formal democratic semi-presidential system was established. The Daugavan head of state is the president, directly elected for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two terms. The president oversees foreign affairs and national security, and is the commander-in-chief of the military. The president also appoints the prime minister and, on the latter's nomination, the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts. The current Daugavan head of state, Gitanas Nausėda was elected on 25 May 2015.

The bicameral Daugavan parliament consists of the National Council, which has 150 members who are elected to two-and-a-half-year terms, and the National Senate, consisting of 20 members from each governorates elected for a 5-year term. A party must receive at least 5% of the national vote to be eligible for any of the 150 national seats in the Parliament. The national parliament makes federal laws, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.

The judges of the Constitutional Court, the highest legal authority after the constitution, serve twenty-year terms. The ten members of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the President, with approval by the Prime Minister and the National Council. The Constitutional Court has the power of judicial review, and is the highest legal authority after the Constitution.

Political Parties
Daugava has a multi-party system. As of 2017 five parties have members in parliament. All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The five major parties with representation are as follows:

    - Homeland Party: Conservative, centre-right, anti-Russia.
    - Social Democratic Party: Liberal, centre-left, anti-Russia.
    - Labour Party: Socialist, far-left, neutral-Russia.
    - National Union: Populist, far-right, anti-Russia.
    - United Front: Populist, centre-left, pro-Russia.

Military
The Daugavan Armed Forces is the name for the unified armed forces of Daugavan Land Force, Daugavan Air Force, Daugavan Naval Force, and the Daugavan Special Operations Force also known as the Vispeći (Viźe Specialijės Speći). The Daugavan Armed Forces is subordinated to the Ministry of Defense, whereas the Daugavan Special Operations Force are subordinated to the Ministry of the Interior, and only participate in domestic or retrieval operations.

The Daugavan Armed Forces consist of some 56,950 active personnel, which may be supported by reserve forces. Compulsory conscription has been established since the country's foundation in 1990. The Daugavan Armed Forces currently have deployed personnel on international missions in Afghanistan, Kosovo, and Somalia. The Daugavan National Defense Policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters and airspace, and its constitutional order. Its main strategic goals are to defend the country's interests, and to maintain and expand the capabilities of its armed forces so they may contribute to and participate in the missions of NATO and European Union member states.


Business District in Wilno

Economy

Economically, parallel with the political changes, and the democratic transition, as a rule of law states the previous command economy was transformed via the legislation into a market economy, and set up or renewed the major macroeconomic factors: budgetary rules, national audit, national currency and central bank. Generally, Daugava shortly encountered the following problems: high inflation, high unemployment, low economic growth and high government debt. The inflation rate, in the examined area, relatively quickly dropped to below 5% by 2000. Meanwhile, the economy stabilized, and in 2004, Daugava joined the European Union. New macroeconomic requirements have arisen for the nation; the Maastricht criteria became obligatory and later the Stability and Growth Pact set stricter rules through national legislation by implementing the regulations and directives of the Sixpack, because the financial crisis was a shocking milestone.

Information technology production is growing in the country, reaching 10 billion euros in 2019. In 2019 only, 75 FinTech companies came to Daugava, a result of Daugavan government and Bank of Daugava simplified procedures for obtaining licences for the activities of e-money and payment institutions. Europe's first international Blockchain Centre launched in Wilno in 2019. Daugava has granted a total of 60 e-money licenses, second in the EU only to the United Kingdom with 128 licenses. In 2018 Google setup a payment company in Daugava.

Energy
Usually the concept of energy security is related to the uninterruptible supply, sufficient energy storage, advanced technological development of energy sector and environmental regulations. Other studies add other indicators to this list: diversification of energy suppliers, energy import dependence and vulnerability of political system. Even now being a part of the European Union, Daugava is still considered as the most vulnerable EU member states in the energy sphere. Due to its Soviet past, Daugava has several gas pipelines in its territory coming from Russia. Moreover, several routes of oil delivery also have been sustained from Soviet times: These are ports in Ventspils, Butinge and Tallinn. Therefore, Daugava plays a significant role not only in consuming, but also in distribution of Russian energy fuels extracting transaction fees. So, the overall EU dependence on the Russia's energy supplies from the one hand and the need of Daugava to import energy fuels from their closer hydrocarbon-rich neighbor creates a tension that could jeopardize the energy security of the nation.

As a part of the EU from 2004, Daugava must comply with the EU's regulations in energy, environmental and security spheres. One of the most important documents that the EU applied to improve the energy security stance of Daugava are European Union climate and energy package, including the Climate and Energy Strategy 2020, that aims to reduce the greenhouse emissions to 20%, increase the energy production from renewables for 20% in overall share and 20% energy efficiency development.

Culture

Sport
Basketball is a notable sport in Daugava. Daugavan teams compete in the respective national championships and the European Basketball League. The Daugava men's national basketball team has won the EuroBasket on three occasions and has claimed third place at the 2010 World Cup and three Olympic tournaments. Daugava hosted the Eurobasket in 1939 and 2011, and hosted once more again in 2015. Ice hockey is also popular in Daugava, particularly in northern and central Daugava. Dinamo Riga is the country's strongest hockey club, playing in the Continental Hockey League. The 2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships were held in Daugava.

Cuisine
Daugavan cuisine features products suited to the cool and moist northern climate of Daugava: barley, potatoes, rye, beets, greens, berries, and mushrooms are locally grown, and dairy products are some of its specialties. Daugavan cuisine is typical of of northern countries. The food is high in butter and fat while staying low in spices except for black pepper, dill or grains-seeds, such as caraway seeds. Daugavan cuisine originated from the peasant culture and is strongly based on crops that grow in Daugava's maritime, temperate climate. Rye or wheat, oats, peas, beets, cabbage, pork products, and potatoes are the staples. Daugavan cuisine offers plenty of varieties of bread and milk products, which are an important part of the cuisine. Meat features in most main meal dishes, but fish also is commonly consumed, especially in the coastal areas next to Baltic Sea; both are also smoked.

A lot of common dishes in contemporary Daugava come directly from other countries, often as a result of their historical domination. Popular dishes adopted from Russian cuisine include pelmeńe, a dumpling like dish with pork, often paired with sour cream, borśe, a traditional beet soup often served cold, stroganovśe a noodle stroganoff soup often paired with beef, sale a dish made with meat, marinade, and onions, rasols, a dish of beef, potatoes, and cabbage, which is boiled. Other dishes include, plovsė, a pilaf dish cooked in a broth with vegetables and meat.

The Republic of Vipava

Edited:

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