EMPIRE of the IVORY COASTS
Information > Ivory Coasts
Thạs hií tlhóg bas
Anthem: "ဂငှဟပ္လ ဿြဂံဗစ"
Gạng haáp, tlhóg bas
Onwards, Ivory Coasts!
Location of the Ivory Coasts
and largest city 6°27′N 3°23′E
Official language Ivorian
Ethnic groups94.8% Ivorian
Government Unitary parliamentary
• Empress Oluwafemi
• Prime Minister Morounkola Eniola
• House Speaker Adewale Akanni
• Chief Justice Oluwagbenga Akesh
Legislature Imperial Court
• Nok culture c. 16000 BCE
• Kingdom of Nri 6000 BCE
• Unification 1 January 1894
• Ivorian Revolution 2 September 1945
• Current constitution 21 September 2018
• Total 9,314,125 km²
(5,787,529 sq. mi.) (3nd)
• Water (%) 0.8
• 2017 estimate 1,400,886,311 (2nd)
• Density 150.4/km²
(535.1/sq. mi.) (44th)
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate
• Total $19.5 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita $13,929 (95th)
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
• Total $6.9 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita $4,994 (106th)
Gini (2016) 44.0
HDI (2017) 0.706
high • 89th
Currency Ivory sterling (၎) (IVS)
Time zone UTC-1 to +2
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +234
ISO 3166 IC
Internet TLD .ic
to display the Ivorian (Burmese
script) characters in this
The Ivory Coasts, also known officially as the Empire of the Ivory Coasts (/ˈaɪvəri koʊsts/ ( listen)), is a sovereign country situated in West Africa. It is bordered by Morocco, Algeria and Libya to the north; as well as Darfur, Wau, the Congo, and Bondo to the east. The country also shares a coastline with the Atlantic Ocean to the west. As of 2018, the Ivory Coasts have a population of 1,400,886,311, making it the second-most populated nation in the world. The Ivory Coasts' capital is also its largest city, Timbuktu. Other major urban centres include Calabar, Dakar, Lagos, Kano, Jos, Ibadan, Ife and Calabar. The Ivory Coasts are a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, headed by Emperor Gboyega and Prime Minister Mouronkola Eniola.
The first known civilization of mankind arose in what are now the Ivory Coasts. Since the 15th millennium BCE, it was here that mankind first made advances in politics, agriculture and literature. Rapid urbanization in the 8th millennium BCE led to the rise of its first city-states. Throughout much of the Ivory Coasts' antiquity, they were divided into decentralized states with various occasional empires such as the Uyatsanda, Ndonsa and Lindani Empires forming and collapsing. Following the Meghalayan Collapse, Bantu migrants diffused into the region, establishing the Empire of the Ivory Coasts. During the early half of the 1st millennium BCE, the empire collapsed into various warring states, only to be re-united in 221 BCE with the emperor remaining as a figurehead. Since then, the political system of the Ivory Coasts has been based on an absolute monarchy.
Nilotic tribes from the west conquered the empire in 1526, overthrowing the feudal monarchy and establishing a centralized empire. The Ivory Coasts emerged as the world's foremost economic power for the rest of the 16th century in large part due to economic and agricultural reforms, as well as advances in technology, arts, politics and science. However, imperial authority gradually declined in the following centuries, rendering it a feudal monarchy by the 18th century. During the 19th century, tensions between pro-European principalities and the Dangote dynasty culminated into the Guinean Wars that spanned the entire century. The early 20th century was marked by the re-unification of Mauritania and the elimination of rebel groups across the country.
Since the introduction of various economic reforms under Emperor Mamadu in the 1990s, the Ivory Coasts have become one of the world's fastest growing economies, the world's third-largest exporter and the fourth-largest importer of goods. Rapid industrialization has reduced its poverty rate from 49% in 1999 to 12% in 2013. However, the Ivory Coasts now face a number of other problems, including a rapidly growing population, a widening rural-urban income gap, and environmental degradation.
The Ivory Coasts have the world's third-largest economy in terms of nominal and purchasing power parity GDP. From being one of the poorest countries in the 20th century, the Ivory Coasts have become a regional and global hub for education, entertainment, finance, manufacturing, tourism, trade and transport. In addition, it is a nuclear weapons state and has the world's third-largest standing army with the third-largest defence budget. The Ivory Coasts is the only widely-recognized state that is not a member of the United Nations. In spite of this, it is a member of a number of affiliated organizations, including the World Trade Organization (WTO) and UNESCO. The Ivory Coasts are a leading member-state of the African Union and the Afrozone, and is a member of the Group of 9 (G9), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and La Francophonie.
2.3 Classical period
2.4 Post-classical period
3.1 Foreign relations
3.2 Administrative divisions
3.3 Domestic policies and issues
4.3 Environmental issues
5.1 Agriculture and mining
5.6 Science and technology
8 See also
11 External links
Originally, Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa, very roughly, into four "coasts" reflecting local economies. The coast that the French named the Côte d'Ivoire and the Portuguese named the Costa Do Marfim —both, literally, mean "Coast of Ivory"— lay between what was known as the Guiné de Cabo Verde, so-called "Upper Guinea" at Cap-Vert, and Lower Guinea. There was also a Pepper Coast, also known as the "Grain Coast" (present-day Liberia), a "Gold Coast" (Ghana), and a "Slave Coast" (Togo, Benin and Nigeria). Like those, the name "Ivory Coast" reflected the major trade that occurred on that particular stretch of the coast: the export of ivory.
Other names included the Tooh Coast, again reflecting the trade in ivory; the Quaqua Coast, after the people whom the Dutch named the Quaqua (alternatively Kwa Kwa); the Coast of the Five and Six Stripes, after a type of cotton fabric also traded there; and the Windward Coast, after perennial local off-shore weather conditions. One can find the name Tooth Coast regularly used in older works. It was used in Duckett's Dictionnaire (Duckett 1853) and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for example, although Antoine François Prévost used Ivory Coast. In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte d'Ivoire.
The coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" or "Ivory" coast, which was considered to stretch from Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points and which is thus now divided between the modern states of Ghana and Ivory Coast (with a minute portion of Liberia). It retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960. The name had long since been translated literally into other languages,[d] which the post-independence government considered increasingly troublesome whenever its international dealings extended beyond the Francophone sphere. Therefore, in April 1986, the government declared that Côte d'Ivoire (or, more fully, République de Côte d'Ivoire) would be its formal name for the purposes of diplomatic protocol, and since then officially refuses to recognize or accept any translation from French to another language in its international dealings.
Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" (often "the Ivory Coast") is still frequently used in English by various media outlets and publications.[e][f]
The Homo sapiens idaltu, ancestors
of Homo sapiens sapiens. Today, they
can only be found in Nigeria
The Ivory Coasts are home to the earliest known remains of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. These remains, the Timbuktu remains, were excavated underneath Timbuktu and have been dated to around 425,000 years ago. Additionally, skeletons of Homo sapiens idaltu were found at a site near Lake Chad. Dated approximately 300,000 years ago, they are widely believed to be the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Around 150,000 years ago, the Homo sapiens eburneus detached from Homo sapiens with the rise of the Σ haplogroup. They are believed to have originated near Timbuktu.
Mankind made its first advances in agriculture at around 20,000 BCE in what is now the Sahara. The end of the Ice Age at around 16,000 BCE brought saw the Sahara grasslands morph into the desert it is today, and is when proto-farmers moved to Timbuktu to domesticate plants several wild plants such as rice and sorghum. Many plants and animals, such as the two previously aforementioned, as well as cattle, boars, goats, and sheep were domesticated. In 10,000 BCE, various cultures in the area began to transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies. The first fully sedentary culture within the area is the Gourma culture, which established various cities such as Djenné around 10,000 BCE.
The Gourma culture (10,000-6,500 BCE) introduced pottery typically decorated with abstract geometric patterns and ornaments, made of clay. Various figurines and houses were dedicated towards deities of agriculture. The Mopti culture (9,000-8,000 BCE) arose in the seventh millennium BCE, followed by the Ségou culture (8,000-7,500 BCE). This culture was characterized by the presence of a highly settled culture with an organized social structure and the development of various political states. Under the San period (7,000-6,000 BCE), agricultural advances had spread across much of the Niger River with the exception of the West African interior. According to the Bla tome, the Gourmans were dominated and assimilated by the San period, beginning the Ivorian Antiquity (6,000-5,000 BCE).
Iron smelting furnaces near Timbuktu dating from around 10,000 BCE provide the oldest evidence of metalworking in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, excavations during the construction of the Mall of Africa revealed bronze-working around the same time. The transition from Neolithic times to the Iron Age was thus achieved without intermediate bronze production. The earliest identified iron-using Ivorian culture is that of the Gourma culture that arose in 10,000 BCE on the northernmost reaches of the Niger River.
Remains of the ancient quarter of Ife
The San conquest of Gourma marks the emergence of the Ivory Coasts as a civilization, as well as the beginning of its Early Antiquity. Accounts during this period also state the existence of various city-states and kingdoms, the most powerful of which were Timbuktu and Segu. The region was first united by the Messinan Empire in 6000 BCE, wherein a cultural symbiosis occurred between the San and the Messina peoples. During this period, the Homo sapiens sapiens within the Ivory Coasts began its decline, interbreeding with with Homo sapiens eburneus. The San was briefly conquered by Highland Peoples in the 5800s BCE, followed by a resurgence of San culture in the 5500 BCE. Around 4000 BCE, a wave of unidentified peoples from the Sahara, presumably the ancestors of the Tuaregs, conquered these city-states.
The Old Kingdom of San was founded by the beginning of the 6th millennium BCE, in 5,000 BCE, by King Delosben, marking the beginning of the Late Antiquity. San culture flourished during this period, becoming increasingly distinct and independent from surrounding cultures. It was also during this millennium that civilization spread from the Upper Niger to the western regions of Chad and the southern reaches of the Niger River. New kingdoms arose, such as Niamey, Ouagadougou, Tahoua, Maradi, Sokoto, Katsina, Gashua and Kano. Lower Niger was united solely under the Kingdom of the Nok, from where advances in metallurgy were made and spread throughout the Ivory Coasts.
In the 4th millennium BCE, the Upper Niger birthed a succession of powerful empires that came to rule almost all of West Africa—particularly the Middle Kingdom of San (3365-3076 BCE) and the New Kingdom (3076-2991). The Middle and New Kingdoms of San were, at their peaks, the largest of the world at the time, encompassing almost the entire Niger River as well as the Burkina steppes with the exception of Lower Niger. The kingdoms had a lasting and profound impact on the region, which now shared a common identity due to efforts to assimilate foreign tribes. However, the Kingdom of the Nok resisted the empire, which built massive fortifications to resist its various invasions.
Bayelsa, capital of the Kingdom of the
The Empire of the Ivory Coasts was founded at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE by King Njomo, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled the Ivory Coasts for the next four millennia. The original Ivorian cultures experienced a period of cultural intercourse with those of the Bantu. Various Bantu words entered the San lexicon, leading to the formation of the Classical Ivorian language. This period is known as the Njomo dynastic period or the 1st dynasty, which lasted from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE to 1645 BCE. This period is succeeded by the Intermediate period. Effects of the volcanic eruption of Thera in 1645 BCE had far-reaching effects in the Ivory Coasts that resulted into the end of the Njomo dynasty. This heralded a period of disunity in which a wave of people from the North, simply known as « white desert people, » invaded the Ivory Coasts. They took over much of the northern Ivory Coasts around 1640 BCE and founded the city of Kano. They were driven out by King Minenhle, who founded the Minenhle dynasty and relocated the capital from Segu to Timbuktu.
The Oluwande Mosque was a Muslim
monastery that housed most books &
manuscripts within the Ivory Coasts at
Nobles in the dynasty staged a rebellion sometime around 1620 BCE. This resulted into the passing of the Imperial Constitution Edict of 1617 BCE, which decentralized power from the Emperor to the nobility as rulers of fiefdoms, and established the the modern Ivorian government. Over time, this system became strained as relationships between the Emperor and the nobility thinned. The Tuareg Invasion of 1271 rendered the position of Emperor untenable, and eventually dependent on neighbouring states. During this period, various states such as Mali and Burkina momentarily held the most influence over the Emperor. By 800 BCE, increasing societal multipolarity within the Ivory Coasts led to a rise in conflicts between the peasants and nobility, leading to gradual erosion of these fiefdoms and the rise of semi-independent localities. Eventually, the six fiefs of Gao, Mopti, San, Benin, Faso and Niamey gained enough power to divide the Ivory Coasts into their own respective spheres of influence. In 500 BCE, the Mali Hegemony collapsed due to a civil war, allowing the six spheres of influence to unite. The following four centuries were dominated by a state of almost constant warring known as the Sextuple Conflict.
The Gilded Hall in the Marble Palace, a
room made entirely of gold. Made in
The Sextuple Conflict ended in 441 BCE as the Ghanaian Fiefdom conquered the other five fiefdoms and was granted 'Grand Chancellory', allowing it to become the first Chancellory of the Ivory Coasts. The Early Ghanaian period was marked by the conquest of the Burkina Steppes and the Liberian Rainforest, the assimilation of conquered peoples; as well as technological advances in the fields of architecture, metallurgy, mathematics, astronomy and paper-making. The botched Coup of 101 BCE began an increase in tension within the Imperial Court, with politicians dividing into cliques and engaging in violent power struggles. The Revolution of 32 BCE caused a succession crisis which divided the Empire into warlord states and beginning the Late Ghanaian period.
The Late Ghanaian period, marked by almost constant warfare, ended with the Duke Bamako's acquisition of the position of Grand Chancellor in 2 CE. During the Early Bamako period, the Ivory Coasts transitioned into a complex palace economy, and the first guilds were formed. The Kamari Azami Rebellion, lasting between 322 and 330, marks the breakdown of Bamako authority. By the 5th century, a military class had arisen and formed warlord states, marking the beginning of the Early Middle Ages. This period was marked by a de-urbanization, a decline in trade, a slowdown in technological progress, and the domination of the military nobility over scholar-merchants. A struggle for influence between the nobility and the monarchy allowed for the election of the Members of Imperial Court, transitioning the Ivory Coasts into a constitutional monarchy.
Shorty after contact with Islamic traders, Ivorian economy, technology and culture entered a golden age marked by urbanization. Timbuktu became a cosmopolitan urban centre, and military campaigns occurred as far as the Nile River in present-day Sudan. However, the Bamako Chancellory was devastated and weakened by the Gbayeda Rebellion in 901, and disintegrated completely when local military governors became semi-independent. The Loluwa Chancellory ended the situation in 1060, and soon became the second government to issue paper money and the first Ivorian polity to establish a permanent standing navy. Between the 11th and 15th centuries, the population of the Ivory Coasts doubled to around 150 million, mostly due to land reforms and food surpluses. However, the military weakness of the Loluwa Army was observed by Nilotic tribes in the far east. In 1527, the Nilotic tribe of Akesh sacked Timbuktu, forcing the Emperor to grant them the position of Grand Chancellor. The Akesh Chancellory was declared, while the remains of the Loluwa Chancellory retreated to Senegal and was conquered in 1571.
Under the Akesh Chancellory, the Empire sustained trade with the outside world for the first time, primarily with the Spanish and Portuguese empires. It developed the world's largest navy at the time, fuelled by the propagation of artisanal guilds and advanced proto-industrial factories. The scholar-merchant stratum arose as the ruling class during this period, established various institutions such as the Ivory Bank, and various guilds that survive until today; as well as served as patrons of painters, poets, architects, and artisans. The economy derived its revenues from corporate income, trade, and the well-regulated paper currency. Peasants and merchants began to enter larger markets as a result. This prosperity allowed the Ivory Coasts to overtake India and China as the world's foremost economy.
An Ivorian painting depicting injured European soldiers following the
Battle of Timbuktu
Meanwhile, several regional polities involved themselves within global conflicts, leading only to defeat and loss of territory during the Guinean Wars and the War of Senegal. The Ivorian Emperor Fiayosemi (1779-1826) made various attempts to reverse the Empire’s decline, but ultimately had to seek the protection of the Empire of the Sahara, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Bamako between Senegal and the Ivory Coasts in 1780. In 1790, the Senegalese captured Timbuktu from Ivorian control and in 1804, they officially became the protectors of the emperor from Timbuktu. Thus, the Senegalese Guild established a hegemony over the 35th dynasty.
The encroachment of European powers into Ivorian lands led to the Senegalese Wars (1827-1880) in which a European coalition of the United Kingdom, France, Spain and Portugal launched an invasion into the Ivory Coasts. The Empire pioneered strategies guerrilla warfare, biological warfare, propaganda and espionage. Castles of defiant lords were destroyed, while bodies infected by malaria, dengue and Ebola were thrown to European military fortifications. Widespread usage of propaganda enforced imperial power and led to the centralization of the state. By the 1850s, the situation had devolved into a total warfare. Within Europe, this encouraged the industrialization of various countries, leading to further losses by the Ivorian Coast. However, European manpower was largely exhausted by the 1860s, and relied on local rebels. The Senegalese Wars ended with the death of 40 million Ivorians (10% of the population at the time), and concluded by the Berlin Conference of 1880, which most prominently safeguarded the Ivory Coasts from later colonization.
The death of Emperor Kitemba in 1892 led to political fragmentation
The Ivory Palace in Timbuktu serves as
the residence of the royal family and is
where most government functions
The Secretary of State's epic side eye
against US President Donald Trump
The Ivory Coasts are an elective constitutional monarchy. According to the Ivorian Constitution, the Emperor is a titular head of state. Ivorian Emperors are non-partisan, and elected for life by nation-wide elections. This position is primarily responsible for giving Royal Assent to bills, conducting state visits, commanding the military, and leading the country during states of emergency. Since the 1990s, the role of the Emperor within the state-owned Imperial Corporations has grown from being simply nominal to playing a more direct role as a de facto Chief Executive Officer. The reigning Emperor is Oluwafemi of the 7th dynasty. The Prime Minister is the head of government. It presides over the Privy Council, composed of four Deputy Ministers and the heads of departments and commissions. The Prime Minister is the second-most powerful state organ within the Ivory Coasts, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval.
The Ivory Coasts operate under a unicameral dominant-party parliamentary system. The Imperial Court, its legislative body, has 84 members that serve a two-year term. 36 are directly elected from electoral districts, 12 appointed by members of the Privy Council, while the other 36 are selected by members of special interest groups, such as the Crown Corporations or the pharmaceutics industry. With the exception of the twelve Privy Council-appointed members, all are elected to power by proportional representation. Imperial Court Members (ICM)
The Imperial Court is dominated by the centre-right wing Liberal Party of the Ivory Coasts, holding 72 of all seats. Since the adaptation of the current constitution in 1952, every Prime Minister has been a member of the Liberal Party. The rest of the seats are occupied by the centre-left wing Conservative Party, Green Party, Nationalist Party and the Social Democratic Party.
The Constitution of the Ivory Coasts acts as the supreme law of the country, and entirely consists of written conventions. The Imperial Constitution Edict in 1905 established the Ivory Coasts as a constitutional monarchy, and affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent. The Imperial Amendment of Human Rights recognized and guaranteed fundamental freedoms within the country, such as the freedom of speech and expression. In 2015, the Imperial Freedoms Edict placed restrictions on the freedom of press, freedom of speech and freedom of assembly; but made greater progress toward protecting privacy and demanding government, corporate and individual privacy.
The modern Ivorian legal system has been largely based on Anglo-American common law, notably the United States. For example, in 1905, the Ivory Coasts established its Constitution based on the United States Constitution. Statutory law originates from the Imperial Court, and has the signature of the Emperor. The Ivorian judicial court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. However, the basis of the criminal code in the country derives from British law, with its most prominent feature being the administration of capital punishment as penalties for severe offences such as treason or terrorism.
The Ivory Coasts are divided into 23 prefectures, one special administrative region, each with a designated minority group; and five autonomous cities. Under the law, all of these administrative divisions fall under the provincial-level of government, and can be collectively referred to as provinces; of which there are 29.. Furthermore, 3,007 counties, 64 villages, 19 organized prefectures, and 10 census areas compose the Ivory Coasts. Geographically, all 29 provinces can be grouped into six regions: West Coast, South Coast, Western Interior, Central Interior, the Eastern Interior, and the Far South.
Below is a provincial map of the Ivory Coasts.
A photo of protesters during the 2004
A photo of protesters during the 2004
Nests by a factory in Ife, designed to p-
revent worker suicides
Édouard Collineige, a French-Ivorian e-
mbassy worker and whistleblower, wa-
s reported to have died of organ failur-
e in 2013.
Freedom of speech, press, and assembly are guaranteed by the Imperial Rights Charter of the Ivorian Constitution. However, subsequent amendments have restricted such freedoms. Public gatherings and assemblies all require police permits from citizens. Additionally, citizens must register personal details, such as address, event details, expected crowd size, and employment. Non-citizens and tourists cannot participate in public gatherings, with the exception of journalists from companies registered under the Ivory Coasts News Industry Organization (ICNIO). Police permits are not granted to events that the government deems as having "a significant risk of public disorder," and those that could provoke "divisions within the Ivorian nation." In 2018, public gatherings in front of government buildings and company headquarters no longer required police permits, while those in tourist destinations were completely outlawed. Furthermore, peaceful protests numbering more than 500 people were exempt from police suppression.
Censorship within all media content, online or offline, is extensive in the Ivory Coasts, and is imposed in the form of media regulations and criminal laws. Censorship is also indirectly enforced through lawsuits and withdrawal of funding to certain organizations. Since the ascension of Prime Minister Mouronkola Eniola in 2015, press freedom has been curtailed. The 2015 Imperial Misinformation and Manipulations Edict banned intentionally deceptive statements online and in public gatherings stated by public figures, such as celebrities, politicians and businesspeople. The 2017 Imperial Secrets Edict banned the wrongful communication of information considered politically sensitive. The 2018 Imperial Journalism Edict required that only media companies registered under the Ivory Coasts News Industry Organization (ICNIO) were allowed to operate in the country. Government pressure among journalists to conform has resulted in the proliferation of self-censorship.
The Privacy Amendment of the Imperial Rights and Freedoms Charter guarantees a right to privacy in both their home and personal lives. It also guarantees citizens against data misuse. Residents must consent to all data collection, and have a right to know all available data concerning them, the purpose of data collection, as well as all parties involved in the collection. Furthermore, citizens are capable of accessing all surveillance done by the government and private entities. However, the Privacy Amendment does not extend its freedoms to national locations and property (such as hospitals, train stations, schools, etc.). A report conducted by the United States Department of State in 2015, it is believed that the government has extensive networks for gathering information and conducting surveillance in public areas, but there is little activity of surveillance in private areas and properties such as company offices, telephones, and civilian Internet usage.
According to the Chancellory of Statistics in 2016, it is estimated that there were more than two million people living in conditions of modern slavery, or 0.001% of the population. This includes victims of human trafficking, forced labor, child labor, and forced marriage.
Since the ascension of Emperor Mamadu to the throne in 1990, the Ivorian government has taken steps to protect human rights within its country. For example, it has completely halted all activites such as detention without trial, forced abortions, forced confessions, and the death penalty. Additionally, the country introduced several laws that protect and allow citizens to access surveillance. However, the Ivory Coasts nonetheless experiences criticism for its violent suppression of protests, stringent media regulations, and extensive public surveillance.
Two C-16s during the 2019 Military
Parade in Timbuktu
With 847,540 active troops as of 2018, the Ivorian Armed Forces (IAF) are the sixth-largest standing military force by active personnel, commanded by the Ministry of Defense. The Ivory Coast also has the third-biggest military reserve force, with 1,422,000 reserve personnel. Altogether, it has the 1.5 million military personnel, the 11th-largest in the world. The Ivorian Armed Forces consists of the Army (IAFA), the Navy (IAFN), and the Air Force (IAFAF). According to the Ivorian government, the Ivory Coast’s military budget for 2017 totalled US$253.5 billion, constituting the world's second-largest military budget by purchasing parity, and has a military expenditure-GDP ratio of 1.3% of GDP.
The Ivory Coasts is considered major regional military power. It is not a signatory of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty, and is not a recognized nuclear weapons state. According to the US Central Intelligence Agency, the Ivory Coasts fields around 30 nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles. Compared to recognized nuclear weapons states such as China, France and the US, the Ivory Coasts has limited nuclear projection capabilities, with its maximum missile range being 8,000 km, reaching much of the US east coast, all of Europe and Tibet. The country has been developing numerous projects; for example, its first aircraft carrier entered service in 2018. The Ivory Coasts also possesses various nuclear-powered submarines, as well as military bases across Africa.
The Ivory Coasts have made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su-30, and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Senegal IC-10, IC-20 and the Slingpra IC-11, IC-15, IC-16, and IC-31. The Ivory Coasts are furthermore engaged in developing an indigenous stealth aircraft and numerous combat drones. The Ivory Coasts have also updated their ground forces, replacing its ageing Soviet-derived tank inventory with numerous variants of the modern Type 99 tank, and upgrading its battlefield C3I and C4I systems to enhance its network-centric warfare capabilities. In addition, the Ivory Coasts have developed or acquired numerous advanced missile systems including anti-satellite missiles, cruise missiles and submarine-launched nuclear ICBMs. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's data, the Ivory Coasts became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in 2010–14, an increase of 143 percent from the period 2005–09. Ivorian officials stated that spending on the military will rise to U.S. $173B in 2018. In August 2018, the Ivory Coasts tested their first hypersonic flight. The Lagos Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA) claims to have successfully conducted the test with the aircraft Starry Sky-2 that touched a speed of Mach 6 – which is six times the speed of sound, that can carry nuclear missiles.
Bayelsa, capital of the Kingdom of the
The Benue River in Mundu before and
after the Clean Waters initiative of 2014
Tthe Ivory Coasts are the world's largest investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $500 billion being invested in 2017 alone, six times larger than China ($83 billion). By 2015, over 35% of the Ivory Coasts' energy was derived from renewable resources. Hydroelectric power provides over 300 gigawatts of electricity, allowing the Ivory Coasts to be the largest producer of hydroelectricity. The Ivory Coasts also have the largest power capacity of wind power and solar photovoltaics system. In 2014, the Ivorian government began the $700 billion Clean Waters Initiative, which plans to invest water treatment and purification plants, clean bodies of water from garbage, and construct an anti-drought system. Today, only 12% of all bodies of water in the Ivory Coasts are polluted.
However, the Ivory Coasts continues to suffer from severe pollution and environmental deterioration. Urban air pollution is a severe health issue in the country, with the World Bank estimating in 2017 that one of the world's 20 most-polluted cities are located in the Ivory Coasts. The country is the country with the seventh-highest death toll because of air pollution. There were an estimated 92,000 deaths as of 2017 related to exposure to ambient air pollution. The Ivory Coasts are the third-largest carbon dioxide emitter behind the United States and China.
Heavy metals are also a major source of environmental pollution, causing hazards resulting from inorganic chemicals as a result of chromium, cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury, copper, zinc, cobalt and nickel. Of these five metals, lead, chromium, arsenic, cadmium and mercury are the largest heavy metal pollutants in the Ivory Coasts. These pollutants mainly come from manufacturing of metal-containing products, mining, sewage irrigation, and other production-related activities. According to the Ivorian government, the Ivory Coasts is home to more than 1 million sites of heavy metals exposure. Conversion of heavy metals into waste water and waste gas is banned. However, the total volume of discharge heavy metals into solid wastes were around 200,000 as of 2015.
The Ivory Coasts have the largest economy in Africa, with a nominal GDP of $6.9 trillion, the third-largest globally, and a PPP GDP of $19.5 trillion, the third-largest globally. However, in terms of nominal per capita income, it is the second-largest within the region behind Rwanda,, and the 106th worldwide. Its per capita in PPP is $13,929, while its nominal per capita income is $4,994. The Ivory Coasts are a member of the G8. The debt to ratio GDP is 32.2%. The manufacturing sector is the largest sector of the Ivorian economy, and accounts for 80% of the GDP, followed by the service sector, which accounts for 19%, and agriculture, which accounts for 1%.
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Ivorian economy in 2017 was nominally worth $6.9 trillion, making it the third-largest economy behind China and the United States. It is also the third-largest economy by purchasing power parity at $19.5 trillion. With its average annual GDP growth rate of 7.2% over the past two decades, and reaching 11.4% in 2016, the Ivory Coasts are one of the world's fastest-growing economies. However, the country ranks 106th in the world in nominal GDP per capita, and 95th in purchasing power parity per capita. During the 20th century up until the 1990s, the Ivory Coasts' economy grew at an average rate of 1.2%, stunted by political division and corruption that walled the economy off from the outside world. Emperor Mamadu's ascension in 1990, and his subsequent Great Purge liberalized the economy, albeit it maintained largely protectionist policies. This allowed the economy of the Ivory Coasts to grow. However, during the 2010s, under Empress Oluwafemi, the Ivory Coasts removed its protectionist policies and adapted a more liberalized economy, emphasizing both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.
The nominal GDP per capita of the Ivory Coasts increased steadily from $322 in 1990, when the first set of liberalisation reforms began, to $4,994 by 2019. According to a WHO report, the country's purchasing power parity could overtake the United States' by 2050. During the next four decades, between 2020 and 2060, the GDP is expected to grow at an average rate of 9%, making it potentially one of the world's fastest-growing major economy alongside India. The key growth factors of the Ivory Coasts include a strong, centralized government; rising education levels; and a rapidly growing middle-class. The growth is additionally supported by public sector reforms, agricultural and rural development, and investment in transport infrastructure and research and development.
A farm and a desert alongside the
Faleme River in Senegal
An oil rig near Lagos, Oyo.
The Ivory Coasts are the world's largest producer and consumer of agricultural products – and some 450 million Ivorian farm workers are in the industry. The Ivory Coasts are the world's second-largest producer of rice and is among the principal sources of corn (maize), soybeans, sorghum, potatoes, tobacco, millet, tea, peanuts, fish, oilseed and pork. Yields are high because of intensive cultivation, for example, the Ivory Coasts' cropland area is only 65% of the U.S. total, but continues to produce about 25% more crops and livestock than the United States. The Ivory Coasts hope to further increase agricultural production through improved plant stocks, fertilizers, and technology. Animal husbandry constitutes the second most important component of agricultural production. The Ivory Coasts are the world's leading producer of pigs, chickens, and eggs, and it also has sizeable herds of sheep and cattle. Since the mid-1970s, greater emphasis has been placed on increasing the livestock output.
According to the United Nations World Food Program, in 2014, the Ivory Coasts fed 20 percent of the world's population with only 6.3 percent of the world's arable land. The Ivory Coasts rank second worldwide in farm output, and, as a result of topographic and climatic factors, only about 10–15 percent of the total land area is suitable for cultivation. Of this, slightly more than one-thirds is unirrigated, and the remainder is dominated by paddy fields near the Niger River and highly irrigated areas elsewhere. Nevertheless, about 60 percent of the population lives in the rural areas, and until the 2000s a high percentage of them made their living directly from farming. Since then, many have been encouraged to leave the fields and pursue other activities, such as light manufacturing, commerce, and transportation; and by the mid-1980s farming accounted for less than half of the value of rural output. Today, agriculture contributes only 23% of the Ivory Coasts' GDP.
The major areas of production in 2004 were coal (nearly 1 billion tons), iron ore (600 million tons), crude petroleum (400 million tons), natural gas (72 million cubic meters), antimony ore (170,000 tons), tin concentrates (170,000 tons), nickel ore (100,000 tons), tungsten concentrates (67,000 tons), unrefined salt (92 million tons), vanadium (40,000 tons), and molybdenum ore (29,000 tons). In order of magnitude, produced minerals were bauxite, gypsum, barite, magnesite, talc and related minerals, manganese ore, fluorspar, and zinc. In addition, the Ivory Coasts produced 2,450 tons of silver and 2,122 tons of gold in 2013. The mining sector accounted for less than 0.9% of total employment in 2008 but produced about 5.3% of total industrial production.
Oil and natural gas make up the bulk of the Ivory Coasts' non-renewable energy production (70% in 2017). In 2020, the Ivory Coasts overtook Saudi Arabia and the United States as the largest producer of oil, producing 18 million barrels per day. It is also the largest producer of natural gas, having produced 1.3 million cubic meters as of 2019. Consumption of oil and natural gas in the Ivory Coasts' overall energy consumption is projected to decrease over the following years, but production will continue to rise. The Ivory Coasts consumed 30 trillion cubic feet of (850 billion cubic meters) of natural gas in 2017, which accounts for 67% of its energy usage. However, stringent combustion regulations have allowed for lower methane emission rates in the Ivory Coasts than those in the United States, the second-largest consumer of natural gas.
A worker produces battery chips for
Industry and construction account for 62.3% of the Ivory Coasts' GDP. As of 2019, it ranked the second worldwide in terms of industrial output, behind the United States, the European Union and China. It contributed to 19.8% of the world's manufacturing output in the same year. Major industries include textiles and apparel, petroleum, chemical, fertilizers, food processing, consumer products, metals, machinery, electronics and telecommunications technology. The Ivory Coasts is the largest destination for global manufacturing facilities relocating from China.
In 2018, the Ivory Coasts were the second-largest producer of steel in the world, accounting for more than 17% of the world's steel. In 2018, the Ivory Coasts produced 344 million tons of steel, an increase of almost 100% from ten years. 3 of 10 of largest steel producers in the world are in the Ivory Coasts. Profits are low despite continued high demand due to high debt and overproduction of high end products. In 2018, the Ivory Coasts are the second-largest exporter of steel.
The Adewala Centre in
The Ivory Coasts are the world's fourth-largest automobile producer, manufacturing more than 8.3 million vehicles in 2018—for comparison, the corresponding numbers for the US and Japan were 11.3 million and 9.7 million respectively. However, it is also the largest consumer, having imported more than 11 million automobiles as of 2019. The Ivorian automotive industry primarily exports car parts and machinery instead of creating local cars, Automotive manufacturers such as Honda, Toyota, Ford and Volkswagen have a larger amount of factories in the Ivory Coasts than in all other countries combined.
The predominant focus of development in the chemical industry is to expand the output of chemical fertilizers, plastics, and synthetic fibers. The growth of this industry has placed the Ivory Coasts among the world's leading producers of nitrogenous fertilizers. In the consumer goods sector the main emphasis is on textiles and clothing, which also form an important part of the Ivory Coasts exports. Textile manufacturing, a rapidly growing proportion of which consists of synthetics, account for about 10 percent of the gross industrial output and continues to be important, but less so than before. The industry tends to be scattered throughout the country, but there are a number of important textile centres, including Timbuktu, Segu, and Dakar.
The services sector has the second-largest share of the Ivory Coasts' GDP behind the manufacturing sector, accounting for 40.5% of its GDP. As of 2018, it had the fourth-largest service output in the world at $2.7 trillion, behind Japan, China and the United States. However, it becomes the third when purchasing power is taken into account.
The financial services industry contributed $2.59 trillion (37% of GDP) and employed 230 million people (23% of the workforce) in 2016, and the banking sector contributed $1.33 billion (19% of GDP) and employed 110 million people (11% of the workforce) in 2016. The Ivorian money market is classified into the organised sector, comprising private, public and foreign-owned commercial banks and cooperative banks, together known as 'scheduled banks'; and the unorganised sector, which includes individual or family-owned indigenous bankers or money lenders and non-banking financial companies. The unorganised sector and microcredit are preferred over traditional banks in rural and sub-urban areas, especially for non-productive purposes such as short-term loans for ceremonies.
The Ivory Coasts are among the world's most technologically advanced nations. It is the world's third-largest e-commerce market, amounting to 26% of the global market by 2016 and is expected to account for 26% of global e-commerce retail sales in 2032. Its e-commerce market had online sales of more than $400 billion in 2018 and is expected to be just under $2 trillion in 2030. The Ivory Coasts' e-commerce industry took off in 2012, marked by the expansion of Amazon into the country, as well as of others such as Google and Apple, who made ubiquitous products such as Apple Pay. According to Apple, the Ivory Coasts accounts for more than 82% of payments made through Apple Pay, amounting to be around $22 trillion in 2018 and $30 trillion in 2019.
High-speed rail in the Ivory Coasts
The Timbuktu Radio Tower provides
free unlimited wi-fi across the city
Within the last few decades, the Ivory government has increased rates of access to potable water in both rural or urban areas. For example, in 1990, only 42% of Ivorians living in rural areas had access to potable water, while the rate was 63% for those in urban areas. These rates have increased in 2011, with almost 99% of all urban residents having access to clean water, and 92% of all rural residents. This is in large part due to investment by the Ivorian government in hydrological sciences, and the implementation of various strategies such as desalination, water recycling and cloud seeding. Most notably, under the South-North Water Transfer Project, the Ivory Coasts have built artificial rivers and canal to divert water from the rainy south to the arid north in order to solve water scarcity issues in the latter.
The national road network of the Ivory Coasts have significantly expanded since the 2000s. In 2017, the total length of the Ivorian highway system reached a total length of 92,722 km, making it the second-largest highway system behind China and ahead of the United States. In 2018, the high-speed railway network of the Ivory Coasts reached a length of 2,647 km, almost the same size as France and representing 5% of all high-speed rail lines inn the world. In 1991, there were only twelve bridges that traversed the Niger River. By 2016, there were 81 bridges and tunnels. The Ivory Coasts has the world's second-largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production in 2016. A side-effect of the rapid growth of national road network has been a significant rise in road accidents. In 2017, there were 121,000 deaths related to road accidents. In response, the Ivorian government has increased expenditure in high-speed rail networks and other forms of public transport such as buses. Despite the increasing prevalence of private vehicles as of 2012, the usage of public transport has experienced faster growth. In 2017, there were approximately 220 million registered vehicles in the Ivory Coasts. However, in that same year, 1.2 billion people are reported to have used methods of public transportation.
The Ivory Coasts are the second-largest telecom market in the world, with the second-largest number of active cellphones with over 1.3 billion subscribers as of 2018. It also has the world's second-largest number of internet and broadband users, with other 600 million Internet users as of 2018—equivalent to around 42.8% of its population—and almost all of them being mobile as well. Almost all of the country's population had 4G network access in 2016. The average mobile connection speed as of 2019 was 30 Mbit/s. As for fixed broadband speeds, the average download speed by 62 Mbit/s. By the end of 2017, the Ivory Coasts had 20 million kilometers of fiber-optic cable. As well, the Ivory Coasts have made rapid advances in 5G. In 2019, the country commenced large-scale 5G trials. By March 2020, various cities across the country introduced city-wide 5G WiFi that has an internet speed of over 1,000 Mbit/s.
Researchers from the Dakar University
(pictured) discovered the cures for
many diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and
The Ivory Coasts are developing their education system with an emphasis on entrepreneurship, science and mathematics. In 2018, the Ivory Coasts graduated over 1,200,000 engineering bachelor graduates and 72,000 PhD engineers; more than any other countries. In 2019, there were 5.2 million STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) graduates in the Ivory Coasts; which is more than eight times the amount of STEM graduates in the United States. The Ivory Coasts are also the second-largest publisher of scientific papers by 2020 behind China and overtaking the United States. Ivorian companies such as Omotando and Yetunde have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing. As well, Ivorian supercomputers are consistently ranked among the worldès most powerful. The Ivory Coasts are also expending their use of industrial robots. Between 2008 and 2017, the installation of multi-role robots in Ivorian factories rose by 222%. The Ivory Coasts have been the largest market for industrial robots in the world, and is estimated to account for 32% of all newly installed robots by 2021.
Timbuktu 1 transports people and goo
goods between the Earth and the ISS,
alongside the US Space Shuttle.
The Ivory Coasts have made significant investments in scientific research. It is the largest in the world in terms of R&D expenditure, having spent $836.55 billion in 2019. In comparison, China, the second-largest, spent $553 billion in 2018. According to the OECD, the Ivory Coasts spent 4.29% of its purchasing power parity on R&D in 2018. Prime Minister Mouronkola Eniola's five-year plan highlighted the importance of science and technology, citing it as being "vital for achieving the Ivory Coasts' economic and political goals." Ivorian tech companies Yetunde and Yetunde were the two biggest companies in terms of the amount of international patents signed in 2019. Since 1992, the Ivory Coasts have won 14 Noble Prizes (six times in Economic Sciences, five times in Physics, and three times in Physiology or Medicine. However, six of these scientists conducted their Nobel-winning research in Western nations.
The Ivorian space program is one of the world's most active. In 2019, it launched 32 satellites into space, the second-largest in the world before China (35) and ahead of the United States (30). In 1992, the Ivory Coasts launched its first satellite, Chad I, becoming the thirteenth country to do so independently. In 2006, the Ivory Coasts became the fourth country to independently send humans into space. As of 2017, six Ivorian nationals have journeyed into space, with two being women. In 2013, the Ivorian Oluwande 2 achieved the first propulsive landing for an orbital rocket. In 2015, the Oluwande 3 was the first orbital rocket to be reused. In 2016, the Ivory Coasts became a member of the International Space Station program, having flown 18 resupply missions to the station and provided the Afolabi module in 2018 since then. In 2019, the Ivory Coasts launched Timbuktu 1, the first space probe with a solar sail. It is expected to reach Pluto in just six years.
Population density map of Nigeria
According to the United Nations, the Ivory Coasts have been undergoing explosive population growth and has one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world. By their projections, the ivory Coasts is one of the three countries expected to account collectively for half of the world's total population increase in 2005–2050. By 2100 the UN estimates that the Ivorian population will be between 1.7 billion and 3.03 billion people (middle estimate: 2.365 billion). In 1950, Nigeria had only 500 million people.
The Ivory Coasts are home to 179 recognized ethnic groups with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The largest ethnic groups are the Nigerians, Mandinka, Yoruba, Wolof and Igbo, together accounting for 78.1% of the population; while the Ijaw, Kongolese, Berber and many more comprise the remaining 20%. There are small minorities of British, French, Spanish, Indian, Chinese, Italian, American, and Indonesian immigrants in the Ivory Coasts that date back from the 18th century. Immigrants also include those from the rest of Africa, most notable the Sahara, the Loango, and the Central African city-states. These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Timbuktu and Segu. A huge Jewish diaspora exists in the Ivory Coasts, dating back from before the 1st millennium BCE. Ethnic groups within the Ivory Coasts are loosely defined, and often contrast with each other. Most ethnic groups native to the Ivory Coasts can be classified into three major ethnolinguistic groups: the Ivorians, the Afroasiatics and the Bantu.
Largest cities in the Ivory Coasts
The Mosque of Sokoto, the first
mosque within Nigeria
The University of Lagos served as
a major philosophical centre, where
many schools of thought originated
The Ivory Coasts are a religiously diverse society, with Nimbanism, Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions. As is common in other parts of Africa where multiple religions exist in the same area, religious syncretism between the religions present in the Ivory Coasts happens frequently throughout the country. The 2018 census indicated that 76.9% of Ivorians were Nimbanists, 34% Muslims, 6.3% irreligious, 3% Christians, 2.1% Bintumanists and 1.1% adherents of other religions.
The Ivory Coasts are a religiously diverse society, with Nimbanism, Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions. As is common in other parts of Africa where multiple religions exist in the same area, religious syncretism between the religions present in the Ivory Coasts happens frequently throughout the country. The 2018 census indicated that 76.9% of Ivorians were Nimbanists, 34% Muslims, 6.3% irreligious, 3% Christians, 2.1% Bintumanists and 1.1% adherents of other religions. The Ivory Coasts are a religiously diverse society, with Nimbanism, Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions. As is common in other parts of Africa where multiple religions exist in the same area, religious syncretism between the religions present in the Ivory Coasts happens frequently throughout the country. The 2018 census indicated that 76.9% of Ivorians were Nimbanists, 34% Muslims, 6.3% irreligious, 3% Christians, 2.1% Bintumanists and 1.1% adherents of other religions. The Ivory Coasts are a religiously diverse society, with Nimbanism, Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions. As is common in other parts of Africa where multiple religions exist in the same area, religious syncretism between the religions present in the Ivory Coasts happens frequently throughout the country. The 2018 census indicated that 76.9% of Ivorians were Nimbanists, 34% Muslims, 6.3% irreligious, 3% Christians, 2.1% Bintumanists and 1.1% adherents of other religions. The Ivory Coasts are a religiously diverse society, with Nimbanism, Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions. As is common in other parts of Africa where multiple religions exist in the same area, religious syncretism between the religions present in the Ivory Coasts happens frequently throughout the country. The 2018 census indicated that 76.9% of Ivorians were Nimbanists, 34% Muslims, 6.3% irreligious, 3% Christians, 2.1% Bintumanists and 1.1% adherents of other religions.
There are 322 languages present in the Ivory Coasts, and a total of 1,692 languages that have been recorded throughout its history, notwithstanding early forms of present languages. The major languages spoken in the Ivory Coasts represent the three major families of languages of Africa: the majority are Eburnic (Ivorian) languages, such as Mandinka, Ivorian, Bambara, Gurma, Soninke and Wolof. The second-largest linguistic family are the Niger-Congo languages, which include languages such as Yoruba, Igbo, Ijaw, and Fulfulde. The third-largest are the Afroasiatic languages, which include Berber and Fulani. The Eburnic languages are spoken throughout the Ivory Coasts, but are centred in the Upper Niger, while the Niger-Congo languages are spoken primarily along the Lower Niger and the eastern half of the country. The Afroasiatic languages are scattered throughout the northern extremities of the country.
The official language of the Ivory Coasts is Ivorian, a standardized form of the Eburnic languages with influences from the Niger-Congolese languages. In some areas of the Ivory Coasts, ethnic groups typically speak more than two languages. Though these ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, Ivorian is used most commonly throughout the Ivory Coasts as the language of education, business transactions and government. Ivorian as a first language is spoken around the Upper Nile, and as a second language is spoken throughout the country. The official language of the Ivory Coasts is Ivorian, a standardized form of the Eburnic languages with influences from the Niger-Congolese languages. In some areas of the Ivory Coasts, ethnic groups typically speak more than two languages. Though these ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, Ivorian is used most commonly throughout the Ivory Coasts as the language of education, business transactions and government. Ivorian as a first language is spoken around the Upper Nile, and as a second language is spoken throughout the country. The official language of the Ivory Coasts is Ivorian, a standardized form of the Eburnic languages with influences from the Niger-Congolese languages. In some areas of the Ivory Coasts, ethnic groups typically speak more than two languages. Though these ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, Ivorian is used most commonly throughout the Ivory Coasts as the language of education, business transactions and government. Ivorian as a first language is spoken around the Upper Nile, and as a second language is spoken throughout the country.
The development of music in the Ivory Coasts commenced around 100,000 years ago, with the first musical instruments in the form of flutes made from bones and elephant tusks. The oldest known melody, Gao Hymn No.4, was discovered in Gao, dating back to 5,800 BCE. By the 1st millennium BCE, manuscripts reveal an organized system of diatonic scales, depending on the tuning of instruments in alternating fifths and fourths. Instruments by this period include lyres, drums, harps, drums and lutes. In the 1st millennium CE, much of the music produced was of chants utilizing polyphony, in which two voices sing two different melodies at the same time. Many advances to the music theory were made by composers during this time, such as notation, scales, consonance and dissonance, rhythm and techniques of musical compositions.
However, modern Ivorian music commenced during the late 19th century. Progresses towards modernization have allowed for Western music to influence local music for the first time, while the expanding Ivorian diaspora made contributions within Occidental countries. Ivorian-Louisianan artists such as Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis and Ella Fitzgerald helped popularize jazz, soul and gospel beginning in the 1890s. These genres went on to influence rock n' roll, and rhythm and blues; which in turn influenced popular musical acts such as the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. In the later half of the 20th century, the Ivory Coasts produced Oluwitney Hiyusutona and Amaraya Keri, which went on to sell over 500 million album records altogether and popularized singing techniques such as melisma and whistle notes. During the 90s, Ivorian and Ivorian-Louisianan artists helped publicize hip hop and eventually, rap by the 2000s.
Ivorian cuisine is among the oldest and the most diverse in the world. Traditional recipes can vary differently by region, and is generally divided into four major cuisines: Senegalese, Malian, Nigerian and Banguian. Seasoning preferences and cooking techniques within these cuisines depend highly on historical background. Geographical features such as mountains, rivers, jungles and deserts have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering the geographical diversity of the Ivory Coasts. The country's historically influential and massive middle-class has allowed for foreign ingredients and cooking techniques to be integrated into Ivorian cuisines, giving rise to the Nouvelle-Ivorienne cuisine.
A typical Ivorian meal is made with starchy items and can contain meat, fish as well as various spices and herbs. A wide array of staples are eaten across the region, including fufu, banku, kenkey (originating from Sukru), foutou, couscous, tô, and garri, which are served alongside soups and stews. Fufu is often made from starchy root vegetables such as yams, cocoyams, or cassava, but also from cereal grains like millet, sorghum or plantains. A meal typically consists of two courses: the mye (side dish), typically composed of staple foods such as rice, sorghum and millet as well as fruits like mangoes and coconuts; and the tyof (main course), typically consisting of protein sources such as meat and fish. Side dishes could also include non-alcoholic beverages such as fruit juice, soft drinks and coffee; as well as snacks including bread rolls, sourdough dumplings, and rice cakes. Other more vegetarian sources can also be included for the main course, such as Adelaja (stir fried noodles), Tejumola (soup made of cassava and plantain) Dayo (millet stew) Sunbola (spicy meat skewer) and Kolawole (palm nut soup).
The cooking techniques of the Ivory Coasts are changing. In the past, Ivorians ate much less meat, opting for fruits, vegetables and other vegetarian options and using native oils such as palm oil and shea butter. Baobob leaves and numerous local greens were everyday staples during dryer months in the northern regions. Today, Ivorian cuisines are much heavier in meats, salts, fats and spices. Many dishes combine fish and meat, are fried in oil, and sometimes cooked in sauce made up with hot peppers, tomatoes, onions and other various spices. Sometimes, water is added to prepare a highly-flavoured stew.
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