La Respubliko de Nova Kartago
Location of The Republic of New Carthage
Official language Esperanto
Ethnic groups94.8% Carthagian
3.7% Ancient Roman
1.2% Ancient Greek
27% No religion
4% Other denomination
Demonym Kartago or Carthagian
Government Parliamentary Republic
President Tullius Karpos
First Chancellor Agatha Melissa
Parliament President Julia Romilius
Chief Justice Nikias Gaiana
Ruling party: Socialisma Partio
Total 81,805 km²
Water Area 1,990 km²
Water (%) 6,2
Census (2020) 8.151.125
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
Total Ŝ46,7 trillion
Per capita Ŝ57,981
Gini (2020) ▼ 33,2
HDI (2020) ▲ 59.27
high Top 33%
Time zone UTC+1
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +329
Internet TLD .nk
Nova Kartago, officially known as The Republic of Nova Kartago (Esperanto : La Respubliko de Nova Kartago), is a democratic Republic in Mediterranean, with a long coastline on the Mediterranean Sea to the nord and east.It is bordered on the south by OTHER-NATION, and on the west by The Federation of Allied City-States of Orience. Nova Kartago covers 81,805 square kilometers and has an estimated population of 8.151.125. Nova Kartago consists of four provinces: Kartago, Ikosio, Oea, and Vescera and thirty-seven municipalities . The capital of country is Kartago and the largest city is Ikosio. The official languages are Esperanto, and the Old Phoenician ( Punic) dialect .
In 2019 , the Nova Kartagian people voted in favor of the establishment of a free land republic and the peaceful abolition of the old Italian Republic, and on April 8th, 2019 the Italian Republic in Nova Kartago was abolished and in it's place a Free land Republic was established complete with a Constituent Assembly, and a provisional government.
Nova Kartago is part of the Mediterranean alliance. This nation is also a member of the World Assembly.
2.1 Foundation legends
2.2 Phoenician settlement
2.3 Sicilian Wars
2.4 Middle Ages
2.5 Modern Era
2.6 Modern History
4.5 Largest Cities
5 Politics and government
5.1 Pheonisland Government
5.2 The national symbols
5.3 Territorial and administrative division
5.4 Foreign Relations and Military
8.3 Road Network
8.5 Other Public Transport
The name Carthage /ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/ is the Early Modern anglicisation of Middle French Carthage /kar.taʒ/, from Latin Carthāgō and Karthāgō (cf. Greek Karkhēdōn (Καρχηδών) and Etruscan *Carθaza) from the Punic qrt-ḥdt (𐤒𐤓𐤕 𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕) "new city", implying it was a "new Tyre". The Latin adjective pūnicus, meaning "Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from Latinnotably the Punic Wars and the Punic language.
The Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج (About this soundQarṭāj) is an adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name.
The standard way to refer to a citizen of Nova Kartago is as a " Kartago or Carthagian."
At the beginning of recorded history, Nova Kartago was inhabited by Berber tribes. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC (Utica).
According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido (also known as Queen Elissa), founded Carthage c. 814 BC. Queen Elissa (also known as "Alissar") was allegedly an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. At its peak, the metropolis she founded, Carthage, came to be called the "shining city", ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean Sea and leading the Phoenician world.
Elissa's brother, Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered Elissa's husband, the high priest. Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the "new city" of Carthage and subsequently its later dominions. Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but various sources give some details. According to Justin (2nd century AD), Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre. When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother, Pygmalion, and her. She married her uncle Acerbas, also known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between the religious ιlite and the monarchy. Pygmalion was a tyrant, a lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acerbas. Pygmalion assassinated Acerbas in the temple and kept the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husband's death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign.
Virgil's Roman epic, the Aeneid, first introduces Queen Dido (the Greek name for Elissa) as a highly esteemed character. In just seven years since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have built a successful kingdom under her rule. Her subjects adore her and present her with a festival of praise. Virgil portrays her character as even more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who had recently escaped from Troy. A spirit in the form of the messenger-god, Mercury, sent by Jupiter, reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido, but to sail to Italy to found Rome. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas farewells Dido, her heart broken, she orders a pyre to be built where she falls upon Aeneas' sword. As she lies dying, she predicts eternal strife between Aeneas' people and her own: "rise up from my bones, avenging spirit", she says (an invocation of Hannibal). Aeneas goes on to found the predecessor-state of the Roman Kingdom. The details of Virgil's story do not, however, form part of the original legend and are significant mainly as an indication of Rome's attitude towards the city Dido had founded, an attitude exemplified by Cato the Elder's much-repeated utterance, "Carthago delenda est", "Carthage must be destroyed".
The Phoenicians established numerous colonial cities along the coasts of the Mediterranean to provide safe harbors for their merchant fleets, to maintain a Phoenician monopoly on an area's natural resources, and to conduct trade free of outside interference. They were also motivated to found these cities by a desire to satisfy the demand for trade goods or to escape the necessity of paying tribute to the succession of empires that ruled Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos, and by fear of complete Greek colonization of that part of the Mediterranean suitable for commerce. The Phoenicians lacked the population or necessity to establish large self-sustaining cities abroad, and most of their colonial cities had fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, but Carthage and a few others developed larger populations.
Although Strabo's claim that the Tyrians founded three hundred colonies along the west African coast is clearly exaggerated, colonies arose in Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Iberia, and to a much lesser extent, on the arid coast of Libya. The Phoenicians were active in Cyprus, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands, Crete, and Sicily, as well as on the European mainland at present-day Genoa in Italy and at Marseille in present-day France. The settlements at Crete and Sicily continually clashed with the Greeks, but the Phoenicians managed to control all of Sicily for a limited time. The entire area later came under the leadership and protection of Carthage, which in turn dispatched its own colonists to found new cities or to reinforce those that declined with the loss of primacy of Tyre and Sidon.
The first Phoenician colonies grew up on the two paths to Iberia's mineral wealthalong the Northwest African coast and on Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The centre of the Phoenician world was Tyre, which served as its economic and political hub. The power of this city waned following numerous sieges by Babylonia, and then its later voluntary submission to the Persian king Cambyses (r. 530522 BC) and incorporation within the Persian empire. Supremacy passed to Sidon, and then to Carthage, before Tyre's eventual destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or Sidon, but neither of these cities had actual control of the colonies. This changed with the rise of Carthage, since the Carthaginians appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and Carthage retained much direct control over her colonies. This policy resulted in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars of 264 to 146 BC.
In 509 BC Carthage and Rome signed a treaty, indicating a division of influence and commercial activities. This is the first known source indicating that Carthage had gained control over Sicily and Sardinia.
By the beginning of the 5th century BC, Carthage had become the commercial center of the West Mediterranean region, a position it retained until overthrown by the Roman Republic. Carthaginians had conquered most of the old Phoenician colonies (including Hadrumetum, Utica, Hippo Diarrhytus and Kerkouane), subjugated the Libyan tribes (with the Numidian and Mauretanian kingdoms remaining more or less independent), and taken control of the entire Northwest African coast from modern Morocco to the borders of Egypt (not including the Cyrenaica, which eventually became part of Hellenistic Egypt). Their influence had also extended into the Mediterranean, taking control of Sardinia, Malta, the Balearic Islands, and the western half of Sicily, where coastal fortresses such as Motya or Lilybaeum secured their possessions. Important Carthaginian colonies also grew up on the Iberian Peninsula. Carthaginian cultural influence in the Iberian Peninsula is documented, but the degree of Carthage's political influence before the conquest (237-228 BC) by Hamilcar Barca is disputed.
First Sicilian War
Bust of the Punic goddess Tanit
found in the Carthaginian
necropolis of Puig des Molins,
dated 4th century BC.
Carthage's economic successes, and its dependence on shipping to conduct most of its trade, led to the development of a powerful Carthaginian navy. This, coupled with its success and growing hegemony, brought Carthage into increasing conflict with the Greeks of Syracuse, the other major power contending for control of the central Mediterranean.
The island of Sicily, lying at Carthage's doorstep, became the arena on which this conflict played out. From their earliest days, both the Greeks and Phoenicians had been attracted to the large island, establishing a large number of colonies and trading posts along its coasts; battles raged between these settlements for centuries.
By 480 BC, Gelo, the tyrant leader of Greek Syracuse, backed in part by support from other Greek city-states, was attempting to unite the island under his rule. This imminent threat could not be ignored, and Carthage possibly as part of an alliance with Persia engaged military force under the leadership of the general Hamilcar. Traditional accounts, including those of Herodotus and Diodorus, give Hamilcar's army a strength of three hundred thousand men; though this is certainly exaggerated, it must nonetheless have been of formidable strength.
En route to Sicily, however, Hamilcar suffered losses (possibly severe) due to poor weather. Landing at Panormus (modern-day Palermo), Hamilcar spent 3 days reorganizing his forces and repairing his battered fleet. The Carthaginians marched along the coast to Himera, and made camp before engaging in the Battle of Himera (480 BC). Hamilcar was either killed during the battle or committed suicide in shame. As a result, the Carthaginian nobility negotiated peace and replaced their old monarchy with a republic.
Second Sicilian War
Calabria, Tarentum, during the
occupation by Hannibal, circa
212-209 BC. AR Reduced Nomos
(3.70 g, 8h). ΚΛΗ above,
ΣΗΡΑΜ/ΒΟΣ below, nude youth
on horseback right, placing a
laurel wreath on his horse's head;
ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras riding dolphin left,
holding trident in right hand,
aphlaston in his left hand.
By 410 BC Carthage had recovered after serious defeats. It had conquered much of modern-day Tunisia, strengthening and founding new colonies in Northwest Africa; Hanno the Navigator had made his journey down the West African coast, and Himilco the Navigator had explored the European Atlantic coast. Expeditions were also led into Morocco and Senegal, as well as into the Atlantic. In the same year, the Iberian colonies seceded, cutting off Carthage's major supply of silver and copper, while Hannibal Mago, the grandson of Hamilcar, began preparations to reclaim Sicily.
In 409 BC, Hannibal Mago set out for Sicily with his force. He captured the smaller cities of Selinus (modern Selinunte) and Himera before returning triumphantly to Carthage with the spoils of war. But the primary enemy, Syracuse, remained untouched and, in 405 BC, Hannibal Mago led a second Carthaginian expedition to claim the entire island. This time, however, he met with fierce resistance and ill-fortune. During the siege of Agrigentum, the Carthaginian forces were ravaged by plague, Hannibal Mago himself succumbing to it. Although his successor, Himilco, successfully extended the campaign by breaking a Greek siege - capturing the city of Gela and repeatedly defeating the army of Dionysius, the new tyrant of Syracuse he, too, was weakened by the plague and forced to sue for peace before returning to Carthage.
In 398 BC, Dionysius had regained his strength and broke the peace treaty, striking at the Carthaginian stronghold of Motya. Himilco responded decisively, leading an expedition which not only reclaimed Motya, but also captured Messina. Finally, he laid siege to Syracuse itself. The siege was close to a success throughout 397 BC, but in 396 BC plague again ravaged the Carthaginian forces, and they collapsed.
The fighting in Sicily swung in favor of Carthage in 387 BC. After winning a naval battle off the coast of Catania, Himilco laid siege to Syracuse with 50,000 Carthaginians, but yet another epidemic struck down thousands of them. Dionysius then launched a counterattack by land and sea, and the Syracusans surprised the enemy fleet while most of the crews were ashore, destroying all the Carthaginian ships. At the same time, Dionysius's ground forces stormed the besiegers' lines and routed the Carthaginians. Himilco and his chief officers abandoned their army and fled Sicily. Himilco returned to Carthage in disgrace and was very badly received; he eventually committed suicide by starving himself.
Sicily by this time had become an obsession for Carthage. Over the next fifty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 BC, Carthage had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.
Third Sicilian War
In 315 BC, Agathocles, the tyrant (administrating governor) of Syracuse, seized the city of Messene (present-day Messina). In 311 BC he invaded the last Carthaginian holdings on Sicily, breaking the terms of the current peace treaty, and laid siege to Akragas.
Hamilcar, grandson of Hanno the Great, led the Carthaginian response and met with tremendous success. By 310 BC, he controlled almost all of Sicily and had laid siege to Syracuse itself. In desperation, Agathocles secretly led an expedition of 14,000 men to the mainland, hoping to save his rule by leading a counterstrike against Carthage itself. In this, he was successful: Carthage was forced to recall Hamilcar and most of his army from Sicily to face the new and unexpected threat. Although Agathocles's army was eventually defeated in 307 BC, Agathocles himself escaped back to Sicily and was able to negotiate a peace which maintained Syracuse as a stronghold of Greek power in Sicily.
Roman trireme on a mosaic in
the Bardo Museum
Between 280 and 275 BC, Pyrrhus of Epirus waged two major campaigns in the western Mediterranean: one against the emerging power of the Roman Republic in southern Italy, the other against Carthage in Sicily.
Pyrrhus sent an advance guard to Tarentum under the command of Cineaus with 3,000 infantry. Pyrrhus marched the main army across the Greek peninsula and engaged in battles with the Thessalians and the Athenian army. After his early success on the march Pyrrhus entered Tarentum to rejoin with his advance guard.
In the midst of Pyrrhus's Italian campaigns, he received envoys from the Sicilian cities of Agrigentum, Syracuse, and Leontini, asking for military aid to remove the Carthaginian dominance over that island. Pyrrhus agreed, and fortified the Sicilian cities with an army of 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry and 20 war elephants, supported by some 200 ships. Initially, Pyrrhus's Sicilian campaign against Carthage was a success, pushing back the Carthaginian forces, and capturing the city-fortress of Eryx, even though he was not able to capture Lilybaeum.
Following these losses, Carthage sued for peace, but Pyrrhus refused unless Carthage was willing to renounce its claims on Sicily entirely. According to Plutarch, Pyrrhus set his sights on conquering Carthage itself, and to this end, began outfitting an expedition. However, his ruthless treatment of the Sicilian cities in his preparations for this expedition, and his execution of two Sicilian rulers whom he claimed were plotting against him led to such a rise in animosity towards the Greeks, that Pyrrhus withdrew from Sicily and returned to deal with events occurring in southern Italy.
Pyrrhus's campaigns in Italy were inconclusive, and Pyrrhus eventually withdrew to Epirus. For Carthage, this meant a return to the status quo. For Rome, however, the failure of Pyrrhus to defend the colonies of Magna Graecia meant that Rome absorbed them into its sphere of influence, bringing it closer to complete domination of the Italian peninsula. Rome's domination of Italy, and proof that Rome could pit its military strength successfully against major international powers, would pave the way to the future Rome-Carthage conflicts of the Punic Wars.
Carthage electrum coin, c. 250 BC.
When Agathocles died in 288 BC, a large company of Italian mercenaries who had previously been held in his service found themselves suddenly without employment. Rather than leave Sicily, they seized the city of Messana. Naming themselves Mamertines (or "sons of Mars"), they became a law unto themselves, terrorizing the surrounding countryside.
The Mamertines became a growing threat to Carthage and Syracuse alike. In 265 BC, Hiero II, former general of Pyrrhus and the new tyrant of Syracuse, took action against them. Faced with a vastly superior force, the Mamertines divided into two factions, one advocating surrender to Carthage, the other preferring to seek aid from Rome. While the Roman Senate debated the best course of action, the Carthaginians eagerly agreed to send a garrison to Messana. A Carthaginian garrison was admitted to the city, and a Carthaginian fleet sailed into the Messanan harbor. However, soon afterwards they began negotiating with Hiero. Alarmed, the Mamertines sent another embassy to Rome asking them to expel the Carthaginians.
Hiero's intervention had placed Carthage's military forces directly across the narrow channel of water that separated Sicily from Italy. Moreover, the presence of the Carthaginian fleet gave them effective control over this channel, the Strait of Messina, and demonstrated a clear and present danger to nearby Rome and her interests.
As a result, the Roman Assembly, although reluctant to ally with a band of mercenaries, sent an expeditionary force to return control of Messana to the Mamertines.
The Roman attack on the Carthaginian forces at Messana triggered the first of the Punic Wars. Over the course of the next century, these three major conflicts between Rome and Carthage would determine the course of Western civilization. The wars included a Carthaginian invasion led by Hannibal, which nearly prevented the rise of the Roman Empire.
In 256255 BC the Romans, under the command of Marcus Atilius Regulus, landed in Africa and, after suffering some initial defeats, the Carthaginian forces eventually repelled the Roman invasion.
Shortly after the First Punic War, Carthage faced a major mercenary revolt which changed the internal political landscape of Carthage (bringing the Barcid family to prominence), and affected Carthage's international standing, as Rome used the events of the war to base a claim by which it seized Sardinia and Corsica.
Adorned Statue of the Punic
Goddess Tanit, 5th3rd
centuries BC, from the
necropolis of Puig des Molins,
The Second Punic War lasted from 218 to 202 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean, with the participation of the Berbers on Carthage's side. The war is marked by Hannibal's surprising overland journey and his costly crossing of the Alps, followed by his reinforcement by Gaulish allies and crushing victories over Roman armies in the battle of the Trebia and the giant ambush at Trasimene. Against his skill on the battlefield the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. But because of the increasing unpopularity of this approach, the Romans resorted to a further major field battle. The result was the crushing Roman defeat at Cannae.
In consequence, many Roman allies went over to Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade, during which more Roman armies were destroyed on the battlefield. Despite these setbacks, the Roman forces were more capable in siegecraft than the Carthaginians and recaptured all the major cities that had joined the enemy, as well as defeating a Carthaginian attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus. In the meantime in Iberia, which served as the main source of manpower for the Carthaginian army, a second Roman expedition under Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage by assault and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the battle of Zama in Africa between Scipio Africanus and Hannibal, resulting in the latter's defeat and the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.
The Third Punic War (149 to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars. The war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and primarily consisted of a single main action, the Battle of Carthage, but resulted in the complete destruction of the city of Carthage, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of thousands of Carthaginians. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.
During the Roman period, the area of what is now Nova Kartago enjoyed a huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: the prosperity of the area depended on agriculture. Called the Granary of the Empire, the area of actual Nova Kartago and coastal Tripolitania, according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire. Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits.
By the 2nd century, olive oil rivaled cereals as an export item. In addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip, and wool.
There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported mainly to Italy, in the central area of Thysdrus (where there was the second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire).
Berber bishop Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. During the 5th and 6th centuries (from 430 to 533 AD), the Germanic Vandals invaded and ruled over a kingdom in Nova Kartago. The region was easily reconquered in 533534 AD, during the rule of Emperor Justinian I, by the Eastern Romans led by General Belisarius.
Byzantine period (535965)
After taking areas occupied by the Vandals in North Africa, Justinian decided to retake Italy as an ambitious attempt to recover the lost provinces in the West. The re-conquests marked an end to over 150 years of accommodationist policies with tribal invaders. His first target was Nova Kartago (known as the Gothic War (535554) began between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire). His general Belisarius was assigned the task. Nova Kartago was used as a base for the Byzantines to conquer the rest of Italy, with Naples, Rome, Milan. It took five years before the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna fell in 540. However, the new Ostrogoth king Totila counterattacked, moving down the Italian peninsula, plundering and conquering Nova Kartago in 550. Totila was defeated and killed in the Battle of Taginae by Byzantine general Narses in 552 but Italy was in ruins.
At the time of the reconquest Greek was still the predominant language spoken on the land. Nova Kartago was invaded by the Arab forces of Caliph Uthman in 652, but the Arabs failed to make any permanent gains. They returned to Syria with their booty. Raids seeking loot continued until the mid-8th century.
The Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II decided to move from Constantinople to Carthage in 660. The following year he launched an assault from Nova Kartago against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which occupied most of southern Italy. Rumors that the capital of the empire was to be moved to Carthage probably cost Constans his life, as he was assassinated in 668. His son Constantine IV succeeded him. A brief usurpation in Nova Kartago by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by this emperor. Contemporary accounts report that the Greek language was widely spoken on the island during this period. In 740 Emperor Leo III the Isaurian transferred Nova Kartago from the jurisdiction of the church of Rome to that of Constantinople, placing the island within the eastern branch of the Church.
In 826 Euphemius, the Byzantine commander in Nova Kartago, having apparently killed his wife, forced a nun to marry him. Emperor Michael II caught wind of the matter and ordered general Constantine to end the marriage and cut off Euphemius' head. Euphemius rose up, killed Constantine, and then occupied Carthage; he in turn was defeated and driven out to North Africa. He offered the rule of Nova Kartago to Ziyadat Allah, the Aghlabid Emir of Tunisia, in return for a position as a general and a place of safety. A Muslim army was then sent to the land consisting of Arabs, Berbers, Cretans, and Persians.
The Muslim conquest of Nova Kartagho was a see-saw affair and met with fierce resistance. It took over a century for Byzantine Nova Kartagho to be conquered; the largest city, Carthage, held out until 878 and the Greek city of Ikosio fell in 962. It was not until 965 that all of Nova Kartagho was conquered by the Arabs. In the 11th century Byzantine armies carried out a partial reconquest of the land under George Maniakes, but it was their Norman mercenaries who would eventually complete the island's reconquest at the end of the century.
Arab Period (8271091)
Arabesque on a wall in the Cuba
Palace in Ikosio.
The Arabs initiated land reforms, which increased productivity and encouraged the growth of smallholdings, undermining the dominance of the latifundia. The Arabs further improved irrigation systems. The language spoken in Nova Kartago under Arab rule was Punic-Arabic and Arabic influence is still present in some New Carthagian words today. Although the language is extinct in Nova Kartago, it has developed into what is now the Maltese language on the islands of Malta today.
A description of Ikosio was given by Ibn Hawqal, an Arab merchant who visited Nova Kartago in 950. A walled suburb, called the Al-Kasr (the palace), is the centre of Ikosio to this day, with the great Friday mosque on the site of the later Roman cathedral. The suburb of al-Khalisa (modern Kalsa) contained the Sultan's palace, baths, a mosque, government offices, and a private prison. Ibn Hawqal reckoned 7,000 individual butchers trading in 150 shops. Ikosio was initially ruled by the Aghlabids; later it was the centre of Emirate of Carthage under the nominal suzerainty of the Fatimid Caliphate. During the reign of this dynasty revolts by Byzantine Carthagian continuously occurred especially in the east where Greek-speaking Christians predominated. Parts of the land were re-occupied before revolts were being quashed. During Muslim rule agricultural products such as oranges, lemons, pistachio and sugarcane were brought to Nova Kartago. Under the Arab rule the land was divided in three administrative regions, or "vals", roughly corresponding to the three "points" of Nova Kartago: Val di Mazara in the west; Val Demone in the northeast; and Val di Noto in the southeast. As dhimmis, that is as members of a protected class of approved monotheists the Eastern Orthodox Christians were allowed freedom of religion, but had to pay a tax, the jizya (in lieu of the obligatory alms tax, the zakat, paid by Muslims), and were restricted from active participation in public affairs.
The Emirate of Carthage began to fragment as intra-dynastic quarrelling fractured the Muslim regime. During this time, there was also a small Jewish presence.
Ancient Carthage period 814146 BC
Roman period 146 BC535 AD
Byzantine period 535965
Arab Period 8271091
Norman Period 10381198
Kingdom of Carthage 11301198
Hohenstaufen dynasty 11981282
Aragonese rule 12821860
Italian unification 1860 2019
Nova Kartago Period 2019
Norman Carthage (10381198)
In 1038, seventy years after losing their last cities in Nova Kartago, the Byzantines under the Greek general George Maniakes invaded the land together with their Varangian and Norman mercenaries. Maniakes was killed in a Byzantine civil war in 1043 before completing a reconquest and the Byzantines withdrew. The Normans invaded in 1061. After taking Apulia and Calabria, Roger occupied Sala with an army of 700 knights. In 1068, Roger was victorious at Pomaria. Most crucial was the siege of Carthage, whose fall in 1071 eventually resulted in all Nova Kartago coming under Norman control. The conquest was completed in 1091 when they captured Turris Tamalleni the last Arab stronghold. Carthage continued to be the capital under the Normans.
The Norman Hauteville family, descendants of Vikings, appreciate and admired the rich and layered culture in which they now found themselves. They also introduced their own culture, customs, and politics in the region. Many Normans in Nova Kartago adopted the habits and comportment of Muslim rulers and their Byzantine subjects in dress, language, literature, even to the extent of having palace eunuchs and, according to some accounts, a harem.
Kingdom of Carthage
The Cathedral of Monreale.
Roger died in 1101. His wife Adelaide ruled until 1112, when their son Roger II of Sicily came of age. Having succeeded his brother Simon as Count of Carthage, Roger II was ultimately able to raise the status of the land to a kingdom in 1130, along with his other holdings, which included the Maltese Islands and the Duchies of Apulia and Calabria.
Roger II appointed the powerful Greek George of Antioch to be his "emir of emirs" and continued the syncretism of his father. During this period, the Kingdom of Carthage was prosperous and politically powerful, becoming one of the wealthiest states in all of Europeeven wealthier than the Kingdom of England.
The court of Roger II became the most luminous centre of culture in the Mediterranean, both from Europe and the Middle East, like the multi-ethnic Caliphate of Cσrdoba, then only just eclipsed. This attracted scholars, scientists, poets, artists, and artisans of all kinds. Laws were issued in the language of the community to whom they were addressed in Norman Carthage, at the time when the culture was still heavily Arab and Greek. Governance was by rule of law which promoted justice. Muslims, Jews, Byzantine Greeks, Lombards, and Normans worked together fairly amicably. During this time many extraordinary buildings were constructed.
However this situation changed as the Normans under Papal pressure to secure the island imported immigrants from Lombardy, Piedmont, Provence and Campania. Linguistically, the land shifted from being one third Greek- and two-thirds Arabic-speaking at the time of the Norman conquest to becoming fully Latinised. In terms of religion the land became completely Roman Catholic (bearing in mind that until 1054 the Churches owing allegiance to the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople belonged to one Church); Carthage before the Norman conquest was under Eastern Orthodox Patriarch. After Pope Innocent III made him Papal Legate in 1098, Roger I created several Catholic bishoprics while still allowing the construction of 12 Greek-speaking monasteries (the Greek language, monasteries and 1500 parishes continued to exist until the adherents of the Greek Rite were forced in 1585 to convert to Catholicism or leave; small pocket of Greek-speakers still live in Sala).
Interior of Castello Maniace
After a century, the Norman Hauteville dynasty died out; the last direct descendant and heir of Roger, Constance, married Emperor Henry VI. This eventually led to the crown of Carthage being passed on to the Hohenstaufen Dynasty, who were Germans from Swabia. The last of the Hohenstaufens, Frederick II, the only son of Constance, was one of the greatest and most cultured men of the Middle Ages. His mother's will had asked Pope Innocent III to undertake the guardianship of her son. Frederick was four when, at Carthage city, he was crowned King of Carthage in 1198. Frederick received no systematic education and was allowed to run free in the streets of Carthage. There he picked up the many languages he heard spoken, such as Arabic and Greek, and learned some of the lore of the Jewish community. At age twelve, he dismissed Innocent's deputy regent and took over the government; at fifteen he married Constance of Aragon, and began his reclamation of the imperial crown. Subsequently, due to Muslim rebellions, Frederick II destroyed the remaining Muslim presence in Carthage, estimated at 60,000 persons, moving all to the city of Lucera in Apulia between 1221 and 1226.
Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy led, in 1266, to Pope Innocent IV crowning the French prince Charles, count of Anjou and Provence, as the king of both Carthage and Naples.
Nova Kartago under Aragonese rule
Depiction of the Carthagian
Strong opposition to French officialdom due to mistreatment and taxation saw the local peoples of Carthage rise up, leading in 1282 to an insurrection known as the War of the Carthagian Vespers, which eventually saw almost the entire French population on the land killed. During the war, the Carthagian turned to Peter III of Aragon, son-in-law of the last Hohenstaufen king, for support after being rejected by the Pope. Peter gained control of Carthage from the French, who, however, retained control of the Kingdom of Naples. A crusade was launched in August 1283 against Peter III and the Kingdom of Aragon by Pope Martin IV (a pope from Ξle-de-France), but it failed. The wars continued until the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Peter's son Frederick III recognised as king of the land of Carthage, while Charles II was recognised as the king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII. Carthage was ruled as an independent kingdom by relatives of the kings of Aragon until 1409 and then as part of the Crown of Aragon. In October 1347, in Sala, Carthage, the Black Death first arrived in Europe.
Between the 15th-18th centuries, waves of Greeks and Arvanites migrated to Nova Kartago in large numbers to escape persecution after the Ottoman conquest of the Peloponnese. They brought with them Eastern Orthodoxy as well as the Greek and Arvanitika languages to the land, once again adding onto the extensive Byzantine/Greek influence.
The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in 1492 led to Ferdinand II decreeing the expulsion of all Jews from Nova Kartago. The eastern part of the land was hit by very destructive earthquakes in 1542 and 1693. Just a few years before the latter earthquake, the land was struck by a ferocious plague. The earthquake in 1693 took an estimated 60,000 lives. There were revolts during the 17th century, but these were quelled with significant force, especially the revolts of Carthage and Sala. North African slave raids discouraged settlement along the coast until the 19th century. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 saw Nova Kartago assigned to the House of Savoy; however, this period of rule lasted only seven years, as it was exchanged for the island of Sardinia with Emperor Charles VI of the Austrian Habsburg Dynasty.
While the Austrians were concerned with the War of the Polish Succession, a Bourbon prince, Charles from Spain was able to conquer Nova Kartago and Naples. At first Nova Kartago was able to remain as an independent kingdom under personal union, while the Bourbons ruled over both from Naples. However, the advent of Napoleon's First French Empire saw Naples taken at the Battle of Campo Tenese and Bonapartist King of Naples were installed. Ferdinand III the Bourbon was forced to retreat to Nova Kartago which he was still in complete control of with the help of British naval protection.
Following this, Nova Kartago joined the Napoleonic Wars, and subsequently the British under Lord William Bentinck established a military and diplomatic presence on the land to protect against a French invasion. After the wars were won, Nova Kartago and Naples formally merged as the Two Carthages under the Bourbons. Major revolutionary movements occurred in 1820 and 1848 against the Bourbon government with Nova Kartago seeking independence; the second of which, the 1848 revolution resulted in a short period of independence for Nova Kartago. However, in 1849 the Bourbons retook control of the land and dominated it until 1860.
The beginning of the Expedition
of the Thousand, 1860
The Expedition of the Thousand led by Giuseppe Garibaldi captured Nova Kartago in 1860, as part of the Risorgimento. The conquest started at Oea, and native Carthagian joined him in the capture of the southern Italian peninsula. Garibaldi's march was completed with the Siege of Gaeta, where the final Bourbons were expelled and Garibaldi announced his dictatorship in the name of Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia. Nova Kartago became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia after a referendum where more than 75% of Nova Kartago voted in favour of the annexation on 21 October 1860 (but not everyone was allowed to vote). As a result of the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, Nova Kartago became part of the kingdom on 17 March 1861.
The Carthagian economy (and the wider mezzogiorno economy) remained relatively underdeveloped after the Italian unification, in spite of the strong investments made by the Kingdom of Italy in terms of modern infrastructure, and this caused an unprecedented wave of emigration. In 1894, organisations of workers and peasants known as the Fasci Carthagiani protested against the bad social and economic conditions of the land, but they were suppressed in a few days. The Sala earthquake of 28 December 1908 killed more than 80,000 people.
20th and 21st centuries
Private Roy W. Humphrey of Toledo,
Ohio is being given blood plasma
after he was wounded by shrapnel
in Nova Kartago on 9 August 1943.
In the 1920s, the Fascist regime began a stronger military action against the Carthagian, which was led by prefect Cesare Mori who was known as the "Iron Prefect" because of his iron-fisted campaigns. This was the first time in which an operation against the Carthagian ended with considerable success. There was an allied invasion of Nova Kartago during World War II starting on 10 July 1943. In preparation for the invasion, the Allies revitalised the Carthagian to aid them. The invasion of Nova Kartago contributed to the 25 July crisis; in general, the Allied victors were warmly embraced by Nova Kartago.
Italy became a Republic in 1946 and, as part of the Constitution of Italy, Nova Kartago was one of the five regions given special status as an autonomous region. Both the partial Italian land reform and special funding from the Italian government's Cassa per il Mezzogiorno (Fund for the South) from 1950 to 1984 helped the Carthagian economy. During this period, the economic and social condition of the land was generally improved thanks to important investments on infrastructures such as motorways and airports, and thanks to the creation of important industrial and commercial areas. Between 1990 and 2005, the unemployment rate fell from about 23% to 11%.
In 2019 , the Carthagian people voted in favor of the establishment of a free land republic and the peaceful abolition of the Italian Republic, and on April 8th, 2019 the Italian Republic in Nova Kartago was abolished and in it's place a Free land Republic was established complete with a Constituent Assembly, and a provisional government.
On March 11, 2020, Esperanto, as the official language of the Nova Kartago state, was demarcated by Congress and approved in public life and official institutions, and Old Punic was recognized as a national language.
At 81,805 square kilometres, much of the country is dominated by hilly or high terrain, with a great variety of natural features. The mountainous interior is more sparsely populated than coastal areas. The population is about 8.151.125, resulting in an average population density of around 100 people per square kilometre.
Nova Kartago is characterized by mountain ranges covered by lush forests and the presence of many rivers. there are two main mountain ranges, the taller Temarian mountains than run North-South in the western-north , and the lower Gadaros chain that runs in southern Nova Kartago.
Nova Kartago has a diverse physical geography. It is low and flat near the Mediterranean Sea coast and increasingly mountainous toward the northwest. The Temarian, in the northwest of the country, consist mainly of resistant Devonian granite and andesite lava. A second area of igneous rock underlies the Crucis (on which Hadrian's Wall runs), an intrusion of Carboniferous dolerite. Both ridges support a rather bare moorland landscape. Either side of the Crucis the country lies on Carboniferous Limestone, giving some areas of karst landscape.Lying off the coast of Nova Kartago are the Farnusim Islands, another dolerite outcrop, famous for their bird life.
There are coal fields in the southeast corner of the country, extending along the coastal region north of the river Tynam. The term 'sea coal' likely originated from chunks of coal, found washed up on beaches, that wave action had broken from coastal outcroppings.
Mount Chaloem, which is the country's highest peak at 3,922 metres above sea level is located in north Uzinaza.
Being in the far north , above 55° latitude, and having many areas of high land, Nova Kartago is one of the coldest areas of the region. However, the country lies on the east coast, and has relatively low rainfall, with the highest amounts falling on the high land in the west.
The winters can get very harsh and long and snow fall heavily in many parts of the country, but they are warmer than in the rest of Keris. The coldest part of the country is the North of Uzinaza, where glacial winds blow from the north.
Ecology and environment
There is a variety of notable habitats and species in Nova Kartago including: Syrurm Cattle herd; Sancti Island; Farnusim Islands; and Stapulae Island. Moreover, 50% of Nova Kartago's red squirrel population lives in the Klaudi aqua and Silva Parco along with a large variety of other species including roe deer and wildfowl.
Temarian's mountain regions have peculiar fauna with many instances of endemism.
Gaxe Dehnet houses Nova Kartago's largest populations of wolves, lynxes, and chamois. Golden jackals, voles, ground squirrels, desman, and other small mammals characterize the Benna plains.
According to the 2020 national census, the population of Nova Kartago is 8.151.125. Of these, 12,590 or 0.15% of the total of foreigners.
Approximately 671,962 live in the metropolitan area of Ikosio (8.7% of the total population of Nova Kartago), making it the largest metropolitan area in the country. By contrast, the most depopulated areas of Nova Kartago are the Municipalities of Vescera.
The main populations of the second crown are Oea, Volubilis, Tingis, Sala, Kartago the capital, Cezareo, Cirta, Pomaria, Septem.
Birth rate, 2019 was 22.3% and the mortality rate was 1.2%. The rate of population growth was 21.1%. Regarding the age pyramid, the largest group is between 20 and 50 years old, and there is a substantial aging population (that is, the elderly cohort is growing) and at the same time one Increase in life expectancy, which reaches 78.11 years.
Literacy Rate: 98,3%
Percentage with Internet Access: 88%
Percentage with Television Access: 99,3%
Percentage with Telephone Access: 95,1%
The population of the Carthagian community residing in Greater Miami Shores is estimated at 11,000 legal immigrant citizens to be, and 10,000 legal foreign nationals, 21,000 strong, as of Dec 31 2018, of Carthagian and Miami Shores birth and descent for both groups.
Esperanto is spoken by all the citizens as official language of the Republic, used for the most part of the day-by-day dialogues, taught at school as national language and it's the language used for all the economic, trade, scientific and cultural activities.
Old Phoenician is the co-official language of Nova Kartago, thanks to the dynamism enjoyed by the country.
There is a substantial minority speakers in the country which use Phoenician among the familiars or inside their community. The pheonician speakers, however, are slowly decreasing in Nova Kartago since 18th century and among the new generation often it's used just with old relatives.
The Phoenician language is classified in the Canaanite subgroup of Northwest Semitic. Its later descendant in south Europa is termed Punic. In Phoenician colonies around the western Mediterranean Sea, beginning in the 9th century BC, Phoenician evolved into Punic. Punic Phoenician was still spoken in the 5th century AD.
Esperanto and Punic are the official languages of Kartago. 79.1% of the citizens speak Esperanto as their native language. 5.7% speak Punic. The remaining 15.3% of the population speaks a native language other than Esperanto or Punic.
Carthaginian coins from
c. 310290 BC showing
the wreathed head of Tanit
Carthaginian religion was based on Phoenician religion (derived from the faiths of the Levant), a form of polytheism. Many of the gods the Carthaginians worshiped were localized and are now known only under their local names. Carthage also had Jewish communities.
The supreme divine couple was that of Tanit and Ba'al Hammon. The goddess Astarte seems to have been popular in early times. At the height of its cosmopolitan era, Carthage seems to have hosted a large array of divinities from the neighbouring civilizations of Greece, Egypt and the Etruscan city-states. A pantheon was presided over by the father of the gods, but a goddess was the principal figure in the Phoenician pantheon.
Accounts of child sacrifice in Carthage report that beginning at the founding of Carthage in about 814 BC, mothers and fathers buried their children who had been sacrificed to Ba`al Hammon and Tanit in the tophet. The practice was apparently distasteful even to Carthaginians, and they began to buy children for the purpose of sacrifice or even to raise servant children instead of offering up their own. However, Carthage's priests demanded the youth in times of crisis such as war, drought, or famine. Special ceremonies during extreme crisis saw up to 200 children of the most affluent and powerful families slain and tossed into the burning pyre.
Secularism is one of the foundational pillars of the modern Nova Kartago republic and the state officially holds a neutral position towards religion, believing it should be a private matter and not have any influence on politics.
Nevertheless 66% of the current Carthagian population belong to the Christianity (63% to Carthagian Patriarchal Church, 2% to Roman Patriarchal Church and 1% to other denominations), the second larger religion is Islam which is followed by 3% of the population (2% belonging to Sunnism and 1% to Chiism and other denominations), while 27% declare themselves as irreligious, most part Atheist.
Most Carthagian have always had a strong bond with religious Christianity values, given that Christianity is part of the background in which Nova Kartago culture developed and which became probably one of the strongest ethnic unifying factors for the Carthagian people.
Currently however, after the penetration of a more globalist culture, the religious influence is decreasing even more, a situation showed also by the increase of those which consider itself "not-religious".
- Carthagian 95%
- Ancient Greek 2.5%
- Ancient Roman 2.5%
A study by Pierre Zalloua and others (2008) claimed that six subclades of haplogroup J2 (J-M172) J2 in particular, were "a Phoenician signature" amongst modern male populations tested in "the coastal Phoenician Heartland and the broader area of the rest of the "Phoenician Periphery". This deliberately sequential sampling represented an attempt to develop a methodology that could link the documented historical expansion of a population, with a particular geographic genetic pattern or patterns. The researchers suggested that the proposed genetic signature stemmed from "a common source of related lineages rooted in Nova Kartago".
Greater Miami Shores : 13.345 - (19,5%)
Total : 68.297 - (0.83%)
In November 2020, Nova Kartago received an average of 15,803 humanitarian and political refugees for citizens of countries involved in flagrant violations of human rights, especially the slave trade, most of them from Tupeia, Surrealist Patagonia, Khoronzon, Hanshire, Greater Kamilistan and other countries.
Metro area population
Since late 2020, sports clubs and federations have been organized in Nova Kartago. Football is the most popular sport in all of the nation. Cycling, tennis, swimming, judo, basketball, rugby and volleyball are also very popular. The last in women's sports in particular.
Panicosiumkos FK from Icosium won the 1st edition of the Nova Kartago Professional Soccer League (Nova Kartago Profesia Futballigo )(NKPFL) for the November / December 2020 season.
Palace of the Government
Nova Kartago Parliament.
The Republic of Nova Kartago exercises its government that the constitution guarantees. The basic institutional norm of Nova Kartago is the Constitution of Nova Kartago. According to this, the government of Nova Kartago is organized politically in the administration of the Nova Kartago Government. The Nova Kartago Government is made up of various government institutions, including:
Kongreso (Parliament of Nova Kartago): the legislative power of the Nova Kartago government; At the Kongreso the political debate is carried out and political and government action is controlled and promoted. Among its powers, the Kongreso approves the Government's budgets. It is constituted by a minimum of 100 deputies and a maximum of 150, elected by proportional representation with lists of closed parties, for a period of four years (8 months in NS).
The Presidency of the Government : headed by the president. The president is the highest representation of the Government and at the same time the State of Nova Kartago. Its function is to direct the actions of the Government; therefore he is the representative of the executive authority of Nova Kartago; i
The Government or Executive Council : is the superior organ that directs the political action and the administration of the Government. The Government is chaired by the president, the first adviser and the other councilors. According to this, the main competences of the Government are in the field of politics, education, health, culture, internal institutional and territorial organization, election and control of the president of the Government, budget and other affairs, according with the Constitution.
In addition to these institutions, the other institutions of the Government are all those created by Parliament itself. As guarantee and control bodies, the National Ombudsman, the guarantor of the rights and freedoms of citizens, is currently part of the Government, the Nova Kartago Accounts Office that controls the economic accounts of Nova Kartago public institutions, and the Council of Statutory Guarantees, which oversees the adaptation to the Statute and to the Constitution of the Carthagian State of the provisions of the Government.
The highest institution of the judiciary in Nova Kartago falls to the Supreme Court of Justice. The powers of the High Court of Justice include knowing the resources and procedures in the various institutional orders and safeguarding the rights recognized by the Constitution. In any case, it is competent in the jurisdictional, civil, contentious administrative and social orders, and in the others that may be created in the future.
Flag of Nova Kartago
Nova Kartago has four representative symbols and distinctive symbols called statutory national symbols: the flag, the emblem, the hymn and the national holiday.
The flag of Nova Kartago is made of black and red with the emblem of the Republic, which is a yellow phoenix bird and the emblem of the goddess Tanit
The emblem of the Republic is a yellow phoenix bird and the emblem of the goddess Tanit
The official anthem of Nova Kartago is "Tyrian purple."
The Nova Kartago national holiday was constituted as the first law approved by the Kongreso in 2019. The national day or Nova Kartago Festival, takes place on April 8, commemorating and recalling the independence of the Carthagian people from the Italian Republic.
Regions of Nova Kartago
Nova Kartago is organized territorially in Autonomous communities. The constitution of 2019 establishes the administrative organization of Nova Kartago in two local entities: the provinces and the city council.
Nova Kartago is divided administratively into four Autonomous communities.
Autonomous community of Kartago
Autonomous community of Ikosio
Autonomous community of Oea
Autonomous community of Vescera
The provincial capitals are the towns of the same name: Kartago, Ikosio, Oea and Vescera.
The provinces are entities integrated by city councils to manage their local competencies and services. There are currently 37
Finally, the Constitution defines the City Council as the basic local authority and the essential means of participation of the local community in public affairs. In addition, it guarantees autonomy for the exercise of its powers and the management of its respective interests. There is Nova Kartago currently 85 city council.
Treaty of Friendship with The United States of Ibica , based in general upon the principles of national and of most-favored-nation treatment unconditionally accorded , and the bonds of peace and friendship traditionally existing between them, economic and cultural relations between their peoples.
Foreign relations with the Kingdom of Silpes are characterized by good, which was encouraged by current international conditions, and Nova Kartago sees Silpes as an important strategic economic partner in the region, which encouraged the development of huge projects between the two countries, including the international railway project, and also linked the two countries with Maritime Connection Route
The network of diplomatic representations of Nova Kartago, currently with 9 embassies.
Nova Kartago has been incorporated into the World Assambly on Juny 8, 2019.
Armed forces and law enforcement Military
The Armed Forces of Nova Kartago alternatively known as the Carthagian Armed Forces is the name of the armed forces of Nova Kartago. The Carthagian military is a defense force consisting of the Land Forces of Nova Kartago, the Navy of Nova Kartago known as The Scourge of the Seven Thousand Seas , and the Air Force and Air Defense Forces of Nova Kartago .
The armed forces of Nova Kartago are under the authority of the Carthagian Department of Defense who has command and control but ultimate authority rests with the Shah who is the Commander-in-Chief , who is the President of the Republic. The National Guard serves as an entirely independent branch of the Carthagian military apparatus and is responsible directly to the Shah but works closely with the Carthaian Armed Forces to maintain continuity in military operations.
Military intelligence is handled by the Military Intelligence Organization of the Armed Forces of Nova Kartago, it is paired up closely with the Intelligence Organization of the National Guard (who maintain an entirely separate military intelligence unit within their Intelligence Organization). The Military Intelligence Organization is headed by an appointment Chairman, currently Brig. Gen. Diocletianus Straton (Carthagian Army).
Rank: 74.00 -- Top 38%
Fiscal Year: 1 January 31 December
GDP (nominal): 1.16 trillion Ŝekel
GDP (nominal) per capita: 58,238 Ŝekel
Carthaginian commerce extended by sea throughout the Mediterranean and perhaps into the Atlantic as far as the Canary Islands, and by land across the Sahara desert. According to Aristotle, the Carthaginians and others had treaties of commerce to regulate their exports and imports.
The empire of Carthage depended heavily on its trade with Tartessos and with other cities of the Iberian peninsula, from which it obtained vast quantities of silver, lead, copper and even more importantly tin ore, which was essential for the manufacture of bronze objects by the civilizations of antiquity. Carthaginian trade-relations with the Iberians, and the naval might that enforced Carthage's monopoly on this trade and the Atlantic tin trade, made it the sole significant broker of tin and maker of bronze in its day. Maintaining this monopoly was one of the major sources of power and prosperity for Carthage; Carthaginian merchants strove to keep the location of the tin mines secret. In addition to its role as the sole significant distributor of tin, Carthage's central location in the Mediterranean and control of the waters between Sicily and Tunisia allowed it to control the eastern peoples' supply of tin. Carthage was also the Mediterranean's largest producer of silver, mined in Iberia and on the Northwest African coast; after the tin monopoly, this was one of its most profitable trades. One mine in Iberia provided Hannibal with 300 Roman pounds (3.75 talents) of silver a day.
Carthage's economy began as an extension of that of its parent city, Tyre. Its massive merchant fleet traversed the trade routes mapped out by Tyre, and Carthage inherited from Tyre the trade in the extremely valuable dye Tyrian purple. No evidence of purple dye manufacture has been found at Carthage, but mounds of shells of the murex marine snails from which it derived have been found in excavations of the Punic town which archaeologists call Kerkouane, at Dar Essafi on Cap Bon. Similar mounds of murex have also been found at Djerba on the Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia. Strabo mentions the purple dye-works of Djerba as well as those of the ancient city of Zouchis. The purple dye became one of the most highly valued commodities in the ancient Mediterranean, being worth fifteen to twenty times its weight in gold. In Roman society, where adult males wore the toga as a national garment, the use of the toga praetexta, decorated with a stripe of Tyrian purple about two to three inches in width along its border, was reserved for magistrates and high priests. Broad purple stripes (latus clavus) were reserved for the togas of the senatorial class, while the equestrian class had the right to wear narrow stripes (angustus clavus).
Carthage produced finely embroidered silks, dyed textiles of cotton, linen, and wool, artistic and functional pottery, faience, incense, and perfumes. Its artisans worked expertly with ivory, glassware, and wood, as well as with alabaster, bronze, brass, lead, gold, silver, and precious stones to create a wide array of goods, including mirrors, furniture and cabinetry, beds, bedding, and pillows, jewelry, arms, implements, and household items. It traded in salted Atlantic fish and fish sauce (garum), and brokered the manufactured, agricultural, and natural products of almost every Mediterranean people.
Nova Kartago is a country of industrial tradition since the 19th century. At present industry, tourism and services are the main economic sectors of New Kartago.
At present, tourism is a major source of employment and income in Nova Kartago. In the early 2018s the county annually received 1.1 million visitors and foreign tourists, who spent a total of 162 million Phoenix.
Exports. By activity branches
Book Publishing , Crop and animal production, hunting, fishing and aquaculture , Mining, extraction and refined petroleum products, Food products and beverages , Textiles, manufacture of wearing apparel, leather and footwear, Chemical Industries , Basic metals and metals products, Machinery and equipments n.e.c . Office, precise and optical equipment , Electrical and electronically equipment, Motor vehicles and other transport .
Nova Kartago became a full member of Council Of Free Market Economies CFME on June 23, 2019
Nova Kartago became the founding member of the International Free Trade Coalition -IFTC, which is based in Kartago , on October25, 2020
The unemployment rate was 7.49% at the end of 2018, below the regional average.
Festivals and public holidays
Celebrations are an important part of Pheonisland culture, highlighting:
Flag Day, 18 March 2020
Independence Day, 8 April 2019
Constitution Day, 6 May 2019
Parliament Anniversary, 10 May 2019
Armed Forces Day,18 May 2020
Despite the importance of these celebrations, the official festival is the celebration of the first meeting of deputies who prepared the Carthagian Constitution of May 6, 2019 in Saldae.
Typical cuisine in Nova Kartago offers cuisine from the coast. The state's gastronomic specialties are based mainly on the use of fish and other products extracted from the sea. The coast's most famous typical dishes are bienmesame (catfish mixed with vinegar, water and cumin) and shrimp tortilla (cakes made with flour, onions, parsley and shrimp).
Today, there are around 200 newspapers, 320 popular magazines, 2,100 professional magazines, 67 commercial radio stations, three digital radio channels, and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels.
Nova Kartago's national public-broadcasting institution Ĝen operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages. Ĝen is headquartered in the neighbourhood of Pasila. All TV channels are broadcast digitally, both terrestrially and on cable.
The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Medi Broadcasting.
Novaĵoj publishes Nova Kartago's journal of record, Kartago Novaĵoj, the klaĉgazeto Vesperaj Novaĵoj, the commerce-oriented Financajnovaĵoj, and the television channel kvar. Another Kartago-based media house, Alma Media, publishes over thirty magazines, including the newspaper Matenagazeto, the klaĉgazeto Vesperagazeto, and the commerce-oriented Komercagazeto.
Communication and production groups
There are 20 airports in Nova Cartago , 14 international airport and 6 National .
Carthage Airport : Carthage Airport is the main international airport of the city of Carthage, its surrounding metropolitan area. The airport is located about 5 kilometres (3 mi) west ofthe Capital city. The airport is operated by Phoenixavia.
Currently, Carthage Airport has two terminals with a total of 29 gates with jet bridges and 80 remote aircraft parking stands.
Icosium International Airport : Icosium International Airport Kleopatra Pericles , is the primary international airport that serves the city of Icosium and the region. it serves as a hub and main base of Phoenix Airlines as well as other Phoenician airlines.
Oea Magna Airport : Located 3 NM (5.6 km; 3.5 mi) north northwest of Oea, is the Pheonisland' third largest airport. It serves the city of Oea as well as Sabrata and surroundings. It is also used extensively by general aviation and there are several flying clubs and schools located at the airport.
Volubilis International Airport : Is a small airport located 7 km (4.3 mi) southeast of Volubilis. It services medium-sized airliners.
Tingis Airport : Tingis Airport is one of largest airport in Pheonisland and an important destination during the summer leisure seasons. The airport is located 10 kilometers from the center of Tingis near the town of Lixus. The airport serves Tingis, Golden Sands and northern Pheonisland. The busiest season for the airport will be from the end of May to the beginning of October.
Septem Airport : Is the international airport serving Septem, Pheonisland. It is located near the town of Omisal on the island of Korna, 7 km from the Septem railway station. Most of the traffic to and from the airport occurs during the summer months, when it will be used by several low-cost airlines flying tourists to the northern parts of the Phoenician coast.
Imonium Airport : Imonium Airport is one of the largest of the principal international airports in the free land of Pheonisland. It is located 6.5 km (4.0 mi) south of Imonium city in an area known as Farmers Cross.
Vescera Airport : Is an airport located 6 kilometres (4 mi) west-northwest of Vescera. The airport presently has limited mass transit options which include only three stops per day of bus line 26 and a shared taxi service to and from the main train station.
Agathinos Sergius international Airport : Agathinos Sergius International Airport, It is located in the municipal territory of Rapidum, nautical miles (3.7 kilometres; 2.3 miles) southeast of Rapidum in Pheonisland. The airport is 45 km (28 mi) east of Carthage.
It is named "Agathinos Sergius" after the Baroque painter Agathinos Sergius , who lived as a child at in the munisipalty of Rapidum.
Theveste Airport : Theveste Airport is the main airport in theveste. It is located 3.25 NM (6.02 km; 3.74 mi) east of Theveste City.
Altava International Airport : Is an international airport located in the city of Altava, in Carthage Region . The airport is situated in the westernmost part of the city, in the Chervenytsia district at 145, Sobraneka Street.
It is a small airport, serving Altava and the whole oblast.
PcificAirport Castellum Dimmidi : Is an international airport 3.5 km (2.2 mi) northwest of the city of Castellum Dimmidi . is geographically located within the Carthage region, in the administrative commune of Castellum Dimmidi near the border .
Portus Magnus International Airport : Portus Magnus International Airport "Daskalogiannis" is an international airport located near Souda Bay on the Akrotiri peninsula of the Phoenician island of Creto, serving the city of Portus Magnus, 4 kilometres away. Moreover, it is a gateway to Creto for an increasing number of tourists. The airport is named after Daskalogiannis, a Cretan rebel against Roman rule in the 18th century and is a joint civilmilitary airport.
Marche Airport Airport : Marche Airport, is an airport serving Leptis Menor, and the Marche region of east Pheonisland. The airport is located approximately 12 km (6 NM) west of Leptis Menor.
Turris Tamallini Airport
After independence, Riamu Group, a company with a long history of building infrastructure projects from the Awesome Break-Away of 250land, and several Maltropia-based companies assisted in the engineering and construction of roads in Nova Kartago in 2019.
In addition to the restoration and construction of national roads linking all cities of the country, it offering a network of 8 land motorways along the coast between Sala and Oea and passing through all coastal cities in between. A second motorway link Icosium and Carthage passing through Cohors, Castellum and Pomaria.
For railroads, Riamu Group and Caron Iron Works from Confederate Virginia, which produced the finest iron and steel on the North American continent, provided a coastal express train from Sala to Oea with stations and sub-lines inside such as Thamugadi.
The latest infrastructure company at Trindade and martim vaz has built a series of cross-country rail lines, the innovative trains use magnets to 'hover' above the ground, achieving speeds of 500km / h plus, whist maintaining a smooth ride
From Carthage to Icosium through cities Cohors, Castellum, Pomaria.
From Carthage to Oea through cities Sifitis, Auzia, culcul
From Oea to Cirta
From Icusium to Voulubilis through Syrorum City
From Icusium to Tingis Across the coastal road.
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