Government of the Most Serene Republic of Montevento
Governo di Montevento
Logo of the Government of Montevento
18 July 1831.
San Giovanni, Montevento
Head of Government
The National Council (Italian: Consiglio Nazionale) is the legislature of Montevento, seated at the Palazzo Legislativo in San Giovanni, the nation's capital. It has a total of 250 members, denominated as Councillors (Italian: Consiglieri), all of which are elected by popular vote for four-year terms, being able to be re-elected without restrictions. One of them is selected by the Doge to become the First Councillor, who is responsible for presiding the Council's sessions and ensure that it works correctly and in an organised way. The Prime Councillor also has the duty to communicate the Executive Power all the measures taken by the Legislative Power and has the decisive vote in case of a tie during the Council's sessions.
The Judiciary Power is independent from the executive and the legislature, being its main institution the Supreme Court of Justice (Italian: Corte Suprema di Giustizia). It is formed by five members elected by the National Council by special majority (2/3 of the total votes in favour) for a ten-year term. The Supreme Court oversees all the Courts and other dependencies of the Judiciary, as well as controlling that no law passed by the National Council is unconstitutional or goes against the human rights of the citizens of the Republic.
The government still maintains some form of direct government by the citizens of Montevento, as referendums and plebiscites are regularly held regarding controversial laws. Referendums are also needed in order to approve any modifications to the Constitution of Montevento, the national symbols of the country or for the creation/dissolution of provinces within the nation.
Since its establishment in 1831, the Government of Montevento has defined itself as:
• Sovereign - The government is the only institution capable of administrating the Monteventani territories, no other nation, government, institution or person shall be allowed to meddle in Monteventani affairs.
• Unitary - The central government is ultimately supreme, and has the full right to give or take away powers form the administrative divisions (Provinces) of Montevento.
• Secular - Article 7° of the Constitution forbids the state from adhering to a religion or going against the freedom of cult of its citizens.
• Pacifist - The government rejects all forms of warlike conflict in the world, considering that the only valid way to resolve a conflict is through dialogue and international laws.
• Humanist and Pluralist - Every person is equal before the law and the rights to life, honor, freedom, security, work and property.
• Liberal - The government defends individual and social freedom in the political sphere and private initiative in the economic and cultural sphere, limiting the intervention of the State and political powers in these areas.
The current Government of Montevento is shaped according to the results of the 2019 National Elections, held at the end of November after Guido Rulli resigned as the Doge of the Republic. The National Elections in Montevento usually have two rounds of voting. During the first one, all the candidates of all political parties compete against each other and the seats in the National Council are given accordingly to the amount of votes obtained by each political party. In order to be elected as Doge in the first round, a candidate must obtain at least 50% of the valid votes.
If no candidate obtains said amount of votes, a second round is held, where only the two most voted candidates of the first round compete. The candidate that obtains the most votes during the second round, is declared as the next Doge of Montevento.
Second Round Results
First Round Results
62 (▲ 27)
101 (▲ 8)
53 (▼ 43)
18 (▼ 7)
15 (▲ 15)
1 (▬ 0)
DOGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MONTEVENTO
(Period: 2019 - 2023)
Incumbent: Christian Saavedra
In office since December 7, 2019
Preceded by: Guido Rulli
See the full list of past Doges
Palazzo Ducale di
Popular Vote Election
ƒ 11.530 (monthly)
18 July 1831 (first)
To the date, there have been a total of 21 people who assumed the position of Doge legally during the history of the country, while 2 held it illegally (Dante Maraldo from 1860 to 1872 and Lisandro Bartone from 1908 to 1920), establishing a total of 31 different dogeships, as many Doges have been re-elected during the course of history. Regarding the term of the mandate for which they were elected (not counting the current or illegal Dogeships), seventeen ended their mandate without complications, one was assassinated (Rodrigo Serafine in 1860), one was forced to resign (Beato Fare in 1908), one died in office (Glauco Fiandaca in 1998) and one resigned (Guido Rulli in 2019). In addition, two First Councillors took over as Doge after the position became vacant upon Doge's death/resignation.
The current Doge is Christian Saavedra, who was sworn into office on December 7, 2019 after being elected during the 2019 National Elections after the resignation of the then Doge Guido Rulli due to health reasons.
⠀⠀◆⠀ Eligibility & Limitations
The Monteventani Constitution on its Article 65° and 66° establishes the limitations and requirements to be able to exercise the position. It is necessary to have a natural citizenship of Montevento, that is, to have been born within the territory of the Republic or to have been born outside of it but with a mother, father, grandfather or grandmother born in Montevento. Those people who do not have natural citizenship but do have legal citizenship (see citizenship in Montevento) must have resided in Montevento for at least 30 years before they can apply for the position. Non-citizens cannot access the position under any circumstances.
There is no minimum age required to stand as a candidate, although because Monteventani citizenship is temporarily suspended for all persons under the age of 18, it is necessary for the Doge to be at least that age. The youngest Doge was Mauro Spalla, who took over at just 28 years old.
A person who exercises the position of Doge is prohibited from any type of political activity, from being part of political commissions or clubs, from acting in the governing bodies of parties, or from intervening in any way in political propaganda of an electoral nature. On the day of their inauguration, they must resign from their political party. This limitation is justified by the fact that the Doge is the representative of all the citizens of the country and his loyalty must be with the country and not with political organisations.
A Doge is also prohibited from holding any other type of office in the nation's government or holding other jobs outside of government, since according to the constitution, the sole professional concern of a Doge must be the government and prosperity of the nation.
⠀⠀◆⠀ Powers and Duties of the Doge
He is in charge of organising the implementation of the laws approved by the National Council issuing the special regulations necessary for their implementation. In addition, he may pass decrees and veto laws approved by the National Council if he sees it fit. Like any other Monteventani, he has the right to propose bills or amendments to laws previously enacted, but his proposals are directly addressed by the National Council with preference over other proposals.
The Doge can also choose all the members of the Council of Ministers as he pleases and can replace them by any given reason if he believes they are not doing a good job. In addition, he can also dismiss public employees for misfeasance, malfeasance or nonfeasance.
He is also in charge of the international representation of Montevento, managing the diplomatic relations of the country, delegating said capacity to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and appointing and removing ambassadors if needed. He can also negotiate treaties with foreign leaders, but needs the ratification of the legislature once an agreement is reached.
He has great influence on the preparation of the state budget, being able to make modifications to it according to what he considers pertinent, although this task is not exclusive to him, since it must have the approval of the National Council.
Finally, he has the ability to declare a "state of emergency" when necessary, allowing him to make decisions that he normally could not.
The Council of Ministers is a high governmental organisation that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration helping the Doge to manage the Executive power. Each ministry is headed by a Minister appointed directly by the Doge of the Republic, who is completly free to choose whoever he or she wants for the position as long as that person accepts the appointment and is also free to dismiss and replace them in any given moment. The National Council can also dismiss a minister by absolute majority.
Ministry of Defense (ONLINE: www.gov.mv/mindif)
Emiliano de Simone
Controls the branches of the military
Ministry of Social Development
Creates welfare programmes
Ministry of Economy and Finance (ONLINE: www.gov.mv/mef)
Control the nation's finances
Ministry of Education and Culture (ONLINE: www.gov.mv/mec)
Coordinate the national education
Ministry of Agriculture
Development of the agricultural sectors
Ministry of Environment
Design and apply environmental policies
Ministry of Public Heath
Protect the health of the citizens
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (ONLINE: www.gov.mv/affariesteri)
Represent the country and its views
Ministry of Transportation
Planning of public infrastructure works
Ministry of Tourism (ONLINE: www.gov.mv/mintur)
Guide, stimulate, promote, regulate,
XLII LEGISLATURE OF MONTEVENTO
December 7, 2019
After the results of the National Election were made public, the Partito Nazionale di Montevento, the Partito Rosso and the Partito Verde announced the formation of the Coalizione Multicolore in order to secure a simple majority in the National Council and allow the newly elected Doge Christian Saavedra lead a government with full support of the Council. The coalition has a total of 133 elected councillors, which is enough to pass any regular law without having the support of the opposition, led by the leftist Nuova Unione Alternativa. The government only needs the support of part of the opposition to initiate a constitutional reform or to appoint new members to the Supreme Court of Justice.
The XLII Legislature is composed of 101 councillors from Nuova Unione Alternativa, 62 from the Partito Nazionale di Montevento, 52 from Partito Rosso, 18 from Partito Verde, 15 from PAÍS and only 1 from the Partito Comunista Rivoluzionario. All the candidates for the position of Doge of the 2019 elections managed to achieve a position as councillors. Only 48 members of the Council are women, which represents about 19% of the total. The average age of the councillors is 47 being Vasco Germani from the Partito Rosso, who is 71 years old, the oldest of them all and Milo Bassani from the Partito Verde the youngest, being only 19 years old.
As part of the negotiations involved for the creation of the Coalizione Multicolore, it was agreed to give the position of First Councillor to Mario Giovanetti, who also ran for the position of Doge for the Partito Rosso and finished third with around 21% of the public vote. Due to this position, Giovanetti is responsible for ensuring the proper functioning of the Council, having the ability to temporarily expel those councillors who do not behave in a session and has the decisive vote in case of a tie in the votes on an issue. Giovanetti is also the person who holds the position of Doge in case the elected holder is not in the country, cannot perform his work due to illness or force majeure, or in case of death or resignation.
⠀⠀◆⠀ Powers of the National Council
The powers and functions of the National Council are regulated by the Constitution of Montevento in Section V, Chapter III, Article 53°.
All actions taken by the National Council are subject to approval of the Supreme Court of Justice, who can annul any law or change that is approved by the Council if it is considered as unconstitutional or that violates the human rights of the citizens of Montevento.
1.- Create Laws: The creation of the laws that rule Montevento is the main activity of the National Council. Law projects can be proposed by any Councillor and approved with simple majority (more votes in favor than against).
2.- Amend the Constitution: Any Councillor can propose a constitutional reform, but in order to be approved, a qualified majority is needed in the National Council (At least 188 votes in favor) and get at least 50% of the public vote in a national referendum.
3.- Appoint and dismiss officials: The National Council can dismiss any Minister at any given time with a absolute majority (1/2 of all the members of the Council: at least 125 votes in favor). The Doge can be impeached by qualified majority. The five members of the Supreme Court of Justice are appointed by the Council by special majority (At least 167 votes in favor). The National Council can also dismiss itself, forcing snap elections to replace all its members by special majority.
⠀⠀◆⠀ Requirements to join the Council
In order to be a candidate to join the National Council it is necessary to be a citizen of Montevento, legal citizens (see citizenship in Montevento) are required to posses their citizenship for at least 2 years at the time of presenting themselves as candidates. Candidates must be at least 18 years old at the moment of the first session of the Legislature for which they have been elected. Speaking Italian is also a requirement to become a Councillor, as the Council's sessions are spoken in Italian only.
⠀⠀◆⠀ Benefits of the Councillors
All members of the Council, as well as the Doge of the Republic, are granted partial immunity from prosecution. Before prosecuting, it is necessary that the immunity be removed, usually by orders from the Supreme Court of Justice or by the National Council itself by absolute majority. This reduces the possibility of pressing a member of the Council to change his or her vote by fear of prosecution.
All councillors also receive a monthly economic compensation of ƒ 6.826 (Six thousand eight hundred and twenty-six Monteventani Florins) for their activities governing the country.
Corte Suprema di Giustizia
Logo of the Supreme Court of Justice
November 27, 1848
Dr. Camillo Pizzitola
The Judicial Power of Montevento is defined as a hierarchical system of courts, of which, the Supreme Court of Justice (SCJ) is the main institution and highest court of the state. The SCJ is composed of 5 members who are appointed by the National Council for ten-year terms. Its objectives are to interpret and apply the laws of Montevento, to ensure equal justice under law, and to provide a mechanism for dispute resolution.
The SCJ reviews every proposal that is presented to the National Council and decides whether or not they comply with the Constitution of Montevento and if the proposal goes against the human rights of the citizens of Montevento. If the SCJ does not approve a proposal, it can't be converted into law, even if it has enough support in the National Council to approve it.
The Supreme Court also has the duty to oversee and appoint the judges of most of the lower courts. Below the Supreme Court, there are sixteen courts of appeal, each of which has three judges. Seven of the courts of appeal specialise in civil matters, four specialise in criminal matters, three cover labour law, and two focus on family matters. At the lowest tier are the justices of the peace and courts of first instance specialized in administrative, civil, criminal, customs, juvenile, and labour cases. There are also separate courts for auditing, the military and elections, among which is the Electoral Court, which organises and oversees the National Elections of Montevento.
⠀◆⠀ Current members of the SCJ
Dr. Camillo Pizzitola: Appointed as the President of the SCJ on February 7, 2011.
Dr. Luciano Regalia: Appointed as member of the SCJ on May 18, 2013.
Dr. Editta Porpora: Appointed as member of the SCJ on September 22, 2017.
Dr. Cristiano Giarratana: Appointed as member of the SCJ on August 13, 2012.
Dr. Margherita Panarese: Appointed as member of the SCJ on December 3, 2018.
⠀◆⠀ Requirements to become a Member of the SCJ
All members of the Supreme Court of Justice must be an attorney-at-law with 10 years of experience, be at least 40 years old but not older than 70 years old, be a natural citizen of Montevento or a Legal citizen of Montevento posessing their citizenship for at least 5 years at the time of getting appointed and at least 10 years of residence in the country.
Once their ten-year term is up, the same person can't be appointed again as a member until a 5 years gap between the last day in office and the day of their new appointing. Once appointed, they can't be removed until their term is up, unless medical reasons. A SCJ member can resign at any moment and for any given reason.
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