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DispatchFactbookEconomy

by The United Commonwealth of Iran of Paseo. . 169 reads.

Iran | Welfare State

Ministry of Welfare and Family:

National Budget: $18 000 000 000

Spending per Capita: $560.74

Minister of Education: Sherina Hasris

System Type: National

Minister:


Welfare State in Iran
The welfare state of Iran comprises expenditures by the government of Iran as it intended to improve health, education, employment and social security. The Iranian system has been classified as a liberal welfare state system. Iran has one of the highest expenditures on Welfare and Family in the world, reaching $560.74 per Capita.

History:

1930s:

During the 1930s, the country placed under Shah Reza Pahlavi and later Empress Nasim Pahlavi, found itself under growth in the economic and cultural spheres. However, during the reign of Shah Reza Pahlavi, there was little funding on Welfare, and the actual Ministry of Welfare was found in 1936. The welfare state as an idea did not come around in Iran until later on. However, during the reign of Empress Nasim Pahlavi which lasted for a short time, some reforms were passed and the Ministry of Welfare was established, headed by Shahir Basti.

During the late 1930s, there was quite a pressure on liberalisation and economic growth, rather than on welfare spending that wasn't as large as it could be. However, certain acts such as the Maternity Act or Food For Needy Kids was passed in order to further welfare in the country. But overall, the 1930s saw little welfare efforts.

1940s:

The early 1940s saw Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi take over, and during the early 40s, some reforms were passed in the fields of welfare, such as the Family Protection Act or Equal Marriage Act. However, as the Shah himself made clear, he didn't want to put too much funding into welfare rather focusing on defence and economic growth. That backfired later in mid 40s. From 1943 till 1947.

The Four Year Economic Crisis came with extreme problems in the agriculture after a large drought hit, problems with trade due to war and bank system crash in Iran. During that time, little to no welfare reforms were passed due to the government trying to implement saving economy reforms and reduce spendings. It wouldn't be until the early 1950s, when the Welfare State of Iran began.

1950s:

During the early 1950s, the country was under the leadership of Prime Minister Isa Askamita who has been named as the "Mother of Iranian Welfare" as it was her government that implemented the first proper welfare reforms that laid fundements for Iranian Welfare State. It was during the early 1950s, 1948-1954, when some major Iranian welfare reforms were passed ranging from the establishment of the Iranian National Healthcare System, the establishment of the Family Society Insurance, the establishment of Workers Constitution, the establishment of Unemployment Benefit, State Pension, Housing Subsides and Housing Benefit.

However, after her assassination and the fall of democracy in Iran, during the mid and later 1950s, little further welfare reforms were passed until the early 1960s, under the reign of Empress Farah Pahlavi.

1960s:

During the early 1960s, the groundbreaking "Motherly Welfare Package" Reform was passed, which introduced a large amount of benefits for mothers mostly, whilst establishing being a Mother as an official profession. During later mid 1960s, tax reliefs for young couples with more than three children were passed, and elder cards. When in 1966, Sabina Fesri took over as the Prime Minister with Iran coming back to a democratic track, more welfare reforms were passed ranging from Housing Building Subsides, State Housing, Disabled Allowances and Pension bonuses to those that worked in a heavy industry related profession.

However, during the late 1960s and early 1970s, under Elysia Benin, Family Society Insurance was expanded, LEEC and CCHP was expanded and more funding has went towards it.


Expenditure:

Government Welfare Expenditure 1974

Benefit

Expenditure ($bn)

Family Insurance

6.1

Motherly Package Benefits

4.2

State Pension

2.1

Child Health Protection

2.1

Housing Benefit

0.8

Tax Relief for Young Couples

0.6

Lonely Parent and Carers Benefit

0.5

Housing Building Support

0.45

Disabled Allowance

0.4

Elders Cards

0.3

Unemployment Benefit

0.45



Family Society Insurance



Motherly Package Benefits

History:

The "Motherly Package Benefits" were firstly designed and passed in 1960. By 1961, the benefits went into action. From the very start, the programme created much controversy as to it's purpose and being. The MPB was passed under the iniative of Empress Farah Pahlavi, who was also the main creator of the said benefit program. However, the program itself faced many backlash, mostly from Socialistic and Conservative groups.

The Socialists viewed the program as a way to remove the women from workplaces, whilst the conservative groups viewed the program as a way to favourise the women in the society over the men. On the other hand, many supporters were found initially and in 1968 study, it came out that more than 71% of Iranians support the program. The Benefits included in the Motherly Package have found themselves on a constant rise since 1964.

Purpose:

The purpose of the "Motherly Package Benefits" has found it's explanation in Empress Pahlavi's words. In many ways, the package was introduced to help Iranian mothers, encourage women into being mothers, encourage healthy family life and settle the position of a "Iranian Mother" as a proper profession that contributs a lot to the society. Some argue, however, that the purpose of the Motherly Package is to reduce women's participation in the working sphere.

Many experts agree, that the main purpose of the Motherly Package was to and is to increase birth rates and encourage women into having children, which according to the 1971 study, suggests that it's working.

Impact:

Due to the benefit package, as the 1971 Study suggests, that birthrate has increased by over 50% and young women between the ages of 18 and 25 suggest that the main encouragment for them to have children earlier is the Motherly Benefit Package. However, at the same time until 1972, there wasn't a significant decrease of women in workplaces. However, the 1973 Welfare report shows that a decrease has began in the amount of women taking on jobs, instead going to the "Motherly Package." According to critics, if the trend continues, by 1979, around 30% of women who are now graduating will become professional mothers, instead of uptaking jobs. That, on the other hand will create a hole in the employment market, experts warn.

Content:

  • All Women between 17 and 45, that have more than two children can be given 400 - 700 Persian Pekis per child, depending on the income.

  • All Women between 17 and 45, that have more than five children can be given 1,000 - 1,800 Persian Pekis per child, depending on the income.

  • All Women who are below the age of 26 and have chosen to continue education, despite having at least one child, have access to free nursery care.

  • All needed baby materials will be given for free to mothers who have just given birth, and their household income is below 45,000 Persian Pekis.

  • The Status of a Mother is in the Workers Consitution, therefore marking it a proper profession.

  • Mothers who chose to be a mother as a profession has a salary per month of 5,800 Persian Pekis per month. If she raises more than three children, an increase per child of 500 Persian Pekis shall be added.

Statics:



State Pension


Child Health Protection


Housing Benefit


Tax Relief for Young Couples


Lonely Parent and Carers Benefit


Housing Build Support


Disabled Allowance


Elders Card


Unemployment Benefit

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