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DispatchFactbookLegislation

by The Republic of Latidonia. . 28 reads.

The Constitution of Latidonia, chapters 1, 2 and 2 a.

By decision of the State assembly of Latidonia, the Constitution of Latidonia is decreed as follows:

Chapter 1
Fundamentals


1
Constitution

Latidonia is a sovereign republic.

The constitution of Latidonia is established in this constitutional Act. The constitution shall promote justice in society and guarantee the inviolability of human dignity and the freedom and rights of the individual.

Latidonia participates in international co-operation for the protection of peace and human rights and for the development of society. Latidonia is a member state of the World Assembly.

2
People's rule and the Rechtsstaat-principle

The powers of the state emanate from the people, who are represented by the State assembly, the members of which are to be chosen from all municipalities of the republic, and who must have the confidence of the people.

People's rule entails the right of the individual to participate and influence the development of society and their environment. The sole right to dissolve the parliament is vested in the people.

The use of state power shall be based on law. All use of state power shall strictly follow the law. All law shall be based on this Constitution. The Constitution shall not be amended without the consent of the people and shall not be unilaterally infringed upon by the State assembly, expect under extraordinary circumstances.

3
Parliamentarism and the separation of powers

The legislative powers are exercised by the State assembly.

The governmental powers are exercised by the President of the Republic and the State council, the members of which shall have the confidence of the State assembly.

The judicial powers are exercised by independent courts of law, with the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court as the highest instances.

4
The territory of Latidonia

The territory of Latidonia is indivisible. The national borders can not be altered.

5
Citizenship

Latidonian citizenship is acquired at birth and through the citizenship of one's parents.

Citizenship may also be granted upon application, subject to the criteria determined by an act.

No one can be deprived of their Latidonian citizenship. No one shall be released from their Latidonian citizenship, unless they are in possession of or will be granted the citizenship of another state, which, as far as is possible and practicable, respects the same principles of human dignity and freedom as those decreed in this constitution.

Chapter 2
Fundamental rights


6
Equality

All persons shall be equal before the law.

No one shall, without an legally acceptable reason, be treated differently from other persons on the ground of reasons that concerns their person, such as sex, age, ideology or religion.

7
The right to life, personal liberty, integrity and security

Everyone has the right to life, personal liberty, integrity and security.

No one shall be sentenced to death, tortured or otherwise treated in a manner violating human dignity.

8
The principle of legality and crime

No person shall be found guilty of a criminal offence or be sentenced to a punishment on the basis of an act, which has not been determined punishable by the law at the time of said act.

The penalty sentenced for an offence shall not be more severe than that provided by the law at the time of the offence

9
Freedom of movement

Latidonian citizens and legal residents have the right to freely move within the country and to choose their place of residence.

Everyone has the right to leave the country. This right may be limited by an act, for the reason of fulfilling legal obligations, or under extraordinary circumstances.

No Latidonian citizen may be extradited or deported from the country.

The deportation of foreigners and their right to remain and reside in the country is laid down in an act. No one shall be deported or extradited from Latidonia, if as a consequence they are in danger of a death sentence, torture, or other treatment violating human dignity.

10
Right to privacy

Everyone's private life and the sanctity of their home are guaranteed.

The secrecy of correspondence, telephony and other confidential communications is inviolable.

11
Freedom of religion and conscience

Everyone has the freedom of religion and conscience.

This entails the right to participate in religious activities and express one's conviction. No one shall, against their will, be forced to participate in such activities.

12
Freedom of expression

Everyone has the freedom of expression. Freedom of expression entails the right to express, disseminate and receive information, opinions and other communications without prior prevention by anyone.

13
Access to information

Documents and recordings in the possession of the authorities are public, unless their publication has, for compelling reasons, been specifically restricted by an act. Everyone has the right of access to public documents and recordings.

14
Freedom of assembly and freedom of association

Everyone has the right to arrange and participate in meetings and public demonstrations.

Everyone has the right to freedom of association, which entails the right to create and participate in an association, without a permit.

15
Electoral rights

Every Latidonian citizen, who has attained the age of 21 years, has the right to vote in any public elections.

Every Latidonian citizen, who has attained the age of 21 years, has the right to vote in constitutional referendums, state referendums, local referendums.

Every Latidonian citizen, who has attained the age of 21 years, has the right to initiate the process of triggering a state-wide referendum or a local referendum.

Public institutions shall promote the opportunities of individuals to participate in societal activities and to influence the decisions that concern them.

16
Protection of property

The private property of everyone is protected.

Private property may be expropriated for public needs, with full compensation.

17
Educational rights

Every Latidonian citizen has the right to education, free of charge.

The powers of the state must guarantee the opportunities of every Latidonian citizen to receive and participate in education, which accommodates their individual needs.

18
The right to language and culture

The national language of Latidonia is Latidonian.

The right of everyone to use their language with public authorities and before courts of law, and the right to receive public documentation in their language, is, as far as possible and practicable, guaranteed.

The public authorities shall provide for the cultural and societal needs of the different native and ethnic groups of the country on an equal basis.

19
The right to work and the freedoms of commercial activity

Everyone has the right to earn their livelihood by the employment, occupation or commercial activity of their choice. The public authorities shall take responsibility for the protection of the labour force.

The public authorities shall promote employment and work towards guaranteeing for everyone the right to work.

No one shall be dismissed from employment without a lawful reason

20
The right to social security

Everyone not able to provide for themselves, has the right to essential care and gratuitous subsistence.

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to basic subsistence in the event of unemployment, illness, and disability and during old age as well as at the birth of a child or the loss of a provider.

The public authorities shall guarantee for everyone adequate social, health and medical services and promote the health of the population. Furthermore, the public authorities shall support families and others responsible for providing for children so that they have the ability to ensure the wellbeing and personal development of the children.

21
The right to nature and responsibility for the environment

Nature, the environment, animals, biodiversity and the national heritage are the responsibility of everyone.

Everyone has the right to a natural and healthy environment and the right to influence their living environment.

Actions concerning the environment and nature must take into account the wellbeing of animals.

22
Protection under law

Everyone has the right to have their case dealt with appropriately and without undue delay by a legally competent court of law or other authority.

Everyone has the right to a fair trial and good governance.

23
Public responsibility for fundamental rights

The powers of the state and public authorities shall guarantee the actualization and fulfillment of these aforementioned fundamental rights, fundamental liberties and universal human rights.

24
Provisions concerning rights

The State assembly may, without infringing and with respect and in accordance with these fundamental rights and human rights, decree Acts that provide further provisions to fundamental rights.

25
Restriction of rights

In case of an armed attack against Latidonia, or other extraordinary and compelling circumstances of national emergency, acceptable restrictions on the fundamental rights and human rights of Latidonian citizens and those residing in the country may be imposed.

Such restrictions are to be decreed in an Act, or, under compelling circumstances, a governmental Statute, which is to be submitted to the State assembly without undue delay for consideration.

Chapter 2 a
Fundamental rights of animals


25 a
The protection of animals

Animals are sentient beings. Their inherent value, wellbeing and fundamental rights are to be fully respected by everyone.

The interests and individual needs of animals must be taken into account in all private and public activities relevant to them.

25 b
The protection of self-dependent animals

Animals living in their natural habitat have a right to life and the freedom to live in their natural habitat without infringement.

25 c
The protection of animals dependent on humans

Animals dependent on humans have a right to life, security, integrity, natural behaviour and the right to have their basic needs adequately fulfilled.

No one shall cause suffering or fear upon an animal.

The public authorities shall guarantee for every animal adequate health and medical services and promote the health and wellbeing of the animal population. An animal has the right to be humanely put down, without pain or fear, if keeping them alive would be evidently cruel.

25 d
Responsibility for the fundamental rights of animals

Public authorities and powers of the state shall guarantee the actualisation of animal fundamental rights and ensure the development of society as to realise these fundamental rights.

Animal fundamental rights may only be restricted if it is necessary for the protection of humans or animals, or under extraordinary circumstances.

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