The Papal State
The Papal States (Italian: Stato Pontificio), is a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until now in 1840. They are among the Powers of Europe, as they and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies have effectively split the peninsula north/south. At their zenith, the Papal States now cover most of the regions in the North, other than the Kingdom of Austro-Hungary in the east. These holdings are considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.
By 1840, must of Italy had been split by Two Sicilies and the Papal State, with a slight advantage to the Papal State. Being in the north and not isolated from the rest of Europe which could be considered a blessing and a curse. But yet the Papal State holds a friendly relationship with its neighbor of the south, as a leader of the faith shouldn't be a warmongering barbarian.
The territories are also referred to variously as the State(s) of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States. To some extent, the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed.
Painting of Pope Gregory XVI
Reference style: His Holiness
Spoken style: Your Holiness
Religious style: Holy Father
Posthumous style: None
The Pope ~ Leader of the Faith and the Nation
Pope Gregory XVI (Latin: Gregorius XVI), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, is head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal State from 2 February 1831- He has adopted the name Mauro upon entering the religious order of the Camaldolese.
Strongly conservative and traditionalist, he opposed democratic and modernizing reforms in the Papal State and throughout Europe, seeing them as fronts for revolutionary leftism. Against these trends Gregory XVI sought to strengthen the religious and political authority of the papacy. In the encyclical Mirari vos, he pronounced it "false and absurd, or rather mad, that we must secure and guarantee to each one liberty of conscience". He encouraged missionary activity abroad and condemned the slave trade. However, his harsh repression, financial extravagance, and neglectfulness left him deeply unpopular domestically.
He is the most recent pope to take the pontifical name "Gregory", and the most recent non-bishop to become pope.
The Palatine Guard was formed in 1850 by Pope Pius IX, through the amalgamation of two older units of the Papal Army. The corps was formed as an infantry unit. Where it participated in skirmishes on the Papal-Sicilian border. After which the namesake was handed over to the whole of the Papal States Army. Where most units now have "Palatine Guard" in their unit-name. (example: 72nd Palatine Guard)
The Noble Guard was formed in 1801 by Pope Pius VII. The regiment was formed as a heavy cavalry unit. It is the cavalry Units of the Papal State, being referred to as the "Cavalry Guard" as well. Along with this, it patrols the streets of Rome and the surrounding area. The Famed "Papal Winged Hussars" are also a part of the Noble Guard.
The Pontifical Swiss Guard was formed in 1506 by Pope Julius II. The unit was formed as the personal bodyguard of the Pope. At various points in its history, the Swiss Guard has seen active service. It has maintained this stance as there is no other reason that should be used. Only a select few of the elite of the elite become Swiss Guardee/s.
The Papal Gendarmerie Corps was formed in 1816 by Pope Pius VII, originally under the name of Papal Carabinieri Corps. The unit was formed as a military police unit. In 1849 Pope Pius IX renamed it as the Papal Velites Regiment, and subsequently as the Papal Gendarmerie Corps. It saw active military engagements in the battles which culminated in the abolition of the Northern Italian States of Genoa and Milan in 1837.