The Federal Republic of Tysoania, more commonly known as Tysoania, is a parliamentary republic in southwestern Europe and northern Africa. It was formed in 1499 as a successor state to the Imperial Roman province of Hispania and occupies the Iberian Peninsula, southern Western Europe, and western North Africa. Its capital, Port Baetica, is one of the largest ports in the western Mediterranean Sea.
Tysoania was formed as the result of a successful revolt against King Manuel I of Portugal in 1497 that had engulfed the entire peninsula. As the first organized state to control the entire peninsula since 711 CE, it adopted the stance of a successor state to Hispania. Although initially ruled by the Asturia dynasty, fears about the possibility of a tyrant returning to the policies of religious and ethnic repression led to the monarchy peacefully handing power to the first national parliament in 1531. Tysoanian lands in Western Europe and North Africa were annexed during the 1710s as a result of the Great Northern War that saw France conquered and annexed by Tysoania and Soap Tips.
Tysoania is governed as a parliamentary republic and is a constituent republic of the Empire of Nova Roma and the World Assembly. Its economy is driven by the service and agriculture sectors.
The name of Tysoania is derived from Tomas Tyso, the name of the militia captain who was the organizer and leader of a revolt against King Manuel I until he was killed in battle. The uprising was thus named the Tysoanian Revolt, and the new government that replaced the previous monarchy renamed the nation to Tysoania to commemorate the uprising and its late leader.
Tysoania was formed as the outcome of the Tysoanian Uprising against King Manuel I of Portugal. The king, long known for his repressive policies against non-Christian religions in Portugal, issued an edict in December 1496 that ordered Jews and Muslims to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country. Although this was intended as a display of faith that would convince the Catholic rulers of Spain to unite the two nations through marriage, it instead sparked massive unrest in the Jewish and Muslim populations in both countries. Tensions rose as the summer 1497 deadline for exile or conversion approached and both sides began stockpiling arms and raising paramilitaries for the inevitable outbreak of violence. Finally, when a riot broke out in the city of Amadora on 1 July 1497, city militia commander Tomas Tyso refused orders to suppress the riot and instead took leadership of the riot, using the opportunity to seize control of the municipal government and declare the establishment of an independent government, labelled the Tysoanians by the royalist government. The rapid and bloodless fall of the city, coupled with an attempt by the army in late July to crush the uprising in battle that turned into a rout of the royalist forces, triggered uprisings in other cities and the surrounding countryside, launching a civil war in Portugal. Although Spanish authorities attempted to contain the violence and prevent it from spreading throughout Iberia, they were unsuccessful and a civil war broke out in Spain in November 1497.
With the fall of the last royalist city of Valladolid in May 1499, the civil war came to an end with the Tysoanians successful. Although Tomas Tyso had been killed in battle sometime in 1497, the new government retained the moniker of Tysoanians, and named the new nation Tysoania to reflect this. Tysoania was ruled by a military council, called the Tysoanian Council, from the end of the war from 1499 to 1502 while an assembly of large landowners and influential families from throughout Tysoania negotiated the future of the nation's leadership. Finally, in September 1502, King Philip I of the Asturia family was coronated as the first king of Tysoania, chosen largely through his family's reputation for fairness and their relatively minor influence compared to other candidates. Although the Tysoanian Council was formally disbanded, many of its members were retained in the royal court to provide counsel in the rebuilding of the nation. While the retention of an absolute monarch was a relief to other European monarchs, this move displeased those who had supported the Tysoanians in the civil war, as it meant that there were no checks and balances to prevent another attempt at expelling specific religious or ethnic communities. These fears flared up during the succession of Philip II in 1516 and Philip III in 1531.
The succession of Philip III to the throne in February 1531 was contested by the house of Aviz of the defeated Manuel I, former king of Portugal, who claimed that their lands had not been legally transferred and they were thus entitled to the Tysoanian crown. Although the Asturia dynasty had been very lenient towards religious freedom, the attempt of the house of Aviz demonstrated that these freedoms could be rolled back if a less tolerant monarch took the throne, and an organization called the New Tysoanians began agitating in May 1531 for a new revolution to create separate states for the nation's Jewish, Muslim, and Catholic communities. The defunct Tysoanian Council reacted by reforming and, after weeks of discussion, formally proposed to King Philip III that the nation transition to a parliamentary democracy to ensure protections and prevent a breakup of Tysoania. As a result, on 31 December 1531, Philip III announced that a constitution would be created to establish a parliamentary democracy, known as the Senate, although the king would retain his role as head of state. The first national election was held in April 1532, and the first session of the Senate opened in May 1532.
Although Tysoania was initially divided into four provinces, these served only administrative functions as the new constitution gave all significant powers to the federal government. However, in 1685, peasant strikes broke out in southwestern Tysoania over the inability of the federal government to effectively deal with a series of droughts that threatened to create a famine in the region. Mindful of the armed response that had helped to incite the civil war two centuries earlier, the federal government convened a constitutional convention to create new provinces and devolve many federal responsibilities to the provinces. The resulting 1686 constitution expanded the nation's provinces from four to 12 and gave them control over natural resources, land, infrastructure, civil and criminal laws, and land taxation within those provinces. The federal government retained control of customs duties and trade, banking and coinage, fisheries, citizenship, immigration, and all matters relating to defense and foreign affairs. Although the 1686 constitution has been altered several times since its formal adoption, its basic structure and division of power is still in effect today.
European monarchs saw the democracy as a possible threat to their own holds on power, and as a result, most trade was constricted to only Tysoania's immediate neighbours of France and her colonial possessions. As predicted, this trade was a gateway for ideas of democracy and limited freedom to reach the French peasantry, which at that time was ruled by an absolute monarchy. This led to increasing resentment in France among the lower classes, and attempts by royalist authorities to clamp down on this instead led to further anger and disillusionment. As some began to look to Tysoania for inspiration, they were covertly assisted by the long-dormant New Tysoanians, who saw this as an opportunity to expand democracy and liberate the peasantry from the French monarchy. When the French government discovered this interference, they ordered all trade with Tysoania cut off; however, farmers along the Tysoanian border saw this as an attempt to punish the peasantry, who relied on the trade as their main source of revenue, and revolted in 1711 under the banner of the Marcelist League. The uprising quickly spread throughout southern France, helped by the New Tysoanians, who began supplying the rebels with weapons and equipment. When the royalist authorities responded by burning Tysoania-bound cargo and ships in French ports, Tysoania formally declared war on 13 May 1712 and sent her armies into France. Although the peasants were winning the war against the French government, this was because they were fighting a guerrilla war and using hit-and-run tactics against unprepared enemies; the Tysoanian army, on the other hand, attempted to fight a conventional war against the French forces. As a result, Tysoanian losses in the first year of the war were staggering and all attacks were called off the next year to allow the army to rebuild and work out new tactics. During the summer of 1714, the Tysoanian army again shifted to the offensive, fighting alongside the native French forces in smaller skirmishes instead of attempting to win large-scale campaigns against the superior French army. The strategy worked and on 27 September 1717, the royalist government formally surrendered to the Marcelist League; in gratitude, the new government ceded all French possessions in North Africa to Tysoania. Although the Tysoanian army demobilized and returned to Tysoania, the New Tysoanians continued to agitate for democracy in France, and when southern France again erupted into uprisings over the installation of a military dictatorship, the New Tysoanians again supported the uprising. However, having been betrayed by the central government after the first victory, the peasantry instead turned south to Tysoania, and on 16 April 1718, the rebel government in Bordeaux formally appealed for Tysoanian annexation. This triggered similar proclamations throughout southern France, and by January 1719, Tysoania had annexed all of France south of the Macon-Niort line. Although the new French government attempted to resist this annexation, the concurrent war against peasant uprisings and the lasting damage from the previous civil war meant that it was unable to mount a military campaign against Tysoania. When the Marcelist government sued for peace in October 1719, it made no serious attempts to reverse the annexation.
The Great Northern War had been a victory for Tysoania, but at a serious cost. The war had cost many thousands of casualties and almost 40% of the federal revenue during each of the war years, and the war had shown that the Tysoanian army was badly in need of modernization. However, it had also given the Tysoanian army experience in fighting a modern war against a superior opponent and had brought a massive new tax base into the population. A 1724 constitutional convention formally organized the new territories in France and Africa into provinces, bringing the total number to 24.
Industrialization in Tysoania began in 1831 with the opening of the first modern factory, a cotton factory in Port Baetica, and the construction of the first transnational railway from 1831 to 1834. However, Tysoania's largely agriculture population meant that industrialization was very slow and largely confined to port cities, where goods could be easily bought and sold without requiring extensive infrastructure. Because Senate politicians tended to be landowners who benefitted from an agricultural economy and low land taxes, this meant that there was no political interest in raising taxes to develop the nation's infrastructure. However, as rural farmers began migrating to the cities in larger and larger numbers during the 1840s, this meant that the old system of land-ownership taxation began collecting less and less money. A budget crisis in 1851 meant that several provincial governments, for the first time ever, could not pay its employees; a constitutional convention in October 1852 formally allowed the provincial governments to begin taxing individuals based on their income, opening up a massive revenue stream from the hundreds of thousands of people now living in the cities to pay for infrastructure development. However, this also meant that provinces with small populations collected far less in tax revenue than the provinces with large cities, and this created a noticeable difference in development that lasts to this day. An 1879 revision allowed the federal government to collect 10% of provincial tax revenue each year for redistribution to allow poorer provinces to close the development gap, but this failed to resolve the issue, and it was later abolished.
The early 20th century saw a significant change in government policy in Tysoania from decentralization and laissez-faire policies towards interventionism and active economic management. The contentious 1932 constitutional convention, launched as an attempt to bring an end to a nationwide economic depression, resulted in the federal and provincial governments rolling out national healthcare and education programs, the abolition of the federal collection of some provincial tax revenue in favour of direct federal taxation, and a requirement for the federal government to receive Senate assent before declaring war. More controversially, the 1932 constitution also nationalized several key industries and abolished the monarchy in favour of an elected, non-partisan presidency with similar powers. Although parts of this constitution are still controversial, it helped to build the modern Tysoanian identity in the face of a rapidly globalizing culture.
Tysoania became far more interventionist during the 20th century, with Tysoania directly involved in both the Atlantic War and the British Civil War, and Tysoanian troops were also deployed to fight alongside Tysoania's allies in many other conflicts during the century.
The 2020 Tysoanian federal census showed a total of 47,256,091 people living in Tysoania, an increase of approximately 1.5% from the 2015 census. Most growth continues to be driven by immigration, with natural growth being negative. Approximately 30% of Tysoanians live in the largest urban centers of Madrid, Port Baetica, Toulouse, and Algiers, with another 55% in other urban areas.
45% of the nation is Christian, with 35% being Muslim and 20% identifying with another religion. Because of the nation's historical reputation for high religious tolerance, it is home to a large number of religious groups.
Tysoania is a unicameral federal republic with federal, provincial, and municipal governments.
The federal government is made up of a judicial branch under the Supreme Court, a legislative branch under the Prime Minister, and an executive branch under the President. The national legislature, called the Senate, is led by the Prime Minister and is responsible for passing bills and governing the nation. The judicial branch is responsible for assessing the legality and constitutionality of various government actions and providing advice to the President and Prime Minister. The President and executive branch serve a mostly ceremonial role, being responsible largely for resolving constitutional crises and representing the nation abroad.
Each provincial government is obligated to be freely and fairly elected and to have some form of legislature, but they vary beyond those points depending on the needs of their province. While the province of South Baetica has its own judicial branch, called the Superior Court, and a mixed-member proportional legislature, the province of South Tunisia has no independent judiciary, instead relying on the federal courts, and a 20-member majoritarian legislature.
Tysoania is a constituent republic of the Empire of Nova Roma and, as such, is an ally of every member state of the Empire. Tysoania also occupies a key role in the Imperial administration and contributes significant forces to its standing military, but has little economic power within the Empire. Tysoania is also a member of the World Assembly.
The Tysoanian economy is a mixed economy, with the key industries of utilities, infrastructure, healthcare, education, and transportation being owned by the government through state-owned companies. However, all other industries are open to private enterprise. Tysoania's largest sector is the service industry, with about half of Tysoanians working in that industry. Tourism is one of Tysoania's largest service industries, thanks to the country's famously pristine environment and well-preserved Roman, Arabic, and Gothic ruins.
The manufacturing sector is stagnant and has traditionally lagged behind those of other nations, with Tysoania instead relying on agricultural exports to make up the gap. However, some highly-specialized areas of manufacturing are internationally competitive; wind turbines were Tysoania's largest single manufactured export good in 2021.