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by The Federation of The Peruvian Union. . 47 reads.

Peru-Bolivian Confederation




A N D E A NF E D E R A T I O N
.
F E D E R A C I Ó NP E R Ú - B O L I V I A N A
.

C H I L D R E N O F T H E S U N
.
☀ H I J O SD E LS O L ☀
.

Andean Federation
Federación Andina
Peru-Bolivian Federation
Federación Perú-Boliviana



FlagEmblem


Motto
Firme por la unión

"Firm for the Union"

Anthem
Marcha de Banderas
"March of Flags"
Link


Map of Hindustan and Territories


Capital

Lima (executive)
La Paz (legislative)
13.5320° S, 71.9675° W

Largest city


Lima


Official Language

LinkSpanish, LinkQuechua,
LinkAymara

Regional Languages



Jaqaru, Kulina, Yine,
Asháninca, Caquinte,
Amahuaca and 60 others


Ethnic Groups
.
.
.
.
.


- 61.5% LinkMestizo/White
- 27.3% LinkAmerindians
- 0.9% LinkAmazonian
- 4.2% LinkBlack
- 2.8% LinkAsian
- 3.3% Other


Religion
.
.
.
.


- 82.7% LinkRoman Catholic
- 9.8% LinkProtestant
- 5.9% LinkNon-denominational Christian
- 1.6% Other


Demonym


Andean, Peru-Bolivian (constitutional)


Government

• Supreme Protector


Federal presidential republic

Luis Galvez Caseres


Legislature
.
• Upper House
• Lower House


Federal semi-presidential
constitutional republic

Federal Congress
Congress


Formation

• Established
• First Constitution
• Unification
• Current Constitution


.
October 28, 1836
.
December 21, 1841
.
14 July 1899
.
21 September 1921


Land Area
.


2,561,691 km²
(989,074.4 sq. mi.) (8nd)


Population
• Density


61 million (2018 estimate)
30.1 people/km²


Elevation
• Highest Point
• Lowest Point


.
Huascarán (6,655 meters)
Bayóvar Depression (-34 meters)


GDP (PPP)
• Total
• Per Capita


2018 estimate
$497,417 billion
$14,952


GDP (nominal)
• Total
• Per Capita


2018 estimate
$1.08 trillion
$4,611


Gini (2017)
.


47.9
medium


HDI (2017)
.


0.814
high


Currency


Sol (PEN)


Time Zones


CST (UTC -5 to UTC -4)


Drives on


Right


Calling Code


+51


ISO 3166 code


PE


Internet TLD

.pe

Andean Federation



Peru-bolivia constitutionally known as the Andean Federation (LinkSpanish: Federación Andina) is a Linkfederal state located in South America along the Andean mountain range. It borders the Republic of Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil and Paraguay to the east and finally Chile and Argentina to the south. The Andean Federation is comprised of 4 republics and a federal district. Encompassing most of the Andes to the centre, large portions of the Chaco region and the Amazons. It is the 12th largest country by area and the 19th most populous (with 61 million people).

Previously ruled by several kingdoms and empires such as the prominent LinkInca Empire, LinkWari Empire or the LinkTihuanaco culture, it has been the cradle for ancient civilisations for millennia, serving as a crossover of cultures, each leaving its mark throughout history, all adding to the region's diverse culture. Today the region mostly encompasses the territory of Peru-Bolivia, a federal-state comprised of 4 core republics. During the beginning of the 20th century, most of the country fell into a civil war, intervention from foreign powers and the consolidation of federalist factions pushed the union for a more solidified state, disestablishing the confederation and advocating for a federation. In the '80s the federation experienced an economic boom, with the livelihoods of citizens increasing most major cities experienced substantial growth and restructuration, most prominently, the city of Santa Cruz became a renown resort for its warm climate and colonial atmosphere.


Etymology

The confederation took its name from the geographical designation of the "Andes", the longest continental mountain range in the world which composes a large portion of the country. The name "Andes" is thought to come from the Quechuan word anti meaning "east" as in Antisuyu, the Quechuan name for one of the four regions of the LinkInca Empire.

The name "Andes" was chosen as the autonym for the confederation in 1921 by Supreme Protector Alcantara. Mainly in an attempt to strengthen bonds between the Republics of Peru and Bolivia. The name had to follow neutral designations and refer to the shared cultures of both countries. The chosen name was met with controversy at first as it mostly emphasised the indigenous cultures of the Andes, however, the designation came to a neutral standpoint after efforts to neutralise the name.

The name "Peru" designating the Republic of North-Peru and South-Peru may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. The name came to use in 1529 when the Viceroyalty of Peru was declared, encompassing most of the lands of the present-day confederation.

The member state of Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence. The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas (present-day Bolivia) with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honour of Simón Bolívar.



History

Pre-Columbian era

The earliest pieces of evidence of human presence in Peru-Bolivian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture.



Wilcahuaín archeological site, Huaraz.
Dating 1100 AD as a mausoleum built during
the Wari culture.

The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. The Mochica, who reached their apogee in the first millennium AD, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru, the Chimu flourished from about 1140 to 1450. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo. In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia, and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 AD.

In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco. The Incas of Cusco originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the emperor Pachacuti. Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui, the Incas came to control most of the Andean region, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, from southern Colombia to northern Chile, between the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Amazon rainforest in the east. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as "The Four Regions" or "The Four United Provinces." Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti, the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun."

Colonial period and conquest

Atahualpa (also Atahuallpa), the last Sapa Inca, became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huáscar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. In December 1532, a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca. The Spanish conquest of Peru was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima, which became known as "The City of Kings". The conquest of Peru led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The last Inca resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards annihilated the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba in 1572.



The Inca empire and expansions 1438-1533.

The indigenous population dramatically collapsed due to exploitation, socioeconomic change and epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish. Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labour as its primary workforce. With the discovery of the great silver and gold lodes at Potosí and Huancavelica, the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines. Because of a lack of available workforce, African slaves were added to the labour population. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicism, taking only a generation to convert the population. They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha in the city of Cusco. The church employed the Inquisition, making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs. Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations. In this endeavour, the church came to play an important role in the acculturation of the natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers.

By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income. In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty. The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed. As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the expense of the territories that formed the Viceroyalty of Peru; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires and Bogotá, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru. The conquest and colony brought a mix of cultures and ethnicities that did not exist before the Spanish conquered the Peruvian territory. Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peru-Bolivian culture. Two of the most important indigenous rebellions against the Spanish were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa in 1742, and Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco.

Independence


In the early 19th century, while most South American nations were swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar. Meanwhile, Bolivia, known at the time as Alto Perú "Upper Peru", juggled between royalists and patriots, beginning with an attempt of capture in 1809 with the Chuquisaca Revolution. Different forces occupying both proper Perú and Bolivia marked a separate path for both countries, with the latter renaming "Upper Perú" as Bolívar and later Bolivia.


The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America and native uprisings all contributed to a favourable climate to the development of emancipating ideas among the Criollo population in South America. However, the Criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies.



San Martín proclaiming the independence of Peru.
Painting by Juan Lepiani..


After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, José de San Martín created the Army of the Andes and crossed the Andes in 21 days. Once in Chile he joined forces with Chilean army General Bernardo O'Higgins and liberated the country in the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú in 1818. On 7 September 1820, a fleet of eight warships arrived in the port of Paracas under the command of General José de San Martin and Thomas Cochrane, who was serving in the Chilean Navy. Immediately on 26 October, they took control of the town of Pisco. San Martin settled in Huacho on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north blockading the port of Callao in Lima. At the same time in the north, Guayaquil was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. Because Peru was the stronghold of the Spanish government in South America, San Martin's strategy to liberate Peru was to use diplomacy. He sent representatives to Lima urging the Viceroy that Peru be granted independence, however, all negotiations proved unsuccessful.


The Viceroy of Peru, Joaquín de la Pazuela named José de la Serna commander-in-chief of the loyalist army to protect Lima from the threatened invasion of San Martin. On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru. This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. In order to avoid a military confrontation, San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, José de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down. De la Serna abandoned the city and on 12 July 1821 San Martin occupied Lima and declared Peruvian independence on 28 July 1821. He created the first Peruvian flag. Alto Perú (Bolivia) remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of Simón Bolívar liberated it three years later. José de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.

Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north liberating the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Battles of Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha a year later. In July 1822 Bolivar and San Martin gathered in the Guayaquil Conference. Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled. The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru giving him the power to organize the military.

With the help of Antonio José de Sucre they defeated the larger Spanish army in the Battle of Junín on 6 August 1824 and the decisive Battle of Ayacucho on 9 December of the same year, consolidating the independence of Peru and Alto Peru. Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.

British Conquest of Hindustan

Princely War

Treaty of Shahjahanabad

Hindustan under British control

Hindu-German Conspiracy

Indian Civil War

Declaration of independence

Aftermath

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Russian Empire

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Soviet Union

Geography and Climate


Demographics

Languages
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Religion

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[img]TBA[/img]
Eastern Orthodox (26,45%),
Atheist or non-religious (23,14%)
Muslim (22,31%), Christian (9,92%)
Buddhist (12,4%), Ïltan Tengrist (5,79%)

Ethnicities

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[img]TBA[/img]
Ethnic map of Kulmakia


Government


Education

pending...


Foreign relations and Military


Economy

pending...


Culture

pending....



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The Federation of The Peruvian Union

Edited:

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