[b]THE NATIONAL CODE OF CHURUMDUUL[/b] Given Royal Assent on this day, 15th of May, 2019. [u]PREAMBLE[/u] WE, The Ministerial Council of His Majesty, King Sukhom-Ataninuak the Fourteenth: BLESSED by the Triple Gem, the protection of our guardian deities, the wisdom of our leaders, and the guidance of His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe fourteenth; SOLEMNLY pledging ourselves to strengthen the sovereignty of Churumduul, to secure the blessings of liberty, to ensure justice and to enhance the unity and happiness of the people; DO HEREBY ordain and adopt this National Code for the Kingdom of Churumduul on the Fifteenth Day of the Fifth Month in the year Two Thousand and Nineteen. [u]Article 1: Kingdom of Churumduul[/u] 1. Churumduul is a Sovereign Kingdom and the Sovereign power belongs to the people of Churumduul. 2. The form of Government shall be that of an Absolute Monarchy lead by His Majesty, King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth and guided by His Majesty’s advisory body, the Ministerial Council. 3. The international territorial boundary of Churumduul is inviolable and any alteration of areas and boundaries thereof shall be done only with the consent of His Majesty, King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth. 4. The National Day of Churumduul shall be the Twelfth Day of February of each year. 5. Churumduuli is the National Language of Churumduul. 6. This National Code is the Supreme Law of the Kingdom. 7. All laws in force in the territory of Churumduul at the time of adopting this National Code shall continue until altered, repealed or amended by Ministerial Council. However, the provisions of any law, whether made before or after the coming into force of this National Code, which are inconsistent with this National Code, shall be null and void. 8. The Ministry of Justice’s Supreme Committee for Interpretation of the Law (SCIL) shall be the guardian of this National Code. 9. The rights over mineral resources, rivers, lakes and forests shall vest in the State and are the properties of the State, which shall be regulated by law. 10. His Majesty’s government shall wield executive power and fulfill its obligations and responsibilities to the people through the institution of the Monarchy and the institution of the Ministerial Council and the Ministries’ incorporated duties. His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth shall be the ultimate interpreter of the National Code and the acts which it implements. [u]Article 2: The Institution of Monarchy[/u] 1. His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth is the Head of State and the symbol of unity of the Kingdom and of the people of Churumduul. 2. His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth shall lead the nation as head of the Buddhist faith and protector and counsellor of the Kingdom’s Buddhist monastic council. He shall oversee and guide the activities of the Buddha Sasana and ensure the continuation and promulgation of the Buddhist faith. 3. The title to Throne of Churumduul shall vest in the legitimate descendants of His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth as enshrined in this National Code: a. Pass only to children born of lawful marriage; b. Pass by hereditary succession to the direct lineal descendants on the abdication or demise of the His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth, in order of seniority, of either sex or gender; c. Pass to the child of the Queen who is pregnant at the time of the demise of the His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth if no heir exists under section 3(b); d. Pass to the nearest collateral line of the descendants of the His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth in accordance with the principle of lineal descent, with preference being given for elder over the younger, if His Majesty King Sukhom-Ataninuakthe Fourteenth has no direct lineal descendant; e. Not pass to children incapable of exercising the Royal Prerogatives by reason of physical or mental infirmity; and f. Not pass to a person entitled to succeed to the Throne who enters into a marriage with a person other than a natural born citizen of Churumduul. 4. Upon the ascension of the King or Queen to the Throne, the members of the Royal Family, the members of Ministerial Council and the office holders mentioned in section 19 of this Article shall take an Oath of Allegiance to the His or Her Majesty. 5. The Ministerial Council shall collectively exercise the Royal Prerogatives and the powers vested in His Majesty under this National Code and shall be composed of 17 members representing the 17 national ministries, as follows: 1. Defense 2. Home Affairs 3. Foreign Affairs 4. Information 5. Buddha Sasana 6. Education 7. Justice 8. Energy and National Resources 9. Economy and Labour 10. Transport 11. Health 12. Civil Service 13. Work and Pensions 14. Finance 15. Culture 16. Communication 17. Commerce and Investment 6. The members of the Ministerial Council shall take an Oath of Allegiance before His Majesty to faithfully discharge their duties. 7. The members of the Royal Family shall be the reigning and past Monarchs, their Queens and the Royal Children born of lawful marriage. 8. His Majesty and the members of the Royal Family shall be entitled to: a. Annuities from the State in accordance with a law made by Ministerial Council; b. All rights and privileges including the provision of palaces and residences for official and personal use; and c. Exemption from taxation on the royal annuity and properties provided for by sections 13(a) and 13(b) of this Article. 9. There shall be a Privy Council, which shall consist of two members appointed by His Majesty. The Privy Council shall be responsible for: a. All matters pertaining to the privileges of the His Majesty and the Royal Family; b. All matters pertaining to the conduct of the Royal Family; c. Rendering advice to the His Majesty on matters concerning the Throne and the Royal Family; d. All matters pertaining to crown properties; and e. Any other matter as may be commanded by His Majesty. 10. His Majesty shall not be answerable in a court of law for His actions and His person shall be sacrosanct. 11. His Majesty, in exercise of His Royal Prerogatives, may: a. Award titles, decorations, and honors in accordance with tradition and custom; b. Grant citizenship, land, monies; c. Command sentences, grant amnesty, pardon and reduce sentences; d. Command Bills and other measures to be introduced in the Ministerial Council; and e. Exercise powers relating to matters which are not provided for under this National Code or other laws. 12. His Majesty may promote goodwill and good relations with other countries by receiving state guests and undertaking state visits to other countries. 13. The His Majesty shall protect and uphold this National Code in the best interest and for the welfare of the people of Churumduul. 14. The His Majesty shall, by warrant under His hand and seal, appoint: a. The Chief Justice of Churumduul, head of the Supreme Committee for Interpretation of the Law (SCIL); b. All ministers of the High Court of Churumduul; c. The Auditor General; d. The Chief of the Royal Civil Service Commission; e. The Chairperson and members of the Anti-Corruption Commission; f. The Chief of the Defense Force; g. The Governor of the Central Bank of Churumduul; h. Ambassadors and Consuls; i. Head monks and bhikkhus and bhikkhunis of any monastery in the nation; j. And All Other Persons whom His Majesty deems worthy of the title of Chief, Commander, or other head of commission, committee, ministry, organization, or other political body. 15. The Chief Justice of Churumduul shall preside over the joint sitting of Ministerial Council. 16. The Ministerial Council shall make no laws or exercise its powers to amend the provisions of this National Code except by the express intent and permission of His Majesty. [u]Article 3: Spiritual Heritage[/u] 1. Buddhism is the spiritual heritage of Churumduul, which promotes the principles and values of peace, non-violence, compassion and tolerance. 2. The His Majesty is the protector of all religions in Churumduul. 3. It shall be the responsibility of religious institutions and personalities to promote the spiritual heritage of the country while also ensuring that religion remains separate from politics in Churumduul. Religious institutions and personalities shall remain above politics. 4. His Majesty shall, on the recommendation of the Ministerial Council, appoint a learned and respected monk ordained in accordance with the Buddhist teachings of the nation, to head the Ministry of Buddha Sasana. [u]Article 4: Culture[/u] 1. The State shall endeavor to preserve, protect and promote the cultural heritage of the country, including monuments, places and objects of artistic or historic interest, temples, language, literature, music, visual arts and religion to enrich society and the cultural life of all Churumduul’s citizens. 2. The State shall recognize culture as an evolving dynamic force and shall endeavor to strengthen and facilitate the continued evolution of traditional values and institutions that are sustainable as a progressive society. 3. The State shall conserve and encourage research on local arts, custom, knowledge and culture. 4. The Ministerial Council may enact such legislation as may be necessary to advance the cause of the cultural enrichment of Churumduul’s society. [u]Article 5: Environment[/u] 1. Every Churumduuli is a trustee of the Kingdom's natural resources and environment for the benefit of the present and future generations and it is the fundamental duty of every citizen to contribute to the protection of the natural environment, conservation of the rich biodiversity of Churumduul and prevention of all forms of ecological degradation including noise, visual and physical pollution through the adoption and support of environment friendly practices and policies. 2. The Royal Government shall: a. Protect, conserve and improve the pristine environment and safeguard the biodiversity of the country; b. Prevent pollution and ecological degradation; c. Secure ecologically balanced sustainable development while promoting justifiable economic and social development; and d. Ensure a safe and healthy environment. 3. The Government shall ensure that, in order to conserve the country's natural resources and to prevent degradation of the ecosystem, a minimum of seventy-five percent of Churumduul's total land shall be maintained under forest cover for all time. 4. The Ministerial Council may enact environmental legislation to ensure sustainable use of natural resources and maintain intergenerational equity and reaffirm the sovereign rights of the State over its own biological resources. 5. The Ministerial Council may, by law, declare any part of the country to be a National Park, Wildlife Reserve, Nature Reserve, Protected Forest, Biosphere Reserve, Critical Watershed and such other categories meriting protection. [u]Article 6: Citizenship[/u] 1. A person, both of whose parents are citizens of Churumduul, shall be a natural born citizen of Churumduul. 2. A person, domiciled in Churumduul on or before the Thirty-First of December Two Thousand and Eighteen and whose name is registered in the official record of the Government of Churumduul shall be a citizen of Churumduul by registration. 3. A person who applies for citizenship by naturalization shall: a. Have lawfully resided in Churumduul for at least three years; b. Not have any record of imprisonment for criminal offences within the country or outside; c. Be able to speak and write Churumduuli; d. Have a good knowledge of the culture, customs, traditions and history of Churumduul; e. Have no record of having spoken or acted against the teachings of the Pali Canon or against this National Code; f. Renounce the citizenship, if any, of a foreign State on being conferred Churumduuli citizenship; and g. Take a solemn Oath of Allegiance to the National Code as may be prescribed. 4. The grant of citizenship by naturalization shall take effect by a Royal Assent of His Majesty. 5. It is the right of any citizen of Churumduul to acquire the citizenship of a foreign State. However, the citizen of Churumduul is subject to the laws of the state in which they reside, take respite, or pass through. While in Churumduul, the citizen of Churumduul is subject to the laws of the Kingdom and the provisions of this National Code. 6. Subject to the provisions of this Article and the Citizenship Acts, Ministerial Council shall, by law, regulate all other matters relating to citizenship. 7. A person, having married an individual who is a citizen of Churumduul, shall acquire Churumduuli citizenship. [u]Article 7a: Fundamental Rights of the Person[/u] 1. All persons shall have the right to life, liberty and security of person and shall not be deprived of such rights except in accordance with the due process of law. 2. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to freedom of opinion and expression, so far as these opinions and expressions do not insult, injure, directly or indirectly, the eminence of the crown. a. The King shall be enthroned in a position of revered worship and shall not be violated. No person shall expose the King to any sort of accusation or action. b. Whoever defames, insults or threatens the King, the Queen, or their heirs, shall be punished with imprisonment, removal of citizenship, or other punishments as deemed fit by the Ministerial Council. 3. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to information. 4. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. No person shall be compelled to belong to another faith by means of coercion or inducement. 5. There shall be freedom of the press, radio and television and other forms of dissemination of information, including electronic. 6. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to freedom of movement and residence within Churumduul. 7. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to equal access and opportunity to join the Public Service. 8. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to air their grievances directly to a minister of the Ministerial Council during public meetings and assessments. 9. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to own property, but shall not have the right to sell or transfer land or any immovable property to a person who is not a citizen of Churumduul, except in keeping with laws enacted by Ministerial Council. 10. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to practice any lawful trade, profession or vocation. 11. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to equal pay for work of equal value. 12. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and freedom of association, other than membership of associations that are harmful to the crown or the peace and unity of the country, and shall have the right not to be compelled to belong to any association. 13. Every person in Churumduul shall have the right to material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he or she is the author or creator. 14. A person shall not be deprived of property by acquisition or requisition, except for public purpose and on payment of fair compensation in accordance with the provisions of the law. 15. All persons are equal before the law and are entitled to equal and effective protection of the law and shall not be discriminated against on the grounds of appearance, ethnic background, sex, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, language, religion, politics or other status. 16. A person charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty in accordance with the law. 17. A person shall not be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. 18. A person shall not be subjected to capital punishment. 19. A person shall not be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence nor to unlawful attacks on the person's honor and reputation. 20. A person shall not be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. 21. A person shall have the right to consult and be represented by a Churumduuli State Attorney of his or her choice, free of charge. 22. Notwithstanding the rights conferred by this National Code, nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from subjecting reasonable restriction by law, when it concerns: a. The interests of the sovereignty, security, unity and integrity of Churumduul; b. The interests of peace, stability and well-being of the nation; c. The interests of friendly relations with foreign States; d. Incitement to an offence on the grounds of race, sex, language, religion or region; e. The disclosure of information received in regard to the affairs of the State or in discharge of official duties; or f. The rights and freedom of others. 23. All persons in Churumduul shall have the right to initiate appropriate proceedings in the High Court for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Article. 24. Any Churumduuli citizen shall have the right to marry anyone he/she/they so chose, irrespective of ethnicity, nationality, sex, gender, or sexual orientation, and there shall be no limit on the amount of persons one may marry. All marriages will be registered in accordance with the law along with all financial commitments thereunto appertaining. [u]Article 7b: Fundamental Rights of the Animal[/u] 1. All animals are sentient beings, and therefore have the right to live in peace and tranquility in their natural habitats. 2. The intentional killing of animals in Churumduul is prohibited. A person found guilty of mistreating, torturing, or killing an animal shall be sentenced to no less than 10 years’ imprisonment. 3. The consumption of meat in Churumduul is prohibited, unless made exempt for a person by a court of law due to medical purposes which require its consumption. A person found consuming meat without such an exemption shall be sentenced to no less than 10 years’ imprisonment. 4. The importation of meat to Churumduul in any form is prohibited, except in circumstances where its consumption is required for medical purposes and approved by a court of law. The exemption and the purchase of the meat must be accompanied by copies of the official court-ordered certificate allowing the individual’s consumption of meat, and the importation must meet the requirements set out in the certificate with regards to the weight allowance, meat type specifications, and other particulars. Both the purchaser and seller of the meat may face the consequences of imprisonment of no less than 10 years if the sale is deemed illegitimate by a court of law. 5. It is the duty of all Churumduuli citizens to aid an animal who is seen to be in distress. If the animal is rabid or causes a threat to the safety of a person, the Royal Police are to be alerted to its distress and location immediately. Failure to report the distress or an animal in a critical situation shall result in a sentence no less than 5 years’ imprisonment. [u]Article 8: Fundamental Duties[/u] 1. A Churumduuli citizen shall preserve, protect and defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity, security and unity of Churumduul and render national service when called upon to do so by His Majesty or the Ministerial Council. 2. A Churumduuli citizen shall have the duty to preserve, protect and respect the environment, culture and heritage of the nation. 3. A Churumduuli citizen shall foster tolerance, mutual respect and spirit of brotherhood amongst all the people of Churumduul transcending religious, linguistic, regional or sectional diversities. 4. A person shall respect the national symbols. a. All Churumduulis must stand for the national anthem. b. All Churumduulis must stand when the national flag is being raised or lowered. c. All Churumduulis must stand for the duration of the flag raising or lowering, and for the duration of the national anthem when it is played in conjunction with flag ceremonies. d. All persons must respect the national flag. The national flag cannot touch the ground, be trampled upon or otherwise mistreated, ripped, or stained. The national flag cannot be burned, except in accordance with Ministerial oversight or permission for the destruction of flags deemed to be below appropriate quality and luster for the flag’s presentation. e. Exceptions must be obtained by the Ministerial Council for the above provision (d) when a flag is considered to be ‘historical’ in nature and thus presented in a museum for public display. 5. A person shall not tolerate or participate in acts of injury, torture or killing of another person, terrorism, abuse of any other person or sentient being, and shall take necessary steps to prevent such acts. 6. A person shall have the responsibility to provide help, to the greatest possible extent, to victims of accidents and in times of natural calamity. 7. A person shall have the responsibility to safeguard public property. 8. A person shall have the responsibility to pay taxes in accordance with the law. 9. Every person shall have the duty to uphold justice and to act against corruption. 10. Every person shall have the duty to act in aid of the law. 11. Every person shall have the duty and responsibility to respect and abide by the provisions of this National Code. [u]Article 9: Principles of State Policy[/u] 1. The State shall endeavor to apply the Principles of State Policy set out in this Article to ensure a good quality of life for the people of Churumduul in a progressive and prosperous country that is committed to peace and amity in the world. 2. The State shall strive to promote those conditions that will enable the people’s happiness and welfare. 3. The State shall endeavor to create a civil society free of oppression, discrimination and violence, based on the rule of law, protection of human rights and dignity, and to ensure the fundamental rights and freedoms of the people. 4. The State shall endeavor to protect the telephonic, electronic, postal or other communications of all persons in Churumduul from unlawful interception or interruption. 5. The State shall endeavor to provide justice through a fair, transparent and expeditious process. 6. The State shall endeavor to provide legal aid to secure justice, which shall not be denied to any person by reason of economic or other disabilities. 7. The State shall endeavor to develop and execute policies to minimize inequalities of income, concentration of wealth, and promote equitable distribution of public facilities among individuals and people living in different parts of the Kingdom. 8. The State shall endeavor to ensure that all the Churumduulis are treated with equity on the basis of different needs so that the allocation of national resources results in comparable socioeconomic development. 9. The State shall endeavor to achieve economic self-reliance and promote open and progressive economy. 10. The State shall encourage and foster private sector development through fair market competition and prevent commercial monopolies. 11. The State shall endeavor to promote those circumstances that would enable the citizens to secure an adequate livelihood. 12. The State shall endeavor to ensure the right to work, vocational guidance and training and just and favorable conditions of work. 13. The State shall endeavor to ensure the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. 14. The State shall endeavor to ensure the right to fair and reasonable remuneration for one's work. 15. The State shall endeavor to provide education for the purpose of improving and increasing knowledge, values and skills of the entire population with education being directed towards the full development of the human personality. 16. The State shall provide free education to all persons for high school, undergraduate university study, and graduate university study, for the first degrees of each class (diploma, first undergraduate degree, and first graduate degree). 17. The State shall endeavor to take appropriate measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination and exploitation against all persons at work in both public and private spheres. 18. The State shall endeavor to promote those conditions that are conducive to co-operation in community life and the integrity of the extended family structure. 19. The State shall strive to create conditions that will enable the true and sustainable development of a good and compassionate society rooted in Buddhist ethos and universal human values. 20. The State shall provide free access to basic public health services in both modern and traditional medicines. 21. The State shall endeavor to provide security in the event of sickness and disability or lack of adequate means of livelihood for reasons beyond one's control. 22. The State shall encourage free participation in the cultural life of the community, promote arts and sciences and foster technological innovation. 23. The State shall endeavor to promote goodwill and co-operation with nations, foster respect for international law and treaty obligations, and encourage settlement of international disputes by peaceful means in order to promote international peace and security. [u]Article 10: The Ministerial Council[/u] 1. There shall be a Ministerial Council for Churumduul in which all executive powers under this National Code are vested and which shall consist of His Majesty, the Ministerial Council, and other councils below the national council when extensive or specific debate is required for the provision of laws. 2. The Ministerial Council shall ensure that the Government safeguards the interests of the nation and fulfils the aspirations of the people through public review of policies and issues, Bills and other legislations, and scrutiny of State functions. 3. The members of the Ministerial Council shall be appointed directly by His Majesty, the King. 4. A person shall not be a member of the Ministerial Council if they also hold a civil service title of the same ranking as Ministerial Council member. 5. His Majesty shall summon the first sitting of Ministerial Council on the first and second Mondays of each month. 6. At the commencement of each session of Ministerial Council, His Majesty shall be received in a joint sitting of Ministerial Council in a ceremony bestowing the council with his supreme executive power. A Buddhist monk shall also be in attendance for this ceremony, and prayers will be said for the blessing of His Majesty’s Ministerial Council and their deliberations. 7. His Majesty may address or sit in the proceedings of the Ministerial Council when he so chooses. 8. His Majesty may send messages to the Ministerial Council when he so chooses. 9. The Ministerial Council, upon receiving the message shall, as early as possible, consider the matter referred to in the message and submit its opinion to His Majesty. 10. The Chief Minister of Justice shall present an Annual Report on the state of the nation, including legislative plans and the annual plans and priorities of the Government, to the His Majesty and to a joint sitting of Ministerial Council. The Annual Report shall take place on the Second Day of January of each year. 11. Each Member of Ministerial Council shall have one vote. 12. The proceedings of Ministerial Council shall be conducted behind closed doors. Neither the press, the public, nor any person other than the King may initiate, observe, or hinder the proceedings of the Ministerial Council. 13. When the office of a member of Ministerial Council becomes vacant for any reason other than the expiration of term, His Majesty will fill the vacancy within thirty days as from the date of the vacancy. 14. The members of Ministerial Council shall take an Oath or Affirmation of Office before His Majesty before assuming their responsibilities. 15. All lesser government ministers and civil servants shall take an Oath or Affirmation of Office before their respective ministry heads. 16. Every member of Ministerial Council shall maintain the decorum and dignity of the Crown and shall desist from acts of defamation and use of physical force. 17. The members of Ministerial Council or any Committee thereof shall be immune from any inquiry, arrest, detention or prosecution on account of any opinion expressed in the course of the discharge of their functions or vote cast in Ministerial Council and no person shall be liable in respect of any report, paper or proceedings made or published under the authority of Ministerial Council. 18. The immunities herein granted shall not cover corrupt acts committed by the members in connection with the discharge of their duties or cover other acts of accepting money or any other valuables in consideration to speak or to vote in a particular manner. 19. All International Conventions, Covenants, Treaties, Protocols and Agreements duly acceded to by the Government hereafter, shall be deemed to be the law of the Kingdom only upon ratification by Ministerial Council unless it is inconsistent with this National Code. [u]Article 11: Passing of Bills[/u] 1. A bill passed by Ministerial Council shall come into force upon Assent of His Majesty. 2. All bills shall originate either in the Ministerial Council or by express written wish by His Majesty. Such bills may include, but are not limited to, budget bills, finance bills, spending bills, and tax bills. 3. A bill shall be passed by a simple majority of the total number of members of the Ministerial Council. 4. Where the Ministerial Council does not pass a bill, the Ministerial Council shall either put the bill to archive by a vote (upon which it cannot be re-discussed), or shall put the bill to His Majesty to decide whether the bill shall be further discussed and debated in the council. 5. His Majesty may not cast a vote in the Ministerial Council. 6. When a bill is passed by a simple majority in the Ministerial Council, the bill shall be presented to His Majesty for Royal Assent. Royal Assent must be given or denied within three days of the bill’s presentation. 7. If the bill is given Royal Assent, the bill automatically becomes law. 8. Where His Majesty does not grant Assent to the Bill, He shall return the Bill with amendments or objections to deliberate and vote on the Bill in a joint sitting. 9. Upon deliberation and passing of the Bill, the Ministerial Council shall resubmit the bill to the His Majesty for Assent thereto, whereupon Assent shall be granted to the Bill. [u]Article 12: Finance, Trade and Commerce[/u] 1. Taxes, fees and other forms of levies shall not be imposed or altered except by law. 2. There shall be a National Fund (“The National Fund” coffer) into which shall be deposited all public monies not allocated to specific purposes by law and from which expenditure of the State shall be met. 3. Public money shall not be drawn from the National Fund except through appropriation in accordance with the law. 4. The Government, in the public interest, may raise loans, make grants or guarantee loans in accordance with the law. 5. The Government shall exercise proper management of the monetary system and public finance. It shall ensure that the servicing of public debt will not place an undue burden on future generations. 6. The Government shall ensure that the cost of recurrent expenditures is met from internal resources of the country. 7. A minimum foreign currency reserve that is adequate to meet the cost of not less than five years’ essential import must be maintained. 8. The annual budget, with a report on the budget of the previous fiscal year, shall be presented to the Ministerial Council by the Minister of Justice. The annual budget presentation shall occur on the Third Day of January of each year. 9. Where the budget has not been approved by the Ministerial Council before the beginning of the fiscal year, the preceding budget on current expenses shall be applied until the new one is sanctioned. Revenues shall be collected and disbursements made in accordance with the law in force at the end of the preceding year. However, if one or more parts of the new budget have been approved, they shall be put into effect. 10. Any expenditure not included in the budget, or in excess of the budget appropriation, as well as the transfer of any fund from one part of the budget to another, shall be made in accordance with the law. 11. Funds for more than one fiscal year may be appropriated in accordance with the law if the nature of the expenditure so requires. In such a case, each annual successive budget shall include the funds allocated for that year. 12. The Ministerial Council shall establish a crisis fund and the His Majesty shall have the prerogative to use this fund for urgent and unforeseen humanitarian or crisis relief. 13. The State shall make adequate financial provisions for the independent administration of the provisions of this National Code. 14. Unless otherwise provided for under the provisions of this National Code or any other laws, there shall be free movement of goods and services throughout the nation. 15. Trade and Commerce with foreign nations shall be regulated by law. 16. The Ministerial Council shall, in keeping with the state’s endeavor to ensure the adequate and equal share of all resources, ensure that all enterprise within the Kingdom is state-owned or otherwise state-controlled, and shall pass laws to secure the state’s control over the means of production. [u]Article 13: Political Representation[/u] 1. Political parties are hereby prohibited from being formed under this National Code. The politics of His Majesty’s government are vested in His Majesty, the Ministerial Council, the Ministries of state, and the appointed heads and civil servants who comprise His Majesty’s government. 2. His Majesty’s government shall endeavor in all of its activities, deliberations, and legislative tasks to uphold the well-being of the people, the unity of the nation, the safety and security of the Kingdom and its citizens, equality of the lay people under the law, fairness in justice, and the sanctity of the Crown as the head of the people. 3. Following section (1) of this Article, free elections are hereby prohibited. 4. The general citizenry of the country shall retain the right to publicly discuss politics and the activities, deliberations and legislative tasks of His Majesty’s government, and the foreseen and unforeseen ramifications thereof, so long as such discussions and critiques do not violate Article 7(2) sections (a) and (b), or are otherwise deemed to be damaging to the unity of the nation. [u]Article 14: Formation of Government[/u] 1. His Majesty shall, with or without the requested assistance of the Privy Council, personally select and appoint the heads of each Ministry that comprises the Ministerial Council. 2. A Minister of the Ministerial Council shall hold a life-long office, unless they so wish to resign or are removed from their position by His Majesty. 3. The pool of applicants for heads of Ministerial Council shall be chosen by the Privy Council, and shall include persons who have passed the National Civil Service Examination (NCSE) with high marks and who have proven to have political capability. No more than five persons shall be chosen as candidates for each available position. 4. His Majesty shall appoint a Minister from amongst the pool of candidates chosen by the Privy Council within ninety days of the applicant pool’s fulfillment. 5. A hierarchical system shall ensure that higher bodies within the government’s ministries select the lower bodies of the civil service. 6. The hierarchical system of His Majesty’s government will consist of 6 chief rankings: Minister of the Ministerial Council; Chief Superintendent; Superintendent; Chief Secretary; Secretary; Under Secretary. a. All superiors of the above rankings have the exclusive right and privilege to hire and fire all civil servants below their own standing within their respective ministry and bureau. Reports must be filed with His Majesty’s government regarding all hiring and firing decisions made by a superior. If a superior fails to submit such a report, he or she shall be fired. b. All civil servants below their superiors of rank have the right to submit grievances to their superior’s next superior. It is the right and duty of that superior to review and consider action regarding the grievance and, if necessary, discuss the grievance with the applicant’s direct superior. 7. A Minister of State shall, within sixty days of appointment by His Majesty, personally appoint all regional heads of his ministry, appointing no more than 10 such Chief Superintendents. 8. All Chief Superintendents shall, within sixty days of appointment by their Minister, personally appoint all regional Superintendents, appointing no more than 50 such Superintendents. 9. All Superintendents shall, within sixty days of appointment by their Minister, personally appoint all regional Chief Secretaries, appointing no more than 100 such Chief Secretaries. 10. All Chief Secretaries shall, within sixty days of appointment by their Superintendent, personally appoint all regional Secretaries, appointing no more than 200 such Secretaries. 11. All Secretaries shall, within sixty days of appointment by their Chief Secretaries, personally appoint all regional Under Secretaries within the Secretary’s bureau, appointing no more than 1,000 such Under Secretaries. 12. All members of the civil service will do their utmost to uphold the integrity, discretion, and honor of His Majesty’s government. 13. All members of the civil service will hold life-long office unless they so chose to resign or are removed from their position by their superior. 14. All members of the civil service will uphold the teachings of the Pali Canon, and, in particular, will abide by the five Buddhist precepts: No killing living beings, no stealing, no lying, no sexual misconduct, and no intoxication beyond the limit as stipulated by law. Failure to uphold these precepts will result in immediate expulsion from His Majesty’s government. [u]Article 15: The Judiciary[/u] 1. The Judiciary shall safeguard, uphold, and administer Justice fairly and independently without fear, favour, or undue delay in accordance with the Rule of Law to inspire trust and confidence and to enhance access to Justice. 2. The judicial authority of Churumduul shall be vested in the Royal Courts of Justice comprising the High Court, the Regional Courts, the Local Courts, and other courts and tribunals as may be established from time to time by His Majesty on the recommendation of the Minister of Justice. 3. The High Court shall be a court of record. 4. The Minister of Justice of Churumduul shall be appointed from among eminent jurists by His Majesty, by warrant under His hand and seal in consultation with the National Judicial Commission. 5. The members of the High Court shall be appointed by the Minister of Justice and the National Judicial Commission in a session overseen by His Majesty and an independent panel of judges selected by His Majesty’s Privy Council. 6. All positions with the High Court, the Regional Courts, and the Local Courts shall be held for life. A judge shall be removed only when their superior, the Minister of Justice, or His Majesty relieves them of their duties. 7. The High Court of Churumduul, which shall comprise the Minister of Justice and nine other justices appointed as stated in section (5), shall be the highest appellate authority to entertain appeals against the judgments, orders, or decisions of the Regional and Local Courts in all matters and shall have the power to review its judgments and orders. 8. Where a question of law or fact is of such a nature and of such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court, His Majesty may refer the question to the High Court for its consideration, which shall hear the reference and submit its opinion to Him. 9. The High Court may, on its own motion or on an application made by the Attorney General or by a party to a case, withdraw any case pending before the High Court involving a substantial question of law of general importance relating to the interpretation of this National Code and dispose off [sic] the case itself. 10. The High Court may issue such declarations, orders, directions or writs as may be appropriate in the circumstances of each case. 11. The justices of the Regional Courts shall be appointed from amongst a pool of applicants by the High Court’s panel of 10 justices (including the Minister of Justice). A simple majority vote shall elect the justices in question. 12. The justices of the Local Courts shall be appointed from amongst a pool of applicants by the Regional Courts’ panel of 20 justices, each representing a region of the Kingdom. A simple majority vote shall elect the justices in question. 13. The independence of the justices of the High Court, the Regional Courts, and the Local Courts shall be guaranteed, provided that a justice may be censured or suspended by a command of His Majesty on the recommendation of the National Judicial Commission for proven misbehaviour, which, in the opinion of the Commission, does not deserve impeachment. 14. The Ministerial Council may, by law, establish impartial and independent Administrative Tribunals as well as Alternative Dispute Resolution centres. 15. His Majesty shall appoint members of the National Judicial Commission by warrant under His hand and seal. The National Judicial Commission shall comprise: a. The Minister of Justice of Churumduul as Chairperson; b. The senior most justice of the High Court; c. 5 justices from the Regional Courts, as selected by His Majesty; d. 5 justices from the Local Courts, as selected by His Majesty. 16. Every person has the right to approach the courts in matters arising out of the National Code. [u]Article 16: Local Bureaus[/u] 1. Power and authority shall be disseminated to the local bureaus of the Kingdom to facilitate the government’s work and the well-being of the people. 2. Local government bureau headquarters shall be established in all townships and cities. A centralized bureau headquarter in each township and city shall serve as the only employer of civil servants. 3. Local bureaus shall execute the commands they are presented by their Regional Bureau headquarters and superior ministers. 4. The objectives of Local Government shall be to: a. Provide effective government control and security over the community; b. Ensure the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner; c. Encourage the citizenry’s engagement with their local officials; d. Discharge any other responsibilities as may be prescribed by law made by Ministerial Council. 5. A Local bureau shall strive, within its financial and administrative capacity, to achieve the objectives set out under this Article. 6. Local bureaus shall be supported by administrative machinery staffed by civil servants. [u]Article 17: The Royal Audit Authority[/u] 1. There shall be a Royal Audit Authority to audit and report on the economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the use of public resources. 2. The Royal Audit Authority shall be an independent authority headed by the Auditor General who shall be appointed by His Majesty from a list of eminent persons chosen by the Privy Council. 3. The Auditor General shall be appointed to a life-long position. His position will end either when he resigns or when he is removed from his position by His Majesty. 4. The Royal Audit Authority shall, without fear, favour, or prejudice, audit the accounts of all departments and offices of the Government including all Regional and Local bureaus. 5. The Auditor General shall submit an Annual Audit Report to His Majesty and the Ministerial Council. The report for the previous year shall be submitted on the Fifth Day of January of every year. 6. The Ministerial Council shall appoint a five member Public Accounts Committee, comprising members of Ministerial Council who are reputed for their integrity, to review and report on the Annual Audit Report to Ministerial Council for its consideration or on any other report presented by the Auditor General. 7. The Royal Audit Authority shall function in accordance with the Audit Act. [u]Article 18: The Royal Civil Service Commission[/u] 1. There shall be a Royal Civil Service Commission, which shall promote and ensure an independent and apolitical civil service that will discharge its public duties in an efficient, transparent and accountable manner. 2. The Commission shall consist of a Chairperson and four other members appointed by His Majesty from among eminent persons having such qualifications and experience as would enhance the performance of the Commission, from a list of names recommended by the Ministerial Council. 3. The office of the Chairperson and members of the Commission shall be life-long positions. Their position(s) shall end either when they resign or when they are removed from their positions by His Majesty. 4. The Commission shall endeavour to ensure that civil servants render professional service, guided by the highest standards of ethics and integrity to promote good governance and social justice, in implementing the policies and programmes of the Government. 5. The Commission shall, in the interest of promoting merit, productivity and equity, ensure that uniform rules and regulations on recruitment, appointment, staffing, training, transfers and promotion prevail throughout the civil service. 6. The Commission shall ensure that all civil servants shall have recourse to justice through the Administrative Tribunal to hear their appeals against administrative decisions including those of the Commission. 7. Every civil servant who has been adversely affected by an administrative action shall have the right of access to the Commission. 8. The Commission shall meet regularly and shall be supported by a permanent Secretariat, which shall function as the central personnel agency of the Government. 9. The Commission shall submit an Annual Report on its policies and performances to the His Majesty and to the Ministerial Council. 10. The Royal Civil Service Commission shall function in accordance with the Civil Service Act. [u]Article 19: The Anti-Corruption Commission[/u] 1. There shall be an Anti-Corruption Commission, comprised of three individuals, which will be an independent authority with the task of preventing and combating corruption in the Kingdom. 2. The members of the Commission shall be chosen from a pool of applicants by the Privy Council and appointed by simply majority vote in the Ministerial Council. 3. The term of office of the three members of the Commission shall be ten years or until attaining the age of fifty years, whichever is earlier. 4. The Commission shall submit an Annual Report on its policies and performances to the Ministerial Council. 5. Prosecution of individuals, parties or organizations on the basis of the findings of the Commission shall be undertaken expeditiously by the Minister of Justice for adjudication by the courts. 6. The Anti-Corruption Commission shall function in accordance with the Anti-Corruption Act. [u]Article 20: Defense[/u] 1. His Majesty shall be the Supreme Commander in Chief of the nation’s Armed Forces. 2. The Royal Guard shall be the responsible body for the security of His Majesty while the Royal Army of Churumduul shall serve as a professional standing army and both forces shall form the core of Churumduul's defense against security threats. 3. The Royal Police of Churumduul shall, as a trained uniform force under the Ministry of Defense, be primarily responsible for maintaining law and order and prevention of crime, and shall also be considered an important part of the nation's security force. 4. The Ministerial Council may, by law, require compulsory militia service for adult citizens to strengthen the defense of the country. 5. The State shall be responsible for the maintenance of the Armed Forces to safeguard the security of the country and the well-being of the nation. 6. Churumduul shall not use military force against a foreign State except in self-defense or for the purpose of maintaining its security, territorial integrity and sovereignty. [u]Article 21: The Attorney General[/u] 1. There shall be an Office of the Attorney General, which shall be autonomous, to carry out the responsibilities within the domain and authority of the Government and such other legal matters as may be entrusted to the office. 2. His Majesty shall, by warrant under His hand and seal, appoint an eminent jurist as the Attorney General on the recommendation of the Privy Council. 3. The Attorney General as the chief legal officer shall be the legal advisor to and legal representative of the Government. 4. In the performance of his or her duties, the Attorney General shall have the right to appear before all courts. 5. The Attorney General shall have the power to institute, initiate, or withdraw any case in accordance with the law. 6. The Attorney General shall have the right to appear and express opinions on any legal question in Ministerial Council. 7. The Attorney General shall submit an Annual Report to the His Majesty and to the Ministerial Council. 8. The Attorney General's Office shall function in accordance with the Office of the Attorney General's Act. [u]Article 22: Emergency[/u] 1. His Majesty may, when necessity requires, proclaim a state of emergency if the sovereignty, security, and territorial integrity of Churumduul or any part thereof is threatened by an act of external aggression or internal unrest. 2. His Majesty may, when necessity requires, proclaim that a public emergency or calamity, which threatens or affects the nation as a whole or part thereof, exists in which case the Government may take measures to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation. 3. The Proclamation of Emergency under sections (1) or (2) of this Article shall remain in force for a period of not more than ninety days from the date of the Proclamation unless Ministerial Council resolves by a simple majority of its members to extend it within the said period. 4. As under normal circumstances, where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, the Government shall be empowered to give appropriate directions to the concerned Local bureaus. 5. Where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, the enforcement of the rights conferred by this National Code under Articles (6), (7), and (8) may be suspended. 6. His Majesty may, when necessity requires, proclaim a Financial Emergency if His Majesty is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of Churumduul is threatened. Such a Proclamation shall be laid before the Ministerial Council for debate and legal action. 7. The National Code shall not be amended during a state of emergency. [u]Article 23: National Census[/u] 1. The will of the people shall be assessed in a National Census, to be administered by His Majesty’s Government twice every year. 2. The questions on the National Census will consist of those questions submitted by the public and assessed by the various ministries of the government. The Ministerial Council will together decide during successive votes which questions shall appear on the census. No more than ten questions will be published per census. 3. The National Census will be carried out by the Ministry of Home Affairs. 4. The Ministry of Home Affairs will print, distribute, collect, categorize, and submit the National Census results to the Ministerial Council upon completion of the census. 5. The Ministerial Council will have no more than five days per question on the census to debate and consider whether the contents of the census question and its resulting feedback should be implemented into law. The questions and their corresponding answers shall be taken up by each of the ministries with which is it most readily associated. [u]Article 24: Amendment & Authoritative Text[/u] 1. The Ministerial Council shall have the power to amend by way of addition only, the provisions of this National Code in accordance with the procedure set out in this Article. 2. A motion to add to the National Code under section 1 of this Article shall be initiated by a simple majority of the total number of members of Ministerial Council. The National Code shall stand amended on Assent being granted by His Majesty. 3. The Ministerial Council may call for a National Referendum if, in its opinion, a National Code Bill, which is not granted Assent by the His Majesty is of national importance. [u]Article 25: The National Flag and the National Emblem of Churumduul[/u] 1. The national flag of the Kingdom of Churumduul is hereby defined as a yellow rectangle, with a ratio of 16:9. The flag’s primary background color shall be Pantone 108 CP. This yellow color is the national color of Churumduul and the official color of the Churumduuli monarchy. At the center of the flag is the national emblem. 2. The national emblem of the Kingdom of Churumduul is comprised of two white German Shepards, the national animal, supporting the white royal crest. The royal crest contains a Buddhist victory banner (dhvaja), a symbol of the Buddha’s victory over mara and the Churumduuli people’s aspiration for enlightenment and for overcoming the four maras of pride, desire, disturbing emotions, and fear. The crest is crowned by a jeweled parasol (chatraratna), a royal symbol of His Majesty the King and of His protection over His people and of the Buddha’s protection against mara and harm: All take refuge in the dharma under the auspicious parasol. The parasol radiates the light of the dharma, the truth spreading throughout the universe. 3. The national flag and the national emblem shall be used, respectively, in an appropriate manner fitting their sanctity and national significance as symbols of the monarch and the Churumduuli people. The use of the flag or the national emblem’s image for purposes other than the flying of the flag at public places or the emblazoning of the crest on government property must be sanctioned either by His Majesty or the Ministerial Council. [u]Article 26: The National Anthem of Churumduul[/u] 1. The national anthem of the Kingdom of Churumduul shall be “The National Hymn”. 2. All citizens must stand at attention with both arms at their sides, facing the flag, when the national anthem plays. When there is no flag, all participants must stand and face South. 3. The National Hymn's official lyrics are in three stanzas, as follows: "Golden Kingdom, fair and free, Whose hearths blaze forth eternally, Bless our righteous King, The Crown, Whose merits gleam in great renown. Compassion, love, and faith are thine: Who to our wellspring truth aligns, To he who honour and fealty cleaves, Comes Victory where’er His Majesty leads! Glorious King, His Might Commands, That this is ours, this Kingdom stands, Sons and daughters bow to thee, Churumduul triumph, fair and free!" [u]Article 27: The Pledge of Allegiance[/u] 1. The national Pledge of Allegiance shall be recited at the beginning of each school day (primary and secondary schools as well as at university), at the beginning of official Ministry functions, and on other occasions, as is deemed appropriate and ordered by the Ministerial Council. 2. The words of the pledge are as follows: I pledge unto this Kingdom great, To King, to Country, and to the State; I swear to counsel heart and mind, To benefit all beings and mankind; In my intentions, thoughts, and deeds, I shall uphold His Majesty’s creeds; That enlightenment may forever shine, I herewith vow that Victory is Thine. [u]Article 28: Oath or Affirmation of Office[/u] "I,. . . . ., do solemnly swear/affirm that I shall uphold the sovereignty and integrity of The Kingdom of Churumduul faithfully, conscientiously discharge my duties in the service of His Majesty, King Sukhom-Ataninuak the Fourteenth, and perform the duties of my office without fear or favour to the best of my ability, and that I shall bear true faith and allegiance to the National Code of Churumduul." [u]Article 29: Oath or Affirmation of Secrecy[/u] "I,. . . . , do solemnly swear/affirm that I shall not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as a. . . . for the Royal Government of Churumduul except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as . . ."