by Max Barry

Latest Forum Topics

Advertisement

1

DispatchMetaReference

by The Republic of Bolzharia. . 105 reads.

European Union (OLD)

European Union

Bulgarian: Европейски съюз
Croatian: Europska unija
Czech: Evropská unie
Danish: Den Europæiske Union
Dutch: Europese Unie
Estonian: Euroopa Liit
Finnish: Euroopan unioni
French: Union européenne
German: Europäische Union
Greek: Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση
Hungarian: Európai Unió
Italian: Unione europea
Latvian: Eiropas Savienība
Lithuanian: Europos Sąjunga
Maltese: Unjoni Ewropea
Polish: Unia Europejska
Portuguese: União Europeia
Romanian: Uniunea Europeană
Serbian: Европска унија
Slovak: Európska únia
Slovene: Evropska unija
Spanish: Unión Europea
Swedish: Europeiska unionen
Turkish: Avrupa Birliği



Flag


Motto: "In Varietate Concordia" (Latin)
"United in Diversity"


Anthem: Link"Ode to Joy"



Member States (in dark Green)
NPC Member States (in light green)


Capital: Berlin, Kommeria
Largest City: Istanbul, The Turkish-State


Official Languages:
26 Official Languages

Bulgarian
Croatian
Dutch
Danish
English
Estonian
Finnish
French
German
Greek
Hungarian
Italian
Latvian
Lithuanian
Maltese
Polish
Portuguese
Romanian
Serbian
Slovak
Slovene
Spanish
Swedish
Turkish


Official Scripts: Latin - Cyrillic - Greek


Religion:


Demonym: European


Type: Political and Economic Union


Member States: 30 member states

Austria
Belgium
Bolzharia
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dvaistic Republic of Serbia
Estonia
France
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Kommeria
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spainard
Sweden
The Turkish-State
United empire of britain and ireland
Vikslandia


Leaders:
- President of EU Commission:
- President of EU Council:
- President of EU Parliament:


Legislature:
- Council of the EU
- European Parliament


Establishment:
- Treaty of [tbd] 2018


Land Area: mile²
km²
Water Area: km²
Water %:


Elevation
Highest Point:
Lowest Point:


GDP (nominal):
GDP (nominal) per capita:


Human Development Index:


Currencies: Euro (EUR)
8 others

Czech Koruna
Danish Krone
Croatian Kuna
Finnish Markka
Hungarian Florint
Polish Zloty
Romanian Leu
Swedish Krona


Time Zone: UTC, UTC+1, UTC+2,
UTC+3


Date format: dd/mm/yyyy


Internet TLD: .eu

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 30 member states that are primarily located in Europe. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 2018.

The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and the 1957 Treaty of Rome. The original members of what came to be knwon as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established to European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the constitutional bases of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009.


History

Background

During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire (481-843) and the Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) were attempts to resurrect Rome in the West. The Russian Tsardom, and ultimately the Empire (1547-1917) declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The gap between Greek East and Latin West had already been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054; and would be eventually widened by again by the Iron Curtain (1945-1991). The Medieval Christendom aand political power of the Papacy are also often cited as premisses to European integration and unity.

Pan-European political thought truly emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoleon's Empire (1804-1815). In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent, especially in the writings of Wojciech Jastrebowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski. The term Untied States of Europe (French: États-Unis d'Europe) was famously used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849.

During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent. In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union". During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which then Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, he later gave a famous speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, ancestor of the United Nations.

Treaty of Rome (1957-92)

In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Kommeria signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community (EEC) and established a customs union. They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958.

The EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein (Hallstein Commission) and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand (Armand Commission) and the then Etienne Hirsch. Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members.

During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. Nevertheless, in 1965 an agreement was reached and on 1 July 1967 the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities. Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission (Rey Commission).

In 1973, the Communities were enlarged to include Denmark (including Greenland, which later left the Communities in 1985 following a dispute over fishing rights), and the United empire of britain and ireland. Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum. In 1979, the first direct elections ot the European Parliament were held. This was marked by a special international friendly football match at Wembley Stadium.

Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spainard following in 1986. In 1985, the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. In 1986, the European flag began to be used by the EEC and the Single European Act was signed.

In 1990, after the fall of the Eastern Bloc, the former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a reunified Germany. A close fiscal integration with the introduction of the euro was not matched by institutional oversight making things more troubling. Attempts to solve the problems and to make the EU more efficient and coherent had limited success. With further enlargement planned to include former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the EU were agreed upon in June 1993. The expansion of the EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord.

Maastricht Treaty (1997-2007)

The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty - whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and Francois Mitterrand - came into force on 1 November 1993. The treaty also gave the name European Community to the EEC, even if it was referred as such before the treaty. In 1995, Austria, Vikslandia and Sweden joined the EU.

In 2002, euro banknotes and coins replaced nation currencies in 12 of the member states, Since then the Eurozone has increased to encompass 23 countries. The euro currency became the second largest reserve currency in the world. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, The Turkish-State and Radovonia joined the Union.

Lisbon Treaty (2007-present)

In 2007, Slovenia adopted the Euro, followed by Malta in 2008, Slovakia in 2009, by Estonia in 2011, by Latvia in 2014 and by Lithuania in 2015.

On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

In 2012, the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for "having contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe". In 2018, following the collapse of Radovonia, Croatia, Dvaistic Republic of Serbia and Bolzharia were admitted as members of the European Union.

The Republic of Bolzharia

Edited:

RawReport