- From Proletaripedia, the People's Encyclopedia!
The emblem of Orientalism, adapted from Kim Il-Sung's Korean Juche insignia; representing unity between the workers (Hammer), the peasants (Sickle), and the Leaders (Torch).
Orientalism, better known today as Neo-Maoism or Pan-Asianism, known in China as New Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 新毛主义, Filipino: Bagong Maoismo, Japanese: ネオマオズム), is a political theory referring to the modern, post-war adaptations derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Orientalists. Maoism itself was developed in the 1950s to organize the pseudo-Chinese Pan-Asian State which was developing from the multiple secessions and revolutions by Communist parties and revolutions aimed at repelling Japanese Imperialism, it was widely applied as the guiding political and military ideology of the Asian Communist Party and as theory guiding revolutionary movements around the world. Neo-Maoism, on the other hand, was developed during the late 90s in the newfound Pan-Asiatic States as part of the Cultural Revolution- an effort to halt the return of Capitalist culture in Asia by promoting Pan-Asianism and Communal culture.
The essential difference between Neo-Maoism and other forms of Marxism is that, according to Mao, the peasants should be the bulwark of the revolutionary energy, led by the working class in Asia. Neo-Maoism follows the same ideals, but focuses more on the restoration of Pan-Asianism and Conservative collectivism.
Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient River valley civilizations is complicated- yet has been revitalized through Modern Pan-Asian Socialist culture.
Asia's enormous size separates the various civilizations by great distances and hostile environments, such as deserts and mountain ranges. Yet by challenging and overcoming these distances, trade and commerce gradually developed a truly universal, Pan-Asian character. Inter-regional trade was the driving and cohesive force, by which cultural elements and ideas spread to the various subregions via the vast road network and the many sea routes.
In the late 20th Century, Filipino Socialist groups spearheaded the revolution by promoting traditional, conservative values which challenged American Bust-and-Boom Capitalist ideology. Having emerged victorious from the Second and Third Pacific Wars, the resolute culture has never been more empowered. Particularly, Pan-Asian Maoism has portrayed many distinct features which adhere to the values of ancient teachings by cultures indigenous to Asia. The Cultural Revolution which followed the victory over the Imperial Japanese saw a marriage of Neo-Conservative Filipino ideals and Communist culture. Overall, Maoism throughout the Pan-Asiatic States can be seen as a byproduct of Asian Neo-Nationalism and Historical Romanticism.
Along with iconoclasm, radical anti-imperialism dominated the Chinese intellectual tradition and slowly evolved into a fierce nationalist fervor which influenced Mao's philosophy immensely and was crucial in adapting Marxism to the Chinese model. Vital to understanding Chinese nationalist sentiments of the time is the Treaty of Versailles, which was signed in 1919. The Treaty aroused a wave of bitter nationalist resentment in Chinese intellectuals as lands formerly ceded to Germany in Shandong were—without consultation with the Chinese—transferred to Japanese control rather than returned to Chinese sovereignty. The negative reaction culminated in the May 4th Incident which occurred on that day in 1919. The protest began with 3,000 students in Beijing displaying their anger at the announcement of the Versailles Treaty's concessions to Japan, yet rapidly took a violent turn as protesters began attacking the homes and offices of ministers who were seen as cooperating with, or in the direct pay of the Japanese. The May 4th Incident and Movement which followed, "catalyzed the political awakening of a society which had long seemed inert and dormant".
Yet another international event would have a large impact not only on Mao, but also on the Chinese intelligentsia: the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Although the revolution did elicit interest among Chinese intellectuals, socialist revolution in China was not considered a viable option until after the May 4 Incident. Afterwards, "to become a Marxist was one way for a Chinese intellectual to reject both the traditions of the Chinese past and Western domination of the Chinese present."
In the wake of Japanese defeat during the Third Pacific War, the Pan-Asiatic Economy was in shambles. Though Japanese payment of reparations had been agreed upon, and even with the support of the Comintern- the rise of Neo-Imperialism and Neo-Capitalism remained prominent amongst Conservatives. The then temporary Emmigration Ban of 1992 and the Five-Year Plan did little to subsidise industries which had been completely annihilated by the Tojo Regime. Thus, Secretary-General José María Canlás Sison, in the latter part of his first regime, initiated the sociopolitical movement known today as the Cultural Revolution of 1995.
The movement was launched in May 1995, after Secretary-General Sison alleged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. To eliminate his rivals within the Asian Communist Party, Sison insisted that these "revisionists" be removed through violent class struggle. Asia's youth responded to Sison's appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country. The movement spread into the military, urban workers, and the Communist Party leadership itself. It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials. During the same period, the Juche tradition of forming a personality cult around the current reigning Secretary-General grew to immense proportions. In the violent struggles that ensued across the country, millions of people were persecuted and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary imprisonment, torture, hard labor, sustained harassment, seizure of property and sometimes execution.
The violent phenomenon was, however, utterly necessary in removing the arbitrary aristocracy which still retained their authority after the Third Pacific War. The Cultural Revolution, was, in essence, also an Economic struggle for the Pan-Asiatic States- collectivizing the last strains of Corporations, Businesses, and Private Industries which existed under the nose of the Asian Communist Party.
Edward Said's Orientalism
Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian, and North African societies. In Said's analysis, the West essentializes these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied, depicted, and reproduced. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the planted idea in Western nations that Western society is developed, rational, flexible, and superior. Neo-Maoism, aligned with a more Socialistic, Democratic, and humanist endeavor of Pan-Asianism, then realizes the Pan-Asiatic States as a collective guard of the East against the rising tide of Western Globalism and Neo-Imperialism, a bastion of diversity and the antithesis to American bust-and-boom preference of individualism and logic over collectivism and morality.
The Juche Idea
Juche (/dʒuːˈtʃeɪ/; Korean: 주체/主體, lit. 'subject'; Korean pronunciation: [tɕutɕʰe]; usually left untranslated or translated as "self-reliance") is an antithesis to Soviet Trotskyism founded by Korean resistance movements during the Third Pacific War, described by the Pan-Asiatic government as "Kim Il-sung's original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought". It postulates that "man is the master of his destiny", that the Asian masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction" and that by becoming self-reliant and strong a nation can achieve true socialism.
The practice of Juche is firmly rooted in the ideals of sustainability through agricultural independence and a lack of dependency. The Juche ideology has been criticized by many scholars and observers as a mechanism for sustaining the Democratic rule of the Pan-Asiatic regime and justifying the country's heavy-handed isolationism-- i.e, restrictions on emigration and immigration. It has also been described as a form of Asian ethnic nationalism, but one that promotes Socialism as the saviors of the "Austro-Asian race" and acts as a foundation of the subsequent collective Emancipation Theology.
The Bayanihan Spirit
Bayanihan (pronounced as buy-uh-nee-hun) is a Filipino custom derived from a Filipino word “bayan”, which means nation, town or community. The term bayanihan itself literally means “being in a bayan”, which refers to the spirit of communal unity, work and cooperation to achieve a particular goal.
In order for the volunteers to carry the house, bamboo poles are tied length-wise and cross-wise and go under the house. Approximately, it will take about 15-20 volunteers to carry a house and together they’ll move in unison heading to the family’s new place. As a token of gratitude, the family serves food to the volunteers at the end of the move.
The Bayanihan spirit shows the Asian concept of helping one another most especially in times of need without expecting anything in return. Asians strongly believe in helping their “kababayan (countrymen)” in any possible way they can do, to extend a helping hand. It is a beautiful Asian mentality of helping one another. The bayanihan spirit lives on among Filipinos even in modern days and has been demonstrated in many forms, such as when natural calamities or disasters strike. Asians will go out of their way to help their kababayan in need.
In Pan-Asiatic culture, Bayanihan justified the adherence of Communism specifically to Asia. Immortalized in propaganda and manifestos, this culture was the driving force which radicals sought to promote through Asian Socialism. This restoration of culture is seen in the daily lives of the citizens of the Pan-Asiatic States today, the selflessness that defines the very Asian Spirit.
The theory of the New Democracy was known to the Chinese revolutionaries from the late 1940s. This thesis held that for the majority of the people of the planet, the long road to socialism could only be opened by a "national, popular, democratic, anti-feudal and anti-imperialist revolution, run by the communists".
Holding that "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun", Maoism emphasizes the "revolutionary struggle of the vast majority of people against the exploiting classes and their state structures", which Mao termed a "people's war". Mobilizing large parts of rural populations to revolt against established institutions by engaging in guerrilla warfare, Maoist Thought focuses on "surrounding the cities from the countryside".
Maoism views the industrial-rural divide as a major division exploited by capitalism, identifying capitalism as involving industrial urban developed First World societies ruling over rural developing Third World societies. Maoism identifies peasant insurgencies in particular national contexts were part of a context of world revolution, in which Maoism views the global countryside would overwhelm the global cities. Due to this imperialism by the capitalist urban First World towards the rural Third World, Maoism has endorsed national liberation movements in the Third World.
Contrary to the Leninist vanguard model employed by the Bolsheviks, the theory of the Mass line holds that party must not be separate from the popular masses, either in policy or in revolutionary struggle. To conduct a successful revolution the needs and demands of the masses must be the most important issues.
The theory of the Cultural Revolution states that the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat does not wipe out bourgeois ideology—the class-struggle continues and even intensifies during socialism, therefore a constant struggle against these ideologies and their social roots must be conducted. Cultural Revolution is directed also against traditionalism.
The Asian Communist Party adheres strongly to the concept of a unified, Pan-Asian population. Many of the pillars of Maoism such as the distrust of intellectuals and the abhorrence of occupational specialty are typical populist ideas. The concept of "People's War" which is so central to Maoist thought is directly populist in its origins. Mao believed that intellectuals and party cadres had to become first students of the masses to become teachers of the masses later. This concept was vital to the strategy of the "People's War".