North Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bilateral legislature, a parliamentary government, and a monarch with noticeable executive powers. The multilateral system is has since early 1953 been dominated by the National North German Party (NNP), the Progressive People's Party (FVP), and the Liberal Party (L). The judiciary of North Germany is independent of the executive and the legislature, while it is common for the leading members of the executive to be members of the legislature as well. The political system is laid out in the Constitution of North Germany, which has remained in effect with minor amendments ever since 1941 -its last major amendment.
North Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1944, which became the European Society in 1990. It is similarly a founding member of the International German Confederation, the Hague Treaty Organization, and a signatory to a multitude of minor treaty organizations in Africa, Asia and America.
The Constitution of the North German Federation (Verfassung des Norddeutschen Reiches) was formally approved on 1 July 1867, and came into effect by the assent of the new North German Emperor. It legally defines the duties, privileges, and details about every aspect of North German government. It has been amended a number of times, but the last of these amendments was done in 1941 to officially constitutionalize a number of reforms enacted in the Interwar Era that had been discarded by the wartime government during the second Great War.
See here for the list of North German monarchs
The Reich is legally defined as a federation of German States north of the river Main under the presidency of Prussia. The Sovereign of Prussia is automatically the bearer of Bundespräsidium and holds the equal titles of North German Emperor (Norddeutscher Kaiser) and North German Federal President (Norddeutscher Bundespräsident).
Constitutionally speaking, the Emperor represents the Empire among nations, has the sole right to declare war and conclude peace in the name of the same, enter into alliances and other conventions with foreign countries, accredit ambassadors and receive them. Some of his powers are limited, for example an unprompted declaration of war requires the consent of the Bundesrat and the Reichstag as well. Similarly, those treaties under jurisdiction of the legislature require said legislature's ratification.
The Emperor has the right to convene the two chambers, open, adjourn, or close them. Constitutionally, he has the right to appoint the Chancellor, though it is tradition to "appoint" a candidate provided by the ruling coalition at any given election. The Emperor's assent is required for a bill passed by the two Chambers to become law. The Emperor has the right to decree an Imperial Law independent from the two Chambers, though that can be limited or overturned by a vote from the two chambers.
The Emperor appoints the Imperial officials, requires them to take the oath of allegiance, and dismisses them when necessary, and furthermore, any form of Bundesexekution against a member-state of the Confederation requires the assent of the Emperor.
The North German succession law follows that of the Prussian crown. Until early 1953, Prussia followed Salic Law, a form of succession that restricts the pool of potential heirs to males of the patrilineage, altogether excluding from the succession females of the dynasty and their descendants. This was changed to male primogeniture in the Prussian Landtag in 1953 at the behest of Emperor Ludwig who had no sons and had explicitly wished to abdicate. The Succession Law once again changed in 1993, following Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and Austria, to Absolute Primogeniture.
The correct form of address for the Emperor in German is "His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty, By the Grace of God, German Emperor/Empress and King/Queen of Prussia" (Seine/Ihre Kaiserliche und Königliche Majestät, von Gottes Gnaden Norddeutscher Kaiser/Kaiserin und König/Königin von Preußen)
The Current holder of the office is Empress Sophie who was crowned Queen of Prussia, and Duchess of Limburg and recognized as North German Empress by the Bundesrat and Reichstag on 16 July 2014 after her father's abdication. The heir apparent to the throne is Empress Sophie's younger brother, Karl Friedrich as the Empress has no children yet.
The Imperial Chancellor
The North German Chancellor, officially the Imperial Chancellor (or Federal Chancellor) of North Germany, is the chief executive officer of the North German Government. Constitutionally, the Emperor has the sole right to appoint a chancellor, advised by the ruling coalition in the Reichstag. Traditionally, the Chancellor is functionally appointed by the winning coalition at the beginning of every new term. A Chancellor-Candidate (Kanzlerkandidat) is the leading candidate for the federal election by every party, and the candidate of the largest party in a coalition usually becomes the Federal Chancellor after being received and appointed by the Emperor. The Imperial (or Federal) Government (Reichsregierung) consists of the Federal Chancellor and their cabinet of secretaries (Reichssekretär).
The Chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Constitution and their status as leader of the party -or coalition- holding the majority of seats in the Reichstag. The Chancellor has generally always been a leading member, if not the very chairman, of their own party.
The office of the Chancellor was originally very different during the early years of the North German nation, but much of the Bismarckian precedents were discarded in the late prewar and the interwar eras. By the time the Constitution was amended in 1941, none of the Bismarckian precedents remained in effect. The Cabinet members are appointed formally on the recommendation of the Chancellor with no parliamentary approval. The Chancellor has the right to set the number of ministers and dictate their specific duties without a limit. The current Chancellery has 9 ministers.
The Chancellor is responsible for all government policies. Formal policy guidelines issued by the Chancellor are legally binding directives that cabinet ministers must implement. They are expected to introduce specific policies at the ministerial level that reflect the chancellor's broader guidelines. Ministers are otherwise given autonomy and are free to supervise departmental operations and prepare legislative proposals without cabinet interference as long as they are consistent with the Chancellor's guidelines.
The Chancellor must appoint one of the cabinet ministers as Vice Chancellor, who also functions as deputy for the chancellor should they be absent or unable to perform their duty. Traditionally, the highest ranking minister of the second biggest party in a leading coalition is is a Vice Chancellor. The Chancellor cannot be removed from office before the end of their term by vote, though the Emperor has the right to dismiss the Chancellor under specific circumstances.
The correct style of address in German is His/Her Excellency the Imperial Chancellor (Seine Excellenz der Reichskanzler or Ihre Exzellenz die Reichskanzlerin)
The current Chancellor is Richard Lagenmauer, who was originally elected in 2011, reelected in 2013 and 2017. The Chairman of the National North German Party, he is the first North German Chancellor not to be born in Europe as he was born in Wastrecht, one of North Germany's overseas states.
North German legislature is divided into two chambers. The Reichstag (Imperial Diet) and the Bundesrat (Federal Council). The former is elected through proportional representation on a federal level, while the latter is elected or appointed independently with its number of "votes" or seats decided assymetrically dependent on its population, area, and influence on the nation. A bill can become law if it passes the two chambers, is assented by the Emperor, and countersigned by the Imperial Chancellor.
The Bundesrat is made up of representatives from the various states. In North German Constitutional law, it is not technically a parliament chamber, but it is generally assumed to be so as it functions similarly to most other upper houses. Each state is allocated a specific number of votes. Delegates from the states may vote in their state or their party's interest. Larger, more powerful states like Prussia or Hanover have more votes. Where legislature affects only certain states, only those states' delegates are allowed to vote. The Emperor's sole function in the Bundesrat is to act as a tiebreaker. A member of the Bundesrat can not be a member of the Reichstag, and all representative members are given Imperial Protection.
The Constitution establishes a number of permanent committee in the Bundesrat:
The military, including navy, fortifications, airforce, and the recently-established space-force
Duties and taxation
Commerce and trade
The railways, post, and telegraphs
At least four states have to be represented on each committee. Each state is allowed one vote.
Membership of the Reichstag are elected by universal suffrage (interpreted to mean suffrage for all citizens who have completed their military service). A secret ballot is guaranteed. Members of the Reichstag are constitutionally allowed to legislate on all matters that are not solely the duty of the Bundesrat, and cannot legislate against the Constitution. Functionally, the Cabinet and the Chancellor are members of the Reichstag, and the Chancellor acts as its chairman while in duty.