The government of Tysoania is the body responsible for the federal administration of Tysoania. Established after the abolition of the colonial government in 1886, the government of Tysoania is currently based on the 1932 version of the Tysoanian Constitution, with that document taking precedence over all other legislation as the basic building block of Tysoanian democracy and civil society. Tysoanian governing power is exercised through the Senate, Presidency, and Supreme Court.
The government of Tysoania first came into existence with the formation of a new municipal government in Amadora in 1497 following the takeover of the city by Tysoanian revolutionaries. The new government was created to secure the principles for which the uprising had been launched, and it was highly democratic and mostly decentralized as a result. As the uprising continued to spread across Spain and Portugal, the Amadora government took on responsibility for administering the rebel-held areas in the vacuum of the collapse of royalist power in those areas, and when the civil war ended in 1499, the Tysoanian government in Amadora ruled the entire Iberian Peninsula. Federal powers were quickly split off to form a separate federal government with a similar structure to that of the Amadora government, and in a bid to stabilize the nation, a temporary military council assumed control of the government while the most influential landowners and families negotiated among themselves to decide the new king of Tysoania. Finally, in 1502, King Philip I was coronated and power over the federal government was invested in him; the military council was dissolved and most federal powers were devolved to local governments in a nod to the democratic, liberal roots of the uprising. However, this failed to quell fears about the return of an autocratic tyrant to the throne and, on 31 December 1531, Philip III announced the writing of a new constitution that would establish a parliamentary democracy and relegate the monarchy to a constitutional role. The new constitution, formalized in 1532, also shifted many powers from municipal governments back to the federal government.
A peasants' strike in 1685 led the Senate to introduce a new national constitution. Known as the 1686 constitution, it reformed the provinces from minor administrative bodies into a third level of government, and gave the provinces power over natural resources, land, infrastructure, civil and criminal laws, and land taxation within those province. The federal government retained control over customs duties and trade, banking and coinage, fisheries, citizenship, immigration, and all matters relating to defense and foreign affairs, as well as areas not specifically mentioned as going to the provinces. The provinces were also redrawn, going from 4 provinces to 12, and an annexation of northwestern Africa and southern France during the Great Northern War increased that to 24 provinces.
An 1851 budget crisis, fuelled by the ongoing industrialization of Tysoania, forced the Senate to call aother constitutional convention. The resulting 1852 constitution allowed the provinces to collect income tax from their residents; this was criticized because it did not offer a solution for provinces that had a small population base and did not the funds necessary to build or maintain infrastructure. An 1872 amendment gave the federal government 10% of all provincial tax revenue for redistribution to poorer provinces, but this did not resolve the issue and it was later abolished in the 1932 constitution.
The 1932 constitution is credited with helping to shape the modern Tysoanian identity and cultural landscape: it rolled out interventionist federal programs such as national healthcare and education, nationalized several key industries, allowed the federal government to begin collecting its own income tax, and abolished the monarchy in favour of an elected presidency. Although still mildly controversial, this document is now considered the primary guiding force behind modern Tysoanian politics and governance.
The Constitution of 1932 breaks down the government into three separate branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.
The executive branch falls under the purview of the Presidency. Although the President is elected by the people of Tysoania, they hold little power over the day-to-day governance of Tysoania and are instead mostly responsible for resolving constitutional crises and representing Tysoania in the Empire of Nova Roma.
The legislative branch of the government is the Senate. Led by the Prime Minister of Tysoania, the Senate is responsible for creating legislation and governing the nation. The Senate is a 400-seat mixed-member proportional body; 200 seats are elected in first-past-the-post elections and represent local constituencies, while 200 seats are assigned based on party support nationwide. The Prime Minister is a member of the Senate that is chosen by their colleagues and is traditionally the leader of the most popular party in the Senate.
The judicial branch is represented by the 11-member Supreme Court of Tysoania, led by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Tysoania. This court reviews the legality and consitutionality of legislation and actions of the other two branches.