Flag and Coat of Arms
Anthem: Klatenia Raya
(English: "Greater Klatenia")
Dark green: Klatenia proper
Light green: Klatenian protectorate
Over 700 languages
UTC+7 to +9
ISO 3166 code
Independent Realm of Klatenia, commonly called Klatenia, is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It has over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Borneo, and parts of the Malayan Peninsula and New Guinea. Klatenia is the world's largest archipelagic state and the 14th-largest country by area, at 2,256,744 km² (871,333 mile²) with an estimated population of 103,456,000.
Klatenia is governed through elective absolute monarchy. Klatenia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea and maritime borders with Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands). Despite its recent conflicts and devastation caused by the civil war, Klatenia has vast wilderness areas supporting one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.
The Klatenian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Europeans spread Christianity. Although the Portuguese, the French, and the British also ruled at some point, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their presence in the archipelago. Although the archipelago did successfully achieve independence from its former Dutch overlords in the 1940s, the Republic of Indonesia was unable to withstand its political turmoil, which led to the republic's downfall in the Indonesian Civil War that officially began on 20 August 1988, with the declaration of secession from the newly established Islamic Government of Indonesia. Klatenia rose upon the remnants of the old republic and successfully became the leading powerhouse in the aftermath of the war.
Klatenia consists of thousands of distinct native ethnic and hundreds of linguistic groups, with Javanese being the largest. Although the war has ravaged most of the country's older economic power, it has gradually increased since its stabilization period. It is a regional power considered a middle power in global affairs. The country is an active member in the United Forum of Nations
2.1 Early history
2.2 Colonial era
2.3 Indonesian Civil War
2.4 Years of Living Dangerously
2.5 Early Founding
2.6 Establishing The Empire
4.2 Ethnic groups and languages
4.3 Largest Cities
5.1 Government System
5.2 Advisory Council
5.3 Imperial circles
5.4 Legal System
5.5 Foreign Relations and Military
The word "Klatenia" refers to the old city of Klaten, which was located in the southern areas of Central Java. The city was once a sprawling residence, buzzing with trades and tourists. It was a border city located right between the old Kingdom of Yogyakarta and the province of Central Java. The city has been long forgotten after its destruction during the civil war, but it has become the beacon and inspiration for the people. It is now the location of the newly founded city of Klaten.
Eusebius I, Elector of Trimulya, first used the term "Klatenia" in a general council meeting to refer to the newly established nation before finally becoming the country's official name and continuously used to this day. The name would later be passed down to the Independent Realm of Klatenia, the country's official name.
The people of Klatenia are commonly referred to as "Klatenian", which is also commonly used to refer to the ethnic descendants of those from various ethnicity within the island of Java. This word can also be referred to as the people of Klatenia. However, the ethnic descendants of the old settlers of Klaten are now commonly known as "Klatenese" to distinguish themselves from the other members of the empire who are not part of the original Klaten settlers.
Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BC. Austronesian peoples, who form most of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BC and confined the native Melanesians to the far eastern regions as they spread east. Ideal agricultural conditions and mastering wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BC allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century AD. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BC. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Klatenian history.
From the seventh century AD, the Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished due to trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism. At that time, ancient Klatenian sailors had long voyages to Madagascar and East Africa. Between the eighth and tenth centuries AD, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Klatenia. This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Klatenian history.
The earliest evidence of Islamized populations in the archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra, by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in the Indonesian Archipelago, particularly in Java.
The first Europeans arrived in the archipelago in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolize the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in the Maluku Islands. Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602, the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC), becoming the dominant European power for almost 200 years. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was dissolved in 1799, and the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony.
the end of the Java War in 1830.
Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous for most of the colonial period. Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and the bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces. Only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become the majority of Klatenia's current boundaries.
During World War II, the Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation ended Dutch rule and encouraged the previously suppressed independence movement. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, influential nationalist leaders seized the opportunity in confusion and proclaimed the independence of Ind.
The Netherlands attempted to re-establish its rule. A bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949 when the Dutch formally recognized Indonesia's independence in the face of international pressure and transferred sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia. Despite extraordinary political, social, and sectarian divisions, Indonesians found unity in their fight for independence.
Post-World War II
As president, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism and maintained power by balancing the opposing forces of the military, political Islam, and the increasingly powerful Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). Tensions between the military and the PKI culminated in an attempted coup in 1965 through a series of assassinations of all high-ranking army officials on 30 September 1965 and the capture of the state-owned Radio of the Republic of Indonesia (RRI) the following day. The army, led by Major General Suharto, countered by a nationwide manhunt on all high-ranking members of the PKI. Civil unrest also ensued, causing over 500,000 and one million casualties and incarcerated. Although the PKI was blamed for the coup, the party was not outright banned due to its large support. Suharto capitalized on Sukarno's weakened position, and following a drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was appointed president in March 1968.
In the years following his rise to office, Suharto began a series of attempts to stabilize the country. The Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order (Kopkamtib) was formed to enforce order and government control on the national and regional levels. Censorship was also implemented against sensitive topics in all public discussions, and mass media and incarcerations of public figures dimmed problematic were conducted. Nevertheless, the large membership of the PKI remained a cardinal issue for the government in taking decisive actions against them. While most of their high-ranking members, including the Head of the PKI, DN Aidit, have already been arrested and executed, the headless party remained to receive substantial public support. On the hand, both the military and the Islamic factions demanded immediate retribution for all PKI members and an outright ban on the party.
and President Malik (right) respectively
On 8 January 1982, President Suharto was assassinated in a bomb attack during a communal prayer for the Prophet's Birthday in the Istiqlal Grand Mosque. The president's abrupt death and the terror attack in a mosque became a rallying symbol for most Indonesian Muslims in a nationwide purge of all communist elements. Suharto's deputy, Adam Malik, was immediately sworn into office in the evening, and martial law was declared a few hours later. The strategic reserve (Kostrad) and the police's mobile brigade were deployed across Jakarta following the civil unrest. The indecisiveness of the government in tackling the communist threat has dramatically impacted its public image among both military officials and the Muslim communities. Although President Malik finally declared the PKI as an illegal entity, along with the ideology in his Presidential Decree of 1984, the damages of the conflict have already been done.
Indonesian Civil War
Extraordinary political, social, and sectarian divisions soon caught wind of the growingly divided country of Indonesia. The Indonesian Civil War began on 20 August 1988, three days after celebrating the National Independence Day of the Republic of Indonesia. Through a public radio broadcast, Imran bin Muhammad Zein, a former apprentice of the previous DI/TII uprising leader, Maridjan Kartosoewirjo, declared the formation of the Islamic Government of Indonesia. By the time of its declaration, the new government had actively occupied most of northern Sumatra, southern Sulawesi, and several pocket territories of Java. The Republican government quickly mobilized the armed forces to stamp out the new secessionist movement. However, defections among military personnel were growingly rampant as the war progressed, with several high-ranking officers showing direct support for the new government.
before the official declaration of secession, 1988.
Islamic forces advanced into Republican territories at a rapid pace, securing most of Sumatra and Sulawesi in the first six months of the conflict. In the hope of taking executive control over the government, President Malik disbanded the parliament in October 1988 under the pretense of martial law. Disgruntled by the decision, Islamic-lenient parties swiftly disavowed the administration and defected to the Islamic government. But despite the case, several other Islamists also remained loyal and committed to the Republic's defense, with Islamic paramilitary militias participating in the confrontation on both sides of the conflict. In December 1988, over 16 Republican military high-ranking officials in the eastern islands mutinied against the Republic. They took control over their local garrison territories under personal domains, effectively decimating the Republican's control over the eastern territories.
The decimation of propaganda further supported the effectiveness of the Islamic separatists through religious seminars, which fall under the rights of freedom of faith, fundamentally protected under the Republican constitution. With internal strive causing further shamble to the republic's stability, many other secessionist movements, grown out of their wariness to the country's longevity, began to follow suit and proclaimed their respective independence. A massive exodus of Indonesian minorities began by early 1990 as news of the Republican's loss of Sumatra reached the public, with many emigrating to Bali, which remained untouched by the conflict, as well as other foreign countries such as the neighboring country of Malaysia. News of horrifying massacres soon broke into an international trend. While condemnations were sent, the damage to the republic was too immense to be rectified. The conflict in Indonesia would soon proliferate towards its neighboring countries in the archipelago, with Malaysia also breaking apart by the end of the 1990s.
A dynastic feud soon broke out in the recently independent Kingdom of Mataram. Despite their newly proclaimed independence, the country quickly fell into major internal riots, which led to a civil war between the royal pretenders who tried to depose their newly proclaimed Sultan Hamengkubuwono X. As a family blood feud sparked within the kingdom, the Islamists took the opportunity and sparked their Islamic rebellion against the monarchical government.
Jayakarta to the Islamic regime as they waved their flags
As the Islamic radicals continued to push the republic into the capitol of Jayakarta, many republican soldiers abandoned their stations and defected to support the movement or flee out of the country. On 13 August 1997, President Adam Malik was assassinated in an explosion attack during a public oratory at the Presidential Palace. The attack also killed the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Armed Forces, General Muhammad Yusuf, and several other prominent government officials. Jakarta officially fell under the Islamic government's hands on 20 August 1997, officially ending the years of the Indonesian Republic.
Years of Living Dangerously
Despite the Islamic government's decisive victory over the Republic, the new government could not maintain effective control over the broader territories of the country. Commonly remembered as the "Years of Living Dangerously", an era of anarchy erupted across the archipelago soon after the defeat of the Republican government in 1997. While high-ranking officials of the military headquarters were effectively decimated, the rest of the local garrisons in their respective regions took the opportunity and established their independent cliques. Piracy was also growing rampant across the archipelago, with the remnants of the Republican Navy falling to the hands of privateers.
Other island provinces of the Republic, such as South Borneo and Sulawesi, had also fallen to the chaos of the civil war. The collapse of effective telecommunications caused information delay in several standing Republican provinces, knowing nothing of what had happened in the capital and the fate of the Republic. Further speculations suggested that most of the other smaller islands which remained in the republic had separated themselves from the nation after the fall of Jakarta in 1997.
The era plunged the region into nine years of constant skirmishes for survival between the newly formed factions across the archipelago. Despite early victories of the newly established Islamic Government of Indonesia in taking control of Republican holdouts, the annexation was a complete failure that had consumed the entirety of the government to its demise with the insufficient capability to assert effective control. The overstretched government gradually dissolved into the hands of independent Islamic warlords. Many of these cliques would fight against one another to maintain dominance. Not many historical records were found about the events that took place in the aftermath of the Republic's downfall outside of the early imperial territories, with research continuing to be carried on in search of the stories outside Klatenia during the period.
Klatenia began as a union of eight major Catholic settlements in the former Sultanate of Yogyakarta. In the following two-year period to 2006, the eight settlements began their first expansive endeavors to the neighboring southern region and Yogyakarta. The Joint Cooperative Army (Pasgagoro) crossed the North Ringroad demarcation zone on 17 August 2004 and began its march southward. Its early campaigns were hampered by the 2006 Yogyanagaran earthquake, with Pasgagoro's resources divided for both military campaigns and emergency relief efforts on the settlements. Nevertheless, the successes of the Pasgagoro in annexing the city of Yogyakarta and the Depok district culminated in the formulation of the Klatenian Federation through the Treaty of Kraton on 27 June 2006, which became the primary document for the unification of the eight settlements under a conciliatory government of the eight elders and the integration of the Komhandamara, the militias, and the newly captured remnants of the Republican military as the Klatenian Armed Force. Their rapid success in consolidating dominion over the territories around the Merapi mountain caught the traction of other settlements beyond the Progo River to unite with the steadily growing political entity.
From its base province of Yogyanagaran, the council set out to expand its territories further. Their success was achieved with the help of Raden Gandhi Prastowo, a former teacher turned military strategist, and his Klatenese militia, which made successful endeavors beyond the old eastern border of the Yogyakarta Sultanate. The expansion brought plenty of resources, manpower, and assets to the fast-growing nation, including the additional provision of aircraft since the capture of the Maguwo military airfield. However, this expansion was hampered as the expansion of its borders also opened new fronts of engagement against its neighboring opponents. Regardless, the provision of air support provided valuable reconnaissance and aerial attacking capabilities in their engagement of capturing the Gunungkidul highlands and finishing its southern expansion as they reached the southern coast beyond the hills.
The Emperor of Klatenia, Gandhi I,
by Anton Ridwan, 2013
The council was nearly decimated during the major defensive Battle of Congot Bridge in an attempt to protect the western territories beyond the Bogowonto River against Purworejoan bandits on 26 February 2010. The bridge played a vital role in opening access to the western frontier. A desperate decision was enacted, with elders calling for a dictatorship and electing Raden Gandhi Prastowo as Dictator of Klatenia on 24 April 2010 and assuming direct executive control over all policies of the country. Raden Gandhi immediately took advantage and ordered an all-out assault and a continuous push to the town of Purworejo, pacifying its citizens under the Federation's fold. The eastern front under Colonel Prasetijono also successfully stretched beyond the East Java border, securing the towns surrounding Mount Lawu before continuing to Ngawi.
Following the installment of Gandhi as dictator, however, several high-ranking officials of the armed forces, especially among the original members of the Komhandamara, were implicated in the act of concocting a coup against the new government. Remembered as the 8 October Scandal, an incriminating coup plan was successfully leaked to the Klatenian government. In an effort to fish out the perpetrators, the IIA bureau sent out a false-flag response message. On 12 October 2010, a loyalist detachment under the command of Maj. Mirza Junaidi stormed the headquarters of the Klatenian Armed Forces in Kentungan. Among those captured was the Chief of the Strategic Reserves, Lt. Gen. Eko Handoyo, along with 12 other high-ranking officials and many other lower-ranking army members. While most NCOs and lower-ranked members were given lighter sentences and were given another chance in the armed forces through re-education, all top officials who partook in the scandal were sentenced to life imprisonment and death sentences for acts of treason. More than ten officials were condemned to death by firing squad, while two others received life imprisonment. The following weeks of the event were a total sweeping of powerful ex-Komhandamara officials in the government and military, with newer top brasses taken from members of the Klatenian militia. Historians saw the events that followed as an attempt by the Klatenian government to purge the power of the Indonesian military that had once held immense power during the Republican Era and the periods that followed. The 8 October Scandal symbolized the Klatenian government's internal hegemony and ended the dual allegiance of the Klatenian Armed Forces.
Establishing the Empire
By 2011, Klatenia had stretched over Central Java and most of East Java, with only the city of Surabaya remaining beyond its grasp in the east, while to the west, reaching over the city of Cirebon from the hands of the remnants brought further ambition for future expansions. An all-out siege over Surabaya was made on 10 November 2011 to commemorate the Indonesian Day of Heroes, for which the city has been remembered. The city was captured the following day at 11 AM after the Klatenian army displayed the old Indonesian army banner upon reaching the gates of the Surabaya naval base complex. The guarding troops soon surrendered to the Klatenians in exchange for integration. Gandhi's success in capturing Surabaya became a huge morale boost to the populous and a massive boon to its arsenal. The city's capture also meant the formulation of the Klatenian Navy. For his remarkable service to the country and fruitful leadership, the council proclaimed Raden Gandhi Emperor of Klatenia on 18 April 2012. Emperor Gandhi would successfully integrate the Java island by the end of 2012, with the capture of Jakarta becoming the final signal of the island's reunification.
Klatenian Army marching through Papuan countryside, 2014
The empire continued to grow towards the far reaches of the island, decimating all bandit cliques and bringing stability to the island. His successful effort soon caught the attention of the neighboring island of Bali, which later decided to unite with the empire on 3 February 2013 through the signing of the Denpasar Accord, adding the island of Bali and its surrounding isles to the empire's possession. By this time, Klatenia possessed fully capable armed forces, with equipment variety of a professional standing army. Seeing the endless possibilities of expansion, Gandhi I proclaimed Klatenia as the rightful successor of Indonesia. This proclamation was later recorded in the document Sumpah Nusantara, which contains his sworn oath to God never to rest until he has united the entirety of the archipelago. Through diplomacy and war, Gandhi I would expand his empire throughout the archipelago, reuniting them once more under one banner.
Gandhi I could not fulfill his oath during his lifetime despite his rapid successes in the outer islands. In his campaign in Borneo, Emperor Gandhi I caught malaria and died on 27 June 2014, leaving a vacant throne upon his departure. Without a potential claimant to the throne and the potentiality of a coming succession crisis, an Imperial Diet was summoned to the capital to discuss the issue. While the electors have decided to crown Vincentius, Elector of Bukit Hijau as emperor, he remained reluctant to take up the position due to a possible legitimacy crisis. In an attempt to circumvent the situation, the Great Instrument of 2014 was signed by the Imperial Diet, which thereby proclaimed the installation of the grand regent as absolute head of government of the realm, with Vincentius I as its first Grand Regent. The document also proclaimed Gandhi I the Perpetual Emperor of Klatenia, effectively the symbolized head of state.
Klatenia reached its current territorial control in 2016 with the successes of Klatenia's endeavors, bringing the remnants of the Malaysian states to sue for submission. Subsequently, the newly acquired Malaysian territories were consolidated into the Malayan Union under a personal union with the Empire. On the other hand, while militarily capable, Singapore found itself in economic turmoil in the post-Great Civil War period, as trade through the archipelago had been plagued by piracy before the rise of the Empire. In an attempt to gain a favorable agreement with the Empire, Singapore offered its submission in exchange for special autonomy and protection. In August 2016, the Empire agreed to the settlement, and Singapore officially received free city status in the Empire. The submission of Singapore marked the beginning of the Pax Klatenia era and an end to the Years of Living Dangerously.
The rising popularity of Vincentius I's reign as the realm's grand regent received wide support for his claim to the imperial throne. A general poll was conducted in 2022 across all governorate circles of the realm as a response to the demand, resulting in over 80 percent of the Klatenian public being supported for his accession to the throne, with a turnout rate of 78 percent. On 2 May 2023, a special session was conducted by the Imperial Diet to cast the final decision on the issue, putting the future of the regency government and the Great Instrument in question. The result was overwhelming support for Vincentius' accession, with a dominant 564 over 11 in favor of the accession in the Deputies and full support across the Councils of the Privileged. On the morning of 3 May 2023, the Proclamation of Accession was read in front of the Imperial Diet building in Jayakarta by the Imperial Vicar, Baron Kusumanegara, followed by the new Emperor's address to the realm.
Klatenia is the world's largest archipelagic state, extending 5,120 kilometers (3,181 mi) from east to west and 2,500 kilometers (1,554 mi) from north to south. The country's Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs says Indonesia has 17,804 islands scattered over both sides of the equator, around 6,000 inhabited. The largest are Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea). Klatenia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea on Papua and maritime borders with West Indochina, the Philippines, Palau, Westralia, and Hiram Land.
seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
At 4,884 meters (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya is Klatenia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). Klatenia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guinea, including Kapuas, Barito, Mamberamo, Sepik, and Mahakam. They serve as communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.
Klatenia lies along the equator, and its climate is relatively even year-round. Klatenia has two seasons—wet and dry—with no extremes of summer or winter. For most of Klatenia, the dry season falls between May and October, with the wet season between November and April. Klatenia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found on every large island of Klatenia. More cooling climate types exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 meters (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level. The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with uniform precipitation year-round. In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season.
the Malayan Union.
Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatra, experience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season and floods in the wet. Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tends to be dry. The almost uniformly warm waters constituting 81% of Klatenia's area ensure that land temperatures remain relatively constant. Humidity is quite high, at between 70 and 90%. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October and from the northwest in November through March. Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners; significant dangers come from swift currents in channels such as the Lombok and Sape straits.
Several studies consider Klatenia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change. These include unreduced emissions resulting in an average temperature rise of around 1 °C (2 °F) by mid-century, raising the frequency of drought and food shortages (with an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, and thus Klatenia's agriculture system) as well as numerous diseases and wildfires. Rising sea levels would also threaten Klatenia's population, who live in low-lying coastal areas. Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change.
Tectonically, most of Klatenia's area is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. It lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire, where the Indo-Australian and Pacific Plates are pushed under the Eurasian plate, melting at about 100 kilometers (62 miles) deep. A string of volcanoes runs through Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Nusa Tenggara, then to the Banda Islands of Maluku to northeastern Sulawesi. Of the 400 volcanoes, around 130 are active. Between 1972 and 1991, there were 29 volcanic eruptions, mainly in Java. Volcanic ash has made agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas. However, it has also resulted in fertile soils, historically sustaining Java and Bali's high population densities.
A massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Toba around 70,000 BC. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate. The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora and the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa were among the largest in recorded history. The former caused 92,000 deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash that spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago and made much of the Northern Hemisphere without summer in 1816. The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects worldwide years after the event. Recent catastrophic disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2006 Yogyanagaran earthquake.
Biodiversity and conservation
Klatenia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity and is among the 17 megadiverse countries identified. Its flora and fauna are a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. The Sunda Shelf islands (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia and had a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna. Papua was part of the Australian landmass and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to Australia, including over 600 bird species.
Klatenia is second only to the Australian continent in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 bird species and 39% of its 515 mammal species being endemic. Tropical seas surround Indonesia's 80,000 kilometers (50,000 miles) coastline. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems. Klatenia is one of the Coral Triangle countries with the world's most enormous diversity of coral reef fish, with more than 1,650 species in eastern Klatenia.
British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line (Wallace Line) between the distribution of Klatenia's Asian and Australasian species. It runs roughly north–south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok is increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area. The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.
The Imperial Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be 102,456,000 as of 11 January 2019, adding one person every 13 seconds or about 2,130 people daily. The population of Klatenia tripled from 2016 to 2018 and continues to increase through the years. The empire took primary precautions in preventing genetically-defected fetuses through the Genetic Examination policy, which made genetically deficiency examination a complementary test in various hospitals and a right for every family of the empire. This action was taken to create healthier and stronger children of Klatenia who are better capable of living in the harsh environments of post-war Indonesia, which the government hasn't explored or developed.
Despite the considerably low inhabitable locations, the population has continued to grow and is now outgrown up to 3 times its original size after the War of Unification, which ended by the end of 2014. This causes many expansions in various sectors, such as economic, industrial, military, and territorial development. However, the rapid increase of human resources also creates various problems in the prosperity gap and fulfilling the needs of the growing population.
ceremonial march during the celebration
of Hindu's Galungan day
Despite guaranteeing religious freedom in the constitution, the government officially recognizes only six religions: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism, with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged. Since the end of the Indonesian Civil War and the beginning of the Klatenian Wars of Expansion, there has been a significant shift in the religious demographic in the archipelago. Islam remained the most common religion among the populous, constituting over 48 percent (49 million), with Sunnis being the majority (99 percent). The Shias and Ahmadis constitute 1 percent (500,000) and 0.2 percent (90,000–100,000) Muslims. However, the rise of Klatenia impacted an inclined shifting of faiths towards Christianity. Christians constitute 46 percent (47 million) of the population, with Roman Catholics constituting 32 percent and Protestants 14 percent, respectively. Most Hindus are Balinese, and most Buddhists are Chinese Klatenians.
The natives of the Indonesian archipelago initially practiced indigenous animism and dynamism, beliefs common to Austronesian peoples. They worshipped and revered ancestral spirits and believed that supernatural spirits (hyang) might inhabit certain places, such as large trees, stones, forests, mountains, or sacred sites. Examples of Klatenian native belief systems include the Sundanese Sunda Wiwitan, Dayak's Kaharingan, and the Javanese Kejawèn. They have significantly impacted how other faiths are practiced, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practicing a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion.
Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century AD. The Sundanese Kingdom of Salakanagara in western Java around 130 was the archipelago's first historically recorded Indianised kingdom. Buddhism arrived around the 6th century, and its history in Indonesia is closely related to Hinduism, as some empires based on Buddhism had their roots around the same period. The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit, Sailendra, Srivijaya, and Mataram. Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain to influence Klatenian culture substantially.
Islam was introduced by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i school and Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabia as early as the 8th century AD. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, resulting in a distinct form of Islam (santri). Trade, Islamic missionary activity such as by the Wali Sanga and Chinese explorer Zheng He, and several sultanates' military campaigns helped accelerate Islam's spread. By the end of the 16th century, it had supplanted Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of Java and Sumatra.
Catholicism was brought by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier, who visited and baptized several thousand locals. Its spread faced difficulty due to the Dutch East India Company policy of banning the religion and the Dutch hostility due to the Eighty Years' War against Catholic Spain's rule. Protestantism is primarily a result of Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the Dutch colonial era. Although they are the most common branch, many other denominations exist elsewhere in the country.
There was a sizeable Jewish presence in the archipelago until 1945, primarily Dutch and some Baghdadi Jews. Since most left after Indonesia proclaimed independence, Judaism was never accorded official status, and only a tiny number of Jews remain today, mainly in Jayakarta and Surabaya.
At the national and local levels, Klatenia's political leadership and civil society groups have played a crucial role in positive and negative interfaith relations. An overwhelming majority of Klatenians consider religion an essential and integral part of life.
an ethnic Javanese woman.
Ethnic groups and languages
Klatenia is an ethnically diverse country with around 1,300 distinct native ethnic groups. Most Klatenians are descended from Austronesian peoples whose languages originated in Proto-Austronesian, possibly in Taiwan. Another major grouping is the Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Klatenia (the Maluku Islands, Western New Guinea, and the eastern part of the Lesser Sunda Islands).
The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population, and are politically dominant. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and in sizeable numbers in most provinces. The Sundanese are the next largest group (15.4%), followed by Batak, Madurese, Betawi, Minangkabau, Bugis, and Malay people. A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities.
The country's official language is Klatenian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which had been the archipelago's lingua franca for centuries. It was promoted by Republican nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status in 1945 under the name Bahasa Indonesia. Due to centuries-long contact with other languages, it is rich in local and foreign influences. Nearly every Klatenian speaks the language due to its widespread use in education, academics, communications, business, politics, and mass media. Most Klatenians also speak at least one of more than 700 local languages, often as their first language. Most belong to the Austronesian language family, while over 270 Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Klatenia.
In 1930, Dutch and other Europeans (Totok), Eurasians, and derivative people like the Indos, numbered 240,000 or 0.4% of the total population. Historically, they constituted only a tiny fraction of the native population and remain so today. Also, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status despite the Dutch presence for almost 350 years. The small minorities that can speak Dutch-based Creole languages fluently are the aforementioned ethnic groups and descendants of Dutch colonizers. This reflected the Dutch colonial empire's primary purpose, which was commercially exchanged as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses. Today, there is some degree of fluency by educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals, as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch.
Metro area population
Upon its formation in 2006, Klatenia began as a political entity under a council government consisting of the eight leaders of the early settlements. Upon the appointment of Raden Gandhi as the primary leader of the country under the title Dictator of Klatenia, the dictator functioned as chief executive president of the government and served as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The position was exalted further upon the formation of the imperial government and the accession of Gandhi I as Emperor of Klatenia. By this period, the country was under absolute monarchical governance.
Following the death of Emperor Gandhi I, the question of succession became an issue. While the prince-electorate elected Elector Vincentius of Bukit Hijau to be the next emperor, the issue of legitimacy over rulership and assumption of the title came as pressure. In circumventing the issue, the Great Instrument of 2014 was formulated and enacted in the same year, which remained to be the key document of the Klatenian government during the regency period, most essentially the formation of the grand regent as head of government, the elevation of Emperor Gandhi I as the perpetual emperor of the realm, and the conduct of the Imperial Diet and cabinet. Following the accession of Vincentius I as the new Emperor of Klatenia in 2023, the position of head of state and government was merged once again with the Emperor.
The Emperor led a hierarchy of imperial officials; the chief executives, governors, regents, mayors, and district officers. Local rulers who survived displacement by the Klatenian conquests were installed as regents, and indigenous aristocrats were integrated as local administrators and civil servants. While they lost real control, several privileges, including life peerage in the Imperial Diet, were bestowed. This indirect rule did not disturb the direct stability of the region and was seen to be cost-effective.
Following the approval of the Imperial Decree of 2018 on Territorial Synchronization, a more centralized control was implemented to replace the previously more autonomous patchwork system. Under the new formulation, the Klatenian Realm is divided into six circle high governments (Pemerintahan Tinggi Mandala), namely the Great East (Timur Raya), Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Java, and Lesser Sunda Islands (Sunda Kecil). These imperial circles are divided into several provinces. There are currently 36 provinces, led by governors and a legislature (DPD-I), which are further divided into third-level administrations. These include the regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), led by regents (bupati) and mayors (walikota), respectively, and a legislature (DPD-II). The fourth level is the districts (kecamatan, distrik in Papua, or kapanewon and kemantren in the Princely Territory), and the fourth is the villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh).
The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighborhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2016, regencies and cities have become chief administrative units responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles village, or neighborhood matters through an elected village head (lurah or kepala desa).
On the other hand, the former territories of Malaysia and Brunei were amalgamated into the Dominion of the Malayan Union, which was bestowed an immense power of autonomy in managing its internal affairs. Other lands were put under direct imperial management as Imperial Domains (Daerah Kepanguwasan); this includes the domains of the Mataraman Princely Territories (Wilayah Kepangeranan Mataram), the Special Capital Region of Jayakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jayakarta), and the Free Autonomous City of Singapore (Kota Otonom Bebas Singapura), as well as several Malayan territories which are under cooperative management of the Malayan Union and Klatenia, this includes the State of Malacca, Labuan Territory, and the State of Penang.
Emperor and Autocrat
The Emperor is the absolute Sovereign of the Klatenian realm. In their capacity as the Autocrat of Klatenia, the Emperor is also the head of the government. With no formulation of power division in Klatenia, the Emperor currently holds the ultimate prerogative and final say over all decisions of the imperial government, except for judicial affairs in which the Emperor only presided as the Supreme Witness of Judicial Conduct. In its day-to-day conduct, the Emperor is mandated to attend several councils of the realm. Therefore, the position is assisted by the Imperial Vicar, who acts as the main representative of the Emperor and the most trusted right hand in official conduct whenever the Emperor is unable to attend.
As postulated within the revised Great Instrument, a prospective Emperor first had to be elected as the mandate receiver (Indonesian: pemangku amanat). The successor is chosen by the heads of the first seven settlements of Klatenia in their capacity as prince-electors (i.e., Alamsari, Bedojo, Budsman, Bukit Hijau, Kayen, Srikandi, and Trimulyo). By law, upon election, the mandate receiver could officially claim the title "Emperor" only after being crowned by a bishop (historically the Archbishop of Jayakarta and the Archbishop of Semarang). The Emperor has to be a Klatenian native or an immediate descendant of a Klatenian and of noble blood. No law required him to be a Catholic, but as the coronation tradition is exclusively Catholic in nature, it becomes the central gatekeeper of the system.
Emperor Vincentius I (left) and
Empress Catherine (right), 2019
As part of the Imperial Decree of 2018 on Territorial Synchronization, the imperial circles were reformed into the high government circles as the highest authority over the Klatenian territorial administration directly below the imperial government. These are regional groupings of most (though not all) of the various provinces of the realm. Each circle has its legislature, known as a Dewan Mandala ("Circle Council"), and is led by a presiding prince-elector as chief executive, who coordinates the affairs of the circle. There are currently six circles throughout the realm (i.e., Great East, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands, Java, and Kalimantan). Not all territories are included within the imperial circles; the lands of Aceh Darussalam are excluded, as well as the province of East Timor, the Imperial Domains in the Malayan Union, and the Free Autonomous City of Singapore, which are all currently responsible directly to the imperial government.
The Imperial Diet is a semi-legislative body with its main duty as an advisory body and forum between representatives and the Sovereign. The Diet can also propose legislation to the Emperor. However, only particular laws can be put into a vote in the Diet, with most laws only presented to the Diet while approved and signed by the Sovereign. To this day, the Diet has only voted in matters of annual budget and other fundamental laws, which includes the Great Instrument. The Diet comprised the Privileged Assembly (Majelis Istimewa), the Chamber of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan), and the Sovereign. The Privileged Assembly is the upper house of the Imperial Diet. It is divided into three groups. The first group, the Council of Electors, consists of the electors, or the princes, who have been bestowed the privilege of voting for the Pemangku Amanat (successor of the emperor). The second group, the Council of Princes, consists of the rest of the princes. The Council of Princes is divided into two benches for the secular senators of the provinces and chief spirituals. The public electorate votes for the senators through a general election through an instant-runoff voting system, while the spirituals are presented to the assembly by each of the recognized religious organizations of the country. The third class is the College of Peers, which consists of individuals who had been granted life or hereditary peerages.
The lower house of the Imperial Diet is the Chamber of Representatives, an elected body comprising 575 members representing their respective circles of the realm. Similar to the Senate bench in the Privileged Assembly, all subjects of the realm with a minimum age of 20 elect or nominate in the election of the chamber's members to represent constituencies through a first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until the chamber is dissolved.
As for what becomes the current priority of the grand regent, Klatenia remains neutral in any international conflict if no urgency is forcing the empire to take action and will gladly accept the call to be the mediator regarding any international affairs in an effort to continue the old Indonesia's "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs while avoiding conflict with other countries. The empire has more than 25 open international relations with other nations in various agreements, treaties, and alliances. Most involve tourism, trading, and security of the region.
Klatenia's Armed Forces (ABPK) include the Army (TPK–AD), Navy (TPK–AL, which includes Marine Corps), and Air Force (TPK–AU). The Emperor holds the title of Commander-in-chief of the Imperial Klatenian Armed Forces and is granted the privilege to appoint its leaders, the Realm Minister of War and Security, and the heads of the military branches' high command. The Realm Ministry of War and Security oversees the conduct of the armed forces, which include the Imperial Army, Imperial Navy, and Imperial Air Force. In 2016, the armed forces had reached their prime with 420,000 personnel on active duty, with another 200,000 in reserves and the imperial home defense.
Surabaya, in 2011, KP Irian became the imperial admiralty's
The Armed Forces were established following the formation of Klatenia in 2006 with the unification of administrative control between the Klatenian militia and the former Indonesian military remnants. The ABPK became the backbone of Klatenia during the Wars of Unification and the following territorial synchronization that followed. Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all ABPK branches' structures to maintain domestic stability and deter foreign threats. The strong influence of the Indonesian military, especially its army remnants, in its early formation came as a threat against the Klatenian government, which was quickly curbed following the 8 October Scandal. Although the military remains to possess a substantial role and influence today, the imperial government has sustained its reliable loyalty.
From 2013 up to December 2018, military service was mandatory for every Klatenian man from the age of 20 up to the age of 25. However, this practice ended on 28 December 2018 after it was revoked under the orders of then-Grand Regent Vincentius I. The armed forces (army, navy, and air force) work cooperatively when deployed if needed by the Emperor. The military budget of Klatenia in 2018 reached about 1.35 Billion USD (1.7% of its GDP) and generally began to decline since the end of the Great Expansion Campaign in 2016. Today, the armed forces play a vital role in maintaining Klatenia's stability, unity, and development.
Klatenia operates under a mixed economy system in which the private sector and government play vital roles. The nation has a GDP of 94.45 billion USD with over 922 USD per capita, based on the 2018 economic report, and is classified as a newly industrialized country. The private sector is estimated to constitute 67.1% of the economy, followed by the imperial, regional, and local government controls about 27.6%, while the state-owned industries constitute over 5.1% of the economy. Unemployment in the empire reached 38% due to the limited job vacancy within the country. In late 2018, an economic boom occurred in Klatenia, creating a sudden rise in revenue for the country and prosperity of the people on average, which remained in effect through early 2019. Privatization of medium to small state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms have allowed the development of private businesses. "Vital sectors" such as coal, petroleum, steel, rail transport, telecommunication, and energy mainly remain under state-owned companies under the Imperial Decree of 2017 on Vital Sourcing.
Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably. Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency. A gradual process of industrialization and urbanization began in the late 1960s before the beginning of the civil war. Upon its reunification, Klatenia accelerated its process in the 2010s as the government focused on diversifying away from agricultural and mining exports towards manufactured exports. Services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%). Since 2019, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labor force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%). The government continues subsidizing various new businesses to expand the economy further in broader sectors.
Klatenia has abundant natural resources. Its primary industries are fishing, petroleum, timber, paper products, cotton cloth, tourism, petroleum mining, natural gas, bauxite, coal, and tin. Its main agricultural products are rice, coconuts, soybeans, bananas, coffee, tea, palm, rubber, and sugar cane. These commodities comprise a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the primary imports, telephones, vehicle parts, and wheat cover the majority of additional imports.
Klatenia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago and the distribution of its 102 million people highly concentrated on Java. All transport modes play a role in the country's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP.
The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 542,310 kilometers (336,980 miles) as of 2018. Jayakarta has the most extended bus rapid transit system globally, boasting 251.2 kilometers (156.1 miles) in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes. Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak and shared taxis such as Angkot and Minibus are a regular sight in the country.
Most railways are in Java, and partly in three separate areas of Sumatra, used for freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services (mainly in Jayakarta Metropolitan Zone and Yogyanagaran–Solo) complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. In the late 2010s, Jayakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Klatenia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future.
Klatenia's largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, is among the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, serving 54 million passengers in 2019. Imperial Singapore International Airport and Kuala Lumpur - Gandhi International Airport are the country's second and third-busiest airports, respectively. Imperial Garuda Klatenia, the country's flag carrier since 2015, is one of the world's leading airlines. The Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Klatenian port, handling more than 50% of Klatenia's trans-shipment cargo traffic.
In 2020, Klatenia produced 4,999 terawatt-hours (17.059 quadrillion British thermal units) and consumed 1,380 terawatt-hours (4.708 quadrillion British thermal units) worth of energy. The country has substantial energy resources, including 22 billion barrels (3.5 billion cubic meters) of conventional oil and gas reserves (of which about 4 billion barrels are recoverable), 8 billion barrels of oil-equivalent of coal-based methane (CBM) resources, and 28 billion tonnes of recoverable coal.
In late 2020, Klatenia's total national installed power generation capacity stood at 72,750.72 MW. Although reliance on domestic coal and imported oil has increased between 2010 and 2019, Klatenia has seen progress in renewable energy, with hydropower and geothermal being the most abundant sources that account for more than 8% of the country's energy mix. A prime example of the former is the country's largest dam, Jatiluhur, which has an installed capacity of 186.5 MW that feeds into the Java grid managed by the Imperial Electricity Company (Perusahaan Listrik Panguwasan, PLP). Furthermore, Klatenia has the potential for solar, wind, biomass, and ocean energy, although as of 2021, power generation from these sources remains small.
The history of Klatenian culture spans more than 2000 years. Earlier local ethnic groups adopted most of their cultures from the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Austronesian, and mainland China, which was re-suited into the archipelago's local cultures, linguistics, and religious makeup. This would later be added to the newly arrived European cultures, which formed the early Christians and many other significant shifts in the lives of the indigenous people. The empire would later adopt Latin to rebuild the long-lost civilization in the archipelago during the Great Civil War. As a result, modern-day Klatenia has the most diverse multicultural, multilingual, and multi-ethnic society with a complex cultural mixture that differs from many other nations.
Art and Architecture
Klatenian arts include the age-long art forms developed throughout the centuries and the returning contemporary and renaissance art forms after their long disappearance after the Great Civil War. Although Klatenian arts display such ingenious designs, many were influenced by other foreign cultures—most notably from the Indian subcontinent, Arab world, European, and mainland China as a result of years of contact through trades, marriage, education, and assimilation, absorbing both influences into their creations as they made a whole new identity into their art forms.
These facts can be proven by the existence of many ancient temples created in the design of Indian and local influences known as the candi, which dotted many parts of the country. Most of what can be seen from the artworks in Java and Sumatra are all in the shape of architecture. As Islamic culture continued to flourish throughout both islands, many artists decided to move from the forbidden creation of artworks depicting living beings into the art of architecture. Mosques and churches had also flourished in the region during and after the colonization of the Dutch, each with its uniqueness in its architectural designs. The idea of architectural fusion continues to live today, even after the Great Civil War.
In many other areas, especially during the post-civil war era, many modern artists have begun their anti-war campaign to create depictions of the atrocities that happened during the 18 years of bloodshed by both the rebels and the Republicans during the civil war in the hope of showing the horrific reality of war and in the hope of preventing it from happening again. Many contemporary artists began to give the imagination a better chance to understand the political issues within the country. Meanwhile, many Renaissance art styles were used to depict the greatness of government officials, government office designs, and religious artworks in many forms and beliefs. Some of the prominent modern artists of the empire are Raoul Beniah, Anton Ridwan, and Amadeus Erlangga, famous for their works in modern contemporary, and classical art styles.
Music, Dance, and Clothing
The music of Klatenia predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals. Angklung, kacapi suling, gong, gamelan, talempong, kulintang, and sasando are examples of traditional Klatenian instruments. The diverse world of Klatenian music genres results from the musical creativity of its people and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences. These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East, keroncong from Portugal, and dangdut—one of Klatenia's most popular music genres—with notable Hindi influence and Malay orchestras. The Klatenian music industry enjoys nationwide and regional popularity in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei due to the common culture and mutual intelligibility between Klatenia and Malay.
Klatenian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3,000 original dances. Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship. Examples include war dances, a dance of witch doctors, a dance to call for rain or agricultural rituals such as Hudoq. Klatenian dances derive their influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods. Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture and those of Japan and Korea to some extent. However, various traditional dances, including those of Java, Bali, and Dayak, remain a living and dynamic tradition.
Klatenia has various clothing styles due to its long and rich cultural history. The national costume originates from indigenous culture and traditional textile traditions. The Javanese Batik and Kebaya are Klatenia's most recognized national costumes, though they also have Sundanese and Balinese origins. Each province represents traditional attire and dress, such as Ulos of Batak from North Sumatra, Songket of Malay and Minangkabau from Sumatra, and Ikat of Sasak from Lombok. People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, and government and official occasions, varying from traditional to modern attire.
Klatenian cuisine is one of the world's most diverse, vibrant, and colorful, full of intense flavor. Many regional cuisines exist based on indigenous culture and foreign influences such as Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents. Rice is the leading staple food served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish, and chicken are fundamental ingredients.
gulai and vegetables
Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng, gado-gado, sate, and soto are ubiquitous and considered national dishes. However, the Imperial Board of Tourism chose tumpeng as the official national dish in 2014, describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Other popular dishes include rendang, one of the many Padang cuisines, and dendeng and gulai. Another fermented food is oncom, similar in some ways to tempeh but uses a variety of bases (not only soy), created by different fungi, and is prevalent in West Java.
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