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by The Most Serene Republic of Montevento. . 1,078 reads.

OVERVIEW | Most Serene Republic of Montevento

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HOME | INFORMATION | GOVERNMENT | FOREIGN AFFAIRS | TOURISM | DEFENSE | ECONOMY | EDUCATION
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Dipartimento di
Informazione Pubblica

Department of Public Information of Montevento
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Most Serene Republic of Montevento
Serenissima Repubblica di Montevento

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Motto: Non Ducor, Duco.
"Non sono guidato, guido." (Italian)
"I'm not led, I lead." (English)

Anthem: La Fedelissima (The Most Faithful)

Link



General Information

Capital
and largest city

San Giovanni
546'15''N 5554'30''W


Official
language

Italian

Regional
language

Monteventani Italian
Spanish


Independence

1819 - Spanish Empire
(As part of Gran Colombia)
1831 - Gran Colombia
(As an independent nation)

People

Total
Population

5.753.373 (est. 2018)

Density

12,4/km

Growth

+1.3% (2018)


Demonym(s)

Monteventani
Monteventi
Monteventano/a/e


Ethnic groups

82,5% Italian
13,2% Hispanic
1,7% Other European
1,3% African
0,8% Native Americans
0,2% Other

Religion

71,2% No religion
28,0% Christianism
0,8% Others

Territories

Total Area

462.325 km

Water Area

19.859 km (4,3%)


Highest
Point

Mount Roraima
(2.762 metres)

Average
Height

156 metres

Economy

Currency

Monteventani Florin ()

GDP (nominal)

318,9 Billions

GDP per capita

55.429

HDI

0.901 - Very High

Gini

31.4 - Medium

Government

Type

Unitary Presidential Republic
(Dogeship)

Doge

Christian Saavedra
(Partito Nazionale di Montevento)


Legislature

National Council

First Councillor

Mario Giovanetti
(Partito Rosso)


>> GENERAL INFORMATION⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

Montevento, officially the Most Serene Republic of Montevento (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Montevento) is a sovereign nation located in the northern coast of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Amazon Rainforest to the south. Montevento is home to an estimated 5.75 million people of whom around a quarter live in the capital city of San Giovanni. The country is a member of the United Forum of Nations and is regarded internationally as one of the most pacifist and neutral nations of the world, staying out of most world conflicts since its independence and only maintaining a very reduced number military forces, which are mostly used for ceremonial purposes or pace missions abroad. The country has a total extension of 462.325 km, giving it a population density of only 12,4/km, one of the lowest in the world and well below the South American average.

Palazzo Ducale, seat of the government

Most of Montevento's territories are covered by a very dense tropical rainforest, which makes populating the areas far from the coast practically impossible, as it would leave the settlements very isolated from the rest of the country, only being able to connect with other population centres via boats or air. Environmental laws also heavily restrict the development of infrastructure in those areas, only allowing small amounts of sustainable forestry and agriculture.

Tourism is the country's main source of income, as thousands of tourists visit the country yearly to see the well preserved rainforests that the country has to offer, with guided tours being organized every day by the Ministry of Tourism. Another very popular attraction for tourists during summer are the wonderful Monteventani beaches, especially those located in Santadras, as well as the very well preserved colonial architecture that can be found in almost every city of the country due to the past of Montevento as an Italian colony from 1609 to 1819.

The country is governed as a unitary parliamentary republic, with Doge Christian Saavedra as head of state and the Consiglio Nazionale as the nation's Parliament. Historically, Montevento has always been a very democratic nation, usually ranking among the most politically free in the world as a full democracy. The political sphere of the country is heavily influenced by a political way of thinking named as "Spallanism", in honour of its founder, Mauro Spalla, which to this day remains as one of the most influential figures in Monteventani history, usually being named as the "Father of the Republic". Spallanism is considered a mixture of left and right wing policies, centered around the protection of human life and the environment, a marked anticlericalism, heavily investing in public education and a strong emphasis in meritocracy.


>> HISTORY⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

⠀⠀ >> More information about Montevento's History

  • Pre-Colonial Era

Indigenous settlement of Montevento dates back to 3,000 BC. The largest tribes were the Arawak, a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area. The Carib also settled in the area and eventually conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi (Kupali Yum, meaning "tree of the forefathers") at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast, smaller groups of indigenous people lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio, Tri, Warrau, and Wayana.

  • Italian Establishment in Montevento

Ferdinando I of Tuscany
Although the Spanish were the first to sight the Monteventani lands in 1498 during Christopher Columbus third voyage to the Americas, it was not until 1608 when Ferdinando the First of Tuscany ordered an expedition under the leadership of the English captain Robert Thornton, with the intentions of exploring northern Brazil and the Amazon river and prepare for the establishment of a settlement in northern coastal South America that would be used as a base to export Brazilian woods and other goods to Italy.

Ferdinando gave Thornton a galleon named as "Santa Luca de Bonaventura" and a tartane (a small ship used both as a fishing ship and for coastal trading in the Mediterranean), to start the exploration. The expedition sailed from the port of Livorno on September 8, 1608. When Thornton returned to Livorno on July 12, 1609 he found Ferdinando I dead, and his successor Cosimo II was initially uninterested in the establishment of a colony.

Robert Thornton didn't come alone back from America, as he brought with him some Arawak indigenous natives and a few tropical parrots in his galleon. Most of those natives eventually died from smallpox, but one lived at the Medici court for several years, and learnt to speak Italian. He often talked about the richness and fertility of their native land, speaking of a country rich in silver and gold and Thornton asserted that the country was rich in rosewood, wild sugar canes, white pepper, balsam, cotton and many other kinds of merchandise which would form an abundant commerce for the Tuscans.

All of this eventually convinced Cosimo II to allow and support a second expedition to the Americas in 1610, this time with clear orders to establish a colony with settlers from Livorno and Lucca.

  • Colonial Era

Thornton's second expedition was described as a complete success, managing to create a little settlement in the region. The colony was named as "Montevento", It's believed that this name came from what the settlers of the second expedition experienced while arriving to the New World, according to Thornton's log; "A storm of great dimensions and strong winds had caught us, and many of the people that came with us to settle these new lands had already started to fear the worst, when we saw it, a hill in the horizon! we had finally reached land!" . That hill was later nicknamed as "Il Monte del vento" by the new settlers. That phrase probably started to be regarded as the name of the settlement, eventually becoming "Montevento".

The Italians there quickly drew the attention of the native people of the area, who at the start were hostile to their new neighbours, but eventually were pacified and slowly integrated into the colony and used as workforce for the developing sugar, pepper and cotton plantations that started to appear all around the territories.

The colony proved to be lucrative enough to keep its development, and eventually controlled large areas of the coastal territories and even some of the rainforest, from where large amounts of rosewood were obtained. An increasing amount of Italians also travelled to the new colony, with promises of great wealth and the possibility of a new life in the Americas. The city of San Giovanni (named after Tuscany's patron saint, Giovanni Battista) was founded 10 years after the arrival of the first Italians to the region, and eventually became the preferred place of arrival for new settlers due to its excellent position on the coast, near to very fertile lands to the south, becoming the political and administrative centre of the colony.

For most of its existence, the colony remained at peace, with little to no interactions with the colonies that both Spain and Portugal had established nearby. The cooperation between the colonial territories and its overlords in Italy was also optimal, and almost everyone was quite content with the situation, that led the country to a status quo for more than 100 years.

  • Independence

For most of its existence Montevento was controlled by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, from the times of the first settlements in 1610 to 1799 when during the French Revolutionary Wars the Duchy was seized by the French and eventually dissolved to form the Kingdom of Etruria in 1801 under the house of Bourbon-Parma. This meant that Montevento now was under control of the newly formed Kingdom.

Etruria lasted less than a decade, as in 1807 the Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed between the French Emperor and the King of Spain, which determined the annexation of Etruria to France and giving Montevento to Spain, becoming part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. In this short amount of time, Montevento went from being an Italian colony to a Spanish one, despite the cultural differences between the two.

Nonetheless, that would not last either, as the territories of the viceroyalty gained full de facto independence from Spain between 1819 and 1822 after a series of military and political struggles, uniting in a Federal Republic known as Gran Colombia, which eventually was dissolved in 1831 due to the political differences that existed between supporters of federalism and centralism in the nation, as well as regional tensions among the peoples that made up the republic. It broke into the successor states of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Montevento, who was for the first time in more than 200 years owner of its own future.

  • The South American Tuscany

Streets of San Giovanni in 1920
Once independent, the country quickly achieved its organisation, established a Republic as a form of government, consolidated its democracy and achieved high levels of well-being and development, comparable to European standards. Because of this and its past as a Tuscan colony, Montevento began to be known internationally as "the Tuscany of South America"

Montevento was one of the first countries to establish by law the right to divorce in 1925 and one of the first countries in the world to establish the right to women's suffrage in 1921. In addition, it was also one of the first nations that established by law a free, compulsory and secular educational system in 1926.

There was also a great economic boom in the country around these times, being the main economic activities of the country the same that had been performed since colonial times; the cultivation of sugarcane and the export of high quality wood. In addition to this, Montevento developed powerful industries related to the cultivation of bananas, cassava and other tropical fruits that were also exported to several countries, mainly in Europe.

Around 1930 the country began a rapid industrialization, through which Montevento began producing large quantities of products that were previously imported from Europe, resulting in a huge drop in unemployment in the country and a new economic momentum that maintained the Monteventani economy in uninterrupted growth until 1950.

  • Actuality

Currently the Republic of Montevento continues to maintain many of its colonial traditions, maintaining a typically Italian culture that has barely differentiated, generating a feeling of closeness to Europe much greater than that of most South American countries.

Montevento continues to be a leading country in terms of diplomacy and human rights, being usually a mediator in several international conflicts due to its strong neutrality. Montevento has been one of the first countries to legalize equal marriage in 2002 and euthanasia in 2005. As of 2008 Montevento is also one of the only western countries in the world to ban Tobacco and heavily restrict the access to alcohol, relying on public campaigns to show the adverse effects of these drugs, achieving great success.

At the present, the Monteventani economy is stable, although it has begun to change with respect to the traditional practices that are carried out in the country, since for more than 20 years, the government has sought to focus the country on a tourist economy.


>> GEOGRAPHY

The Kaieteur Falls in Western Montevento
The territory of Montevento is part of the South American Caribbean and is made up of a total of 462,325 km, being limited to the north by the Atlantic Ocean and to the south and east by the Amazon Jungle. The country has a total of 1.223 km of coastlines and 3.363 km of land borders. Most of its territories are covered by tropical rainforest, containing a great diversity of flora and fauna. The relatively small population of the nation mostly lives along the coast or near big rivers.

Topography

Most of the country is made up of rolling hills but plateaus and flat-topped mountains are common, especially at the southern parts of the nation. The Mount Roraima, which is part of the Pakaraima range, peaks at 2.762 metres being the highest point of the country. It is located right at the western border of Montevento (only around 10% of the Mount is actually inside Monteventani lands). The mountain has held a special significance for the indigenous people of the region, and it is central to many of their myths and legends. The Pemon and Kapon natives see Mount Roraima as the stump of a mighty tree that once held all the fruits and tuberous vegetables in the world

Hydrography

Montevento is a water-rich country. Numerous rivers flow into the Atlantic Ocean, generally in a northward direction. A number of rivers in the western part of the country, however, flow eastward into the Essequibo River, which is the longest river of the nation and also the largest between the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. The Essequibo flows to the north for 1.014 kilometres through forest and savanna into the Atlantic Ocean with an average discharge of 2.104 cubic metres per second.

Waterfalls generally limit water transport to the lower reaches of each river. Some of the waterfalls of Montevento are among the most spectacular of the world, but are relatively unknown to the most people; for example, the Kaieteur Falls on the Potaro River drop 251 metres, more than four times the height of Niagara Falls. Other enormous waterfalls are the Cosimo II Falls (also named as King Edward VIII Falls by the English) with 256 m, Kumerau Falls (190 m) and the Oshi Falls (160 210 m). In the country are known to exist more than 200 rapids and more than 70 large waterfalls.

Climate

Lying near the equator, Montevento has a tropical rainforest climate according to the Kppen climate classification. Temperatures do not vary much throughout the year. The year has two wet seasons, from December to early February and from late April to mid-August.

Although the temperature never gets dangerously high, the combination of heat and humidity can at times seem oppressive, with an average high of 32 C and an average low of 24 C in the hottest month (July), and an average range of 29 to 23 C in February, the coolest month. The highest temperature ever recorded in the capital of [url=]San Giovanni was 37.7 C and the lowest 16.6 C. Humidity averages 70 percent year-round.


>> REGIONS OF MONTEVENTO

The Most Serene Republic of Montevento is an unitary state, meaning that it is governed as a single entity in which the central government is ultimately supreme. However, the Constitution of Montevento establishes that the country is divided in administrative regions, which exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. There are several administrative regions:

  • Provinces: The Provinces are the subdivisions of higher hierarchy. They are governed by a President, although it is more usual to refer to them as "Governors", together with a council of 50 people, named as the "Provincial Council". All members of the provincial government are elected via universal suffrage during the Provincial Elections every 4 years. The provincial government is responsible for things that affect the entire Province, such as the maintenance of roads, services between cities and the creation of laws and decrees that only make sense within the territory of a particular Province and would be unnecessary, counterproductive or redundant in others. In total, there are 5 provinces: Fiume D'Oro, Costa Grande, Terra Nuova, Essequibo and Nuova Italia.

  • Municipalities: Each province is divided in Municipalities, which also receive the name of Communes (Comuni). Each Municipality is governed by a Municipal Mayor or Sindaco municipale, together with a group of 9 people who are known as Communal Councilors or Consiglieri della Comunit, which are meant to be distributed proportionally between the cities that are inside each municipality. Although the municipalities are second in the hierarchical order, they are not very relevant, and are in charge of very specific things that affect cooperation and coordination between the cities of the same municipality. All members of the municipal government are elected during the Provincial Elections every 4 years.

  • Cities: Each municipality contains a certain number of cities. Each city has its own city government, composed by a Mayor (or Sindaco) and a Council of 5 unsalaried aediles (edili) which form the Assembly of the city. The mayor is given almost total administrative authority and a clear, wide range of political independence, with the power to appoint and dismiss city officials without needing the approval of the Assembly or any public input, while the Assembly is responsible of the regulation of cultural activities, the naming of streets and public places, and the placement of monuments; it also responds, approves or rejects proposals of the Mayor in various circumstances. All members of the city government are elected during the Provincial Elections every 4 years. Some of Montevento's cities are San Giovanni (its capital), Nuova Firenze (main port and education hub) and Santadras (tourist hotspot). A full list of the Monteventani cities can be found here.

The following is a list of all the five provinces of Montevento, together with their Presidents and other important information:

PROVINCE

NAME

FLAG

MOTTO

POPULATION

AREA

CAPITAL

PRESIDENT

Costa Grande

"Insieme Siamo la Costa Grande"
("Together we are Costa Grande")

2.242.391

34.947 km

San Giovanni

Federico Dellacassa
Nuova Unione Alternativa

Fiume D'oro

"Pace, Onore e Lavoro"
("Peace, Honor and Work")

1.905.117

36.711 km

Nuova Firenze

Prudenzia Agate
Partito Nazionale di Montevento

Terra Nuova

"Montevento nato Qui"
("Montevento was born Here")

1.038.488

83,534 km

Thorntoria

Dario Pulcini
Partito Rosso

Essequibo

"Il Nostro Nile"
("Our Nile")

329.469

142.054 km

Cosimia

Gilberto Fasanella
Nuova Unione Alternativa

Nuova Italia

"Ecco Il Nostro Futuro"
("Here is our Future")

237.909

165.079 km

Villa Pioviosa

Gregorio Macari
Partito Verde


>> FLORA AND FAUNA


The Lily Flower
National Flower
Flora

Montevento has approximately 8,000 species of plants, half of them endemic. There are small scattered areas of coconut palms and herbaceous plants both on the coast and in the few savannas of the nation's territories. The most widespread region of vegetation is the jungle, which has several plants, such as the giant blackberry (Mora excelsa), various trees of multiple genus, orchids and climbing vines. All this allows to have a great wealth of forest resources, both for the extraction of rubber and for the woodworking industries, as well as for obtaining various tropical fruits. Humans have introduced the cultivation of corn, sugarcane, cassava and various kinds of peppers to various zones of Montevento.

Perhaps the most know plant species in Montevento is the Iris flower, also named as Lily, giaggiolo or giglio, which is found all around the territories of the nation. It is believed that it takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, which is also the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris. It was introduced to Montevento by the first Italian settlers coming from the city of Florence, from where the flower is one of the most important symbols. Due to the very diverse habitats of the Lily, the plant quickly adapted to the Monteventani climate and expanded across the territory, sometimes even helped by the human populations that wanted to have the symbol of their motherland present in the newly established colony of Montevento.

When Montevento became independent, the flower was already part of the culture of the locals and it became the national flower of the nation, as well as appearing in the national flag, the coat of arms and the logos of several government institutions. The symbolism of the flower was so strong and important for the Monteventani people that even the name of the national currency (Florin) comes from the name of the flower.

The iris can have many different colors, but the most common are: light purple (Pale Iris), dark purple (Iris germanica) and blue-veined white iris (Iris florentina), being the latter the most abundant in Montevento. The flower also has an important economic factor, as from its roots, called rhizomes, it is possible to extract important essences to create fine perfumes.


The Agouti
National Animal

Fauna

In Montevento there is a great diversity of mammals. In total 1,168 vertebrate species are known in the country. In jungles and swampy areas it is possible to find armadillos, capybaras, sloths, jaguars, tapirs and ocelots, as well as various species of monkeys, deer and anteaters. Montevento also has a wide variety of colorful tropical birds, including the tinamou, the cock-of-the-rock bird (genus Rupicola), the bell bird and various species of hummingbirds and macaws. Throughout the country it is possible to find sparrows, hawks and herons.

In the rivers piranhas and alligators can be commonly found, becoming plagues in the estuaries. There is also a great diversity of tropical snakes such as boas and anacondas. Insects represent an abundant group, with ants, termites, flies and mosquitoes being very characteristic.

A very common animal are the Agoutis (genus Dasyprocta). The Agoutis are the national animals of Montevento. They are Native to northern and central South America, and the southern Lesser Antilles, being present in the totality of the territories of Montevento. Their habitats include rainforests, savannas and, nowadays, cultivated fields. In the wild, they are shy animals and flee from humans, while in captivity they may become trusting.

They are related to guinea pigs and look quite similar, but are larger and have longer legs. They vary considerably in colour, being brown, reddish, dull orange, greyish or blackish, but typically with lighter underparts. Their bodies are covered with coarse hair which is raised when alarmed. They also have short, hairless tails.

They conceal themselves at night in hollow tree trunks or in burrows among roots. Active and graceful in their movements, their pace is either a kind of trot or a series of springs following one another so rapidly as to look like a gallop. They take readily to water, in which they swim well. When feeding, agoutis sit on their hind legs and hold food between their fore paws.


>> NATIONAL SYMBOLS MONTEVENTO

National Flag

Civil Ensign

Doge's Ensign

Naval Ensign

The Monteventani National Flag was designed three years after the country got its independence, in 1834, by Rodrigo Serafine, who later became the 4th democratically elected Doge in the elections of 1857. According to his writings, the Monteventani flag has the following meanings:

Regarding its colours:

  • Red: Symbolises charity, power and courage. Red was also one of the colours most commonly associated to the colony of Montevento.

  • White: Stands for peace, purity and harmony. In addition, it is the colour of the national flower of Montevento, the Iris fiorentina.

  • Green: It is a symbol of prosperity and hope. It also represents the rainforests of Montevento and the influence agriculture had in the country.

Regarding its symbols:

  • Fleur de lis: To its left, the Monteventani flag depicts the florentine fleur de lis, also known as the Giglio Fiorentino, with its stamens (the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower) showing. As a Tuscan colony, Montevento's history is closely tied to that of Florence, city from where a big part of all the settlers of the colony came from. Originally, the Giglio Fiorentino was also widely used in the colony as one of its symbols, however, it was always depicted without stamens, which were exclusively reserved for usage on symbols in the city of Florence itself. After independence, the stamens were added back, as a symbol of rebellion and independence from its old colonizers, in addition to trying to show that the new republic of Montevento had the ability to grow and prosper, being a fertile country and not sterile like the stamen-less version of the flower.

  • Cross: It was originally meant to represent Christianity, the state religion of Montevento until the Spallanist reforms of 1925, which marked the secularisation of the country and the beginning of a period of religious suppression that is still present in Monteventani culture. Despite many proposals to remove the cross from the flag, the cross managed to stay, although with a new meaning. Today it is widely accepted that the cross is another reference to Florence, in particular, to the state flag of the Republic of Florence.


>> DEMOGRAPHY

⠀⠀⠀POPULATION GROWTH⠀⠀⠀

Year*

Population

1840

230.948

1860

390.660

1900

1.824.700

1960

4.542.142

1975

4.879.752

1985

5.171.673

1996

5.490.079

2007

5.599.412

2018

5.753.373

*Years when a national census
was conducted
According to the last census, Montevento is home to 5.753.373 people. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2018 was 21.4%, 64.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 14.4% was 65 years or older. Fertility rates are comparable to those of the most developed countries, with approximately 1.6 children per mother, but it has been in constant decline since 1907, when mothers had an average of 4.45 children each.

At birth, the sex ratio in Montevento is of 1.04 males per female, and stays at that number for all age brackets under 15 years old. At the age 15 to 64, it drops to 0,5 males per female, while it goes up again at for the ages of 65 and older to 0,66 males per female. If the population is seen as a whole, there are 0,93 males per female.

Origins and Ethnicity

Most Monteventanis are descended from colonial-era settlers and immigrants from Europe with almost 98% of the population being of either sole or partial European descent, with the majority of them being Italians (82,5%), followed by Spaniards (13,2%) and smaller numbers of other Europeans, like French, Germans, Portuguese, British (mostly English or Scots) and Irish. There are also small communities of Hungarians, Jews (from Polish descent mostly), Lithuanians, Armenians and Austrians who managed to, despite their small numbers, become quite influential in the country (An example of this is the current Doge of Montevento, who has Austrian origins).

Amerindian culture is almost extinct, as there are only 46.027 people (0,8%) in the country who declare to have native origins. This is the result of the policies of "Italianization" pushed forward by the colonial government of the nation, which sought to assimilate in an extensive way the indigenous cultures that were in the area in a very deep way, causing a large part of these people to completely abandon the territories of Montevento to avoid having to accept the culture of their colonizers.

Due to this, life within Montevento is very reminiscent of Europe, especially Western Europe, with Montevento sharing very little in common with its other South American neighbours, where the culture mixed more easily between natives and settlers.

Demographic distribution

Almost 90% of the population of Montevento live near the Atlantic Coast in an area of about 10% of the national territory, as the rest of the country is covered by a dense rainforest, making the creation of settlements in those areas near impossible. Almost all of the population lives in one of the following cities: San Giovanni, Nuova Firenze, Alcadell, Altacchia, Tivollo or Ferona (see all Monteventani cities and their populations here) During the past four decades, an estimated 700,000 Monteventanis had emigrated, principally to Europe (mostly to the Italian peninsula).

Religions

Montevento has been a secular state since its independence, and freedom of cult is guaranteed by the Constitution. Nonetheless, most part of the Monteventani population is non religious, as 71,2% declared to adhere to no religion at all in the last census. Among the non-religious, 67% are Atheists while 33% are agnostics.

Catholicism is the religion with more supporters in the nation, with around 23,7% of the population identifying themselves as Catholics. 4,3% are Protestant and other denominations of christianism account for the 0,3% of the total population. Judaism is the third largest religion, with just 0,4%.

Languages

Headquarters of the Public University of Montevento
Due to the past of Montevento as an Italian colony, Italian is the most spoken language (and only official language) in the country, as it is reported to be spoken by around 99% of the population. Spanish is the second most spoken language in the country, with around 12% of the population using it as their main language and 36% being able to speak it.

In some parts of the Province of Fiume D'Oro, Monteventani is spoken. Monteventani is an Italian dialect mixing great amount of Spanish and italian words, as well as using some characteristics of the Spanish language that are not used in classic Italian, such as the introduction of the "" in substitution of the digraph "gn" of the Italian language, resulting in words like "Bisogno" (need) to be written as "Bisoo". Another modification taken from the Spanish is the addition of a letter "s" at the end of plural words, instead of the Italian "i" (for masculine plurals) and "e" (for feminine plurals), resulting in worlds like "Mele" (plural of Mela, meaning apple) and "Alberi" (plural of Albero, meaning tree) to be written as "Melas" and "Alberos" in Monteventani.

Literacy and education

⠀⠀ >> More information about Montevento's Education

The education in Montevento is mandatory for children between 6 and 18 years old and is completely free and open for all citizens of the country, although numerous private institutions exist. Citizens' literacy levels are close to 100%, while 99% of the country's children are enrolled in institutions that offer basic education, with a graduation level of 97%. There are no relevant distinctions between the literacy or basic graduation levels between males and females.

91% of young people between 12 and 18 years old are enrolled in intermediate level institutions, with a graduation level of 88%. 64% of the population attend or have attended to an University, while 47% have a university degree of some kind. Women have slighter higher university enrolment than men, but are far more likely to graduate, as around 71% of all women that start attending to an University end up graduating while only 58% of the men do.

Montevento provides free university education to all its citizens, being the only requirement passing a simple test of basic knowledge and academic skills. In 2019 the test was passed by 88% of all people who took it, 56% being women and 44% men.


>> CULTURE

The Monteventani culture is the result of hundreds of years of Italian presence in the region, being the Tuscan culture especially important and influential in the country. The culture of Montevento nas not been heavily influenced by neighbouring or native cultures, although over time some characteristics of Spanish and Latin culture have slowly been incorporated into the day-to-day life of the citizens of Montevento.

Gestures

the "Cheek screw"
Monteventani gestures are mostly adopted from Southern European culture, with hand gestures and tones being all used commonly throughout the country. While speaking, Monteventanis tend to be very expressive with their hands, with around 250 specific hand gestures identified, always doing a great amount of movements and making body language a very important part of the Monteventani way of speaking.

One very common gesture made by people from Montevento is the "Cheek screw", which consists on putting one index finger on the cheek while rotating it like if it were a screw. This gesture is used mostly to show that something is delicious. Parents also use this gesture to encourage children to eat. It can also be used to signal that someone is really beautiful, but its mainly done by men and is not considered to be very polite. The Cheek screw is also very common in Italy.

Cheek kissing is very common in Montevento and is the standard way of greeting friends, family and acquaintances, and is usually used in formal situations too. Cheek kissing is also the standard way to present yourself to new people. Unlike in some other countries where Cheek kissing is also common and generally only used for greetings between women, or a woman and a man, cheek kissing between men is also common and socially acceptable in Montevento, often replacing the characteristic handshakes.

Cuisine

A typical Focaccia

The cuisine of Montevento is strongly influenced by the Italian, but with a unique touch that makes it different but still resembling the most iconic Italian dishes. Simplicity is central to the Monteventani cuisine, with many dishes having only two to four main ingredients as Monteventani cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Legumes, bread, cheese, vegetables, mushrooms and fresh fruit are all commonly used.

The typical Monteventani menu consists of at least four dishes: antipasto, primo piatto (first course), secondo piatto (second course) and dolce (dessert). The antipasto is usually formed by small delicacies such as olives, grapes, seafood, sausages, cooked vegetables or cheeses. The primo piatto is a dish based on pasta, rice or soups of various types while the secondo piatto is usually meat or fish with some accompaniment (usually referred as the contorno). The dolce is usually gelato, tiramisu, fruits or sorbet (a frozen dessert made from sugar-sweetened water with flavoring)

Pizza and a variety of different pastas (among which Ravioli, Canneloni, Tortellini and the speciality of the country, the Gnocchi stand out) are all very characteristic of Montevento, but the most traditional Monteventani food is Focaccia, which is a flat oven-baked bread product, similar in style and texture to pizza dough, covered with herbs and other food products such as onions, tomatoes, anchovies, roasted red and green peppers, black olives and oregano.

A characteristic drink of Montevento is the Mate, a caffeine-rich infused drink. Unlike most Monteventani foods, it does not have an Italian origin, and was instead brought from other South American nations to Montevento, where it became increasingly popular. It is prepared by steeping dried leaves of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in hot water and is served with a metal straw from a shared hollow calabash gourd. Mate is traditionally drunk in a particular social setting, such as family gatherings or with friends and Mate drinking in public is completely normal, as many people can be seen walking around the cities drinking it.

Alcohol, Tobacco & drug consumption

The consumption of alcoholic beverages in Montevento is one of the lowest in the world, probably due to the high taxes that are applied to all types of alcoholic beverages sold in the country. In some cases the tax can increase the price of product in more than 200%, making it prohibitively expensive, even for the richest citizens. The money collected through this tax is used in its entirety to provide citizens addicted to alcohol with the care and treatment necessary to cure their addiction completely free of charge.

The state also finances advertising campaigns informing its citizens of the possible consequences of excessive alcohol consumption. Monteventani schools also include the topic in their educational program.

Smoking Tobacco is forbidden by law in the entirety of the Monteventani territories since 2008, being Montevento one of the few countries in the world to prohibit it. Before the ban, roughly 1/6 of Monteventani adults smoked tobacco. The penalty for businesses that allow smoking or sell tobacco is a fine of around 1,100 or a three-day closure. Despite some initial backlash, recent polls show that the Tobacco ban has good support rates, with around 64% of the population declaring that they support it.

Like with alcohol, the state also finances advertising campaigns informing its citizens about the possible consequences of smoking and it is part of the educational program of Monteventani Schools.

Marijuana is also banned in Montevento, but medical usage has been allowed since 1990. Medicinal marijuana can be bought at any pharmacy in the nation, without age requirements and as long as a medical prescription is presented.

the Tricentennial Stadium
Sports

Sports in Montevento have been a key element to the culture since the nation's independence. Sports inside the country are very popular, being Football the preferred sport by the Monteventanis, who can be found playing it almost in every park of every city. Every time the local team has a match, the whole country goes silent as everyone watches them on TV or hears them on the radio. When a victory is achieved, the streets usually find themselves full of fans cheering and celebrating.

Despite the small population of Montevento, the country has achieved a certain degree of success in various international competitions in the field of sport, especially in football. Many Montevento football players have stood out for their great abilities, managing to have very successful careers internationally, even going so far as to play for the most recognised and prestigious teams in the world.

Unlike what happens in many countries, football is not seen as a "men's sport" in Montevento, being equally popular with both sexes. In fact, the most common way of playing this sport in Montevento is with mixed teams of both males and females, rather than separate teams for women and men.

Montevento has a large number of stadiums built, many of which are also used for other sports, such as Rugby, Tennis, Volleyball and Basketball. The largest stadium in the country is the Tricentennial Stadium in the city of San Giovanni, which was built as a commemoration of the 300th anniversary of the arrival of European settlers in Monteventani lands. The stadium has a capacity for 60,000 people and has the best facilities, a museum and a shopping center. The Tricentennial Stadium is also usually the place where different concerts of the most prominent national and international artists are held.

Music and Art


The musical tastes of the population of Montevento are quite particular, with considerable differences with the rest of the western world and other South American countries. Naturally, most of the songs heard in Montevento are sung in Italian, but the music in English, despite globalisation, has not managed to become popular in the country with the exception of a few artists who have achieved a certain degree of success. However, songs in other Romance languages ​​did manage to become massively popular, being very common to listen to songs in Spanish, French, Portuguese and even Catalan on all the radio stations of the country, sometimes even mixing two or more languages together.

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A typical Monteventani song
As for the most popular musical genres, alternative rock stands out, with pop-rock also being very prominent. Latin pop also has a certain degree of popularity among the youngest population in the country. Other musical genres traditionally linked to Latin America are not at all popular, with cumbia, bachata, merengue, rumba, salsa and reggaeton being extremely unpopular. Montevento shares with other countries in the southern cone of South America a particular taste for Tango. Many songs tend to be a bit melancholic rather than happy or fun, which is typically attributed to the calm culture of citizens.

The use of various instruments is very characteristic of Monteventani music. Guitars, bass, drums, pianos, trumpets, violins, and accordions are all very common in the most famous musical works. Perhaps one of the most iconic characteristics of Monteventani music is the incorporation of orchestras, which no longer limit themselves to classical music or traditional pieces of art, but instead take a central role in modern and popular Monteventani music. The vast majority of songs are usually performed with the participation of large orchestras, with live performances being widely preferred over the studio versions of each song.

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A Monteventani orchestra
For this reason, most of the concerts that take place in the country are always accompanied by orchestras, with the National Symphonic Orchestra being the most prestigious of them all. It is very common in Montevento to regularly attend to concerts to simply listen to the orchestras playing their versions of various popular songs, being this one a common past-time of the citizens during weekends or during the afternoon after they leave work. Yearly, a competition named as "Festivale della Canzone Monteventani" is held to determine the best Monteventani song of the year, in which multiple orchestras compete against each other.

Holidays and special days

In Montevento there are several holidays, many of them having a historical significance for the country, while many others derive from the Catholic religion despite the fact that the country is strictly secular, due to the fact that the Monteventani culture has evolved along with Catholicism until the last few decades. Due to the secular stance of the State, many holidays with religious origins have a secular name given by the State, in order to not violate the secularism laws in place. However, most citizens still refer to these days by their traditional name, leaving aside the one given by the government.

In addition, there are also several other days of special importance in Montevento. Although they are not considered as holidays, they are recognised by the State and celebrated by a considerable number of citizens.

The Monteventani law recognizes three types of Holidays: Common, Workable and Non-Workable holidays.

Non-Workable holidays: No one can force another person to attend to their work under any circumstances during a non-workable holiday (except essential services), and all state offices are closed, as well as the vast majority of private companies. Employees who decide to attend to work must be paid twice the salary of the day.

Workable holidays: An employee may be forced to work during a Workable-Holiday, but must be paid twice the salary of the day. All State offices are closed, but most private companies operate normally or with special closing/opening times.

Common holidays: An employee can decide whether or not to attend to work during a Common Holiday without this implying any sanction, however, the employer is not required to pay him/her the day if he/she does not attend to work. All State offices, as well as private companies remain open.

The following list shows the holidays celebrated in Montevento in detail:

Local Name

English Name

Day(s)

Type

► JANUARY

Capodanno / Primo dell'Anno

New Year's Day

January 1

Non-Workable Holiday

Epifania / Befana

Epiphany

January 6

Workable Holiday

Carnevale

Carnival

January 24 & 25

Workable Holiday

► MARCH

Festa della Donna

Women's Day

May 8

Civil Holiday

Festa del Pap

Fathers's Day

March 19

Civil Holiday

► APRIL

Settimana del Turismo (Settimana Santa)

Tourism Week (Holy Week)

Non Fixed / Mobile

Common Holiday

► MAY

Festa del Lavoro

Worker's Day

May 1

Non-Workable Holiday

Festa della Mamma

Mothers's Day

May 10

Civil Holiday

► JULY

Giorno dell'indipendenza

Independence Day

July 20

Non-Workable Holiday

► OCTOBER

Giorno delle Americhe

Pan-American Day

October 12

Workable Holiday

Halloween

Halloween

October 31

Civil Holiday

► NOVEMBER

Giorno dei Morti

Day of the Dead

November 2

Workable Holiday

Festa dell'Uomo

Men's Day

November 19

Civil Holiday

► DECEMBER

Giorno della Famiglia (Natale)

Day of the Family (Christmas)

December 25

Non-Workable Holiday

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Republic of Montevento | 2021
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