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Waikuri

PLURINATIONAL UNION OF WAIKURI
PETÝHETA TETAMARÉÇE WAIKURI (Nhen'che)
JEHEÁ BLÚRINAZIONALE D'KWAIQUIRI (Linkwa Gerale)
ÁR'AYKURY BOHO-WYDYHATÃMA (Wewena-Taputã)
WAYAXIT MARQAYA WAYPURI (Zysquyqayan)

Motto: Sikué Açui Ara (Nhen'che)
"Life And Nature"

Anthem: Kworo Kango

Capital: Tendawaçu

Largest City: Pisasuretama

Official Language: Nhen'che

Recognized Languages: Zysquyqau, Linkwa Gerale, Wewena-Taputã, Taputanian Dialects

Denonym(s): Waikuri'nhen, Waikurian

National ideology: Tetamakátu

Ethnic Groups:

  • 77.71% Waikurian (52.65% Kaapura, 15.22% Zysquyqau, 9.84% Taputã)

  • 16.05% Mixed (Moreno)

  • 5.02% White (Kariwa)

  • 1.22% Other

Religion:

  • 39.12% Tapytcha Yerová (Kaapura Religion)

  • 16.58% Xyparakypa (Taputanian Animism)

  • 13.94% Taxohatxil (Zusquyqayan Totemism)

  • 9.97% Santismu (Kariwa Syncretism)

  • 5.46% Other

  • 14.93% No Religion

Government: Federal republic under a one-party participatory democracy (see "Government and politics")

  • Supreme Representative: Kanawã Pytuna

  • Supreme Chieftain: Amonati Tainá-Kãn

  • Speaker of the Ukakatú: Tuvitcha Liwen

Legislature:

  • Ukakatú

  • Kasikasgu

Establishment

  • Waikuri Confederacy‎ -- 1605

  • Waikurian Kasikasgu -- 1811

  • State of Waikuri -- 1933

  • Plurinational Union -- 1983

Area

  • Total: TBA

Population

  • 2020 census: 31,871,943

  • Density: 79.5/km²

GDP (PPP)

  • Total: 8.239 trillion

  • Per capita: 12,987

GDP (nominal)

  • Total: 523.014 billion

  • Per capita: 5,433

Gini (2019): 49.13 high

HDI: 0.712 high

Currency: Itá

Time zone: TBA

Date format: dd/mm/yyyy

Driving side: Right

Calling code: +312

Abbreviation: WAI

Internet TLD: .wai

(PLEASE NOTE: This factbook is being reworked.) The Plurinational Union of Waikuri is a landlocked, tropical nation noted for its' massive lush and green forests, diverse wildlife, and traditional cultures that have survived the test of time.

Waikuri's ancient history was marked by several migrations of peoples thousands of years ago, the specifics traits of their cultures and society being lost to history, but it is known that traces of an ancient civilization, known as the Ahokokyn, existed. Its' origins are unknown, as history was passed down via oral tradition, but many myths and legends have risen surrounding this ancient society. The first proper Waikurian statelet was founded in the late 1500s as the Waikuri Confederacy, a tribal & stratocratic nation. Waikuri would see several future incarnations until it took its' modern form in 1988.

Waikuri is a diverse nation with several groups living in its' borders. Most groups define themselves based on their ancestral relationship with Waikuri, their language and tribal affiliation, with the exception of the Kariwas, Morenos and Tawaimas. Though ethnic tensions do occur, openly sectarian conflicts are a rare sight. Because of this, and Waikuri's reputation as a peaceful nation, it is seen as a safe haven for immigrants.

Politically, Waikuri has, for most of its' history, had some sort of a federal system. This form of organization was seen as necessary to maintain harmony between the existing tribes. This was done through a federation of local chiefs (Kasikes) who would rule collectively and make decisions through a consensus vote. Remnants of this ancient system continues to exist in an extra body known as the Kasikasgu, composed of traditional leaders who represent the interests of their respective subtribes. Though they hold no de jure power and are only seen as a sort of ceremonial body, there is widespread belief that these Kasikes serve as advisors to some politicians.

Since the 1980s, the country has been ruled by the FYM, a left-wing nationalist and democratic socialist party. The FYM's ideology is an adapted vision of Tetamakátu, a philosophy that values community values and social well-being.

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Etymology
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The word "Waikuri" comes from "Apigawa Kaáreçé Sukuiri", meaning "Men of the Green Forest" in Nhen'che. The name was used by 16th-17th century Kaapura guerrillas who fought back against foreign colonialism. The first recorded used of the word dates back to a letter from a colonist written in 1598, referring to the territory as the Land of the Guaiquiri, but it is believed that the condensed name was also used by natives who did not speak the Nhen'che language.

The word Waikuri continued to be used to refer to the states that succeed the Waikuri Confederacy (with the exception of the Marakáyu Republic) but it was only officially adopted in 1988.

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History
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HEY! This section is currently being reworked. Sorry for the mess!

Ancient Waikuri & The Legend of Ubiratã

Recent archeological findings have made it known that the first to arrive in Waikuri were known as the Senapús, arriving nearly 23,000 years ago. The Senapús would be displaced by the Tukurimes, who arrived 10,000 years ago. The Tukurimes would wage several wars against the Senapús, who were driven out of the jungles and forced to settle in the Kampos. Somewhere within this timeframe, another group would settle the western highlands; the Hemetás, who had little contact with the two other groups.

It is believed that, after the inter-tribal conflicts came to an end, the Senapús and Tukurimes would collapse into several smaller tribes, who would later become the Taputanians and Kaapuras respectively. Something similar happened to the Hemetás, who would later become the Zysquyqayans. There is archeological evidence that the Tukurimeans maintained an organized structure, leading some to believe that they had developed some sort of an empire before collapsing.

However, Waikuri's founding myth is the Legend of Ubiratã. According to the story, Ubiratã belonged to an ancient subtribe of the Tukurimeans known as the Uyawara, who were in a perpetual state of war against another Tukurimean subtribe named Yararawa. A hunter, Ubiratã sought to capture an enemy warrior to elevate his status, when he came to face a woman name Yacy, whom he fell in love with. His tribe's Taxáwa (Chief) Porã, a tyrant, offered him two options: Death at the hands of one-hundred warriors or expulsion from the tribe.

According to the legend, Ubiratã defeated all hundred warriors with nothing but a short spear. Baffled, Porã tried to kill him in his sleep, only to be ambushed and killed by his fellow tribesmen. The tribe chose Ubiratã as their new Taxáwa, and, after making peace with the Yararawa, he "merged the two arrows of the tribes into one" and birthed the Ahokokyn Nation, named after the great lake where they migrated to.

The legitimacy Legend of Ubiratã is debated and details surrounding the story are heavily speculated. Some theories, such as the belief that both tribes were fighting over that very lake, are popular, but dismissed as false by experts. There is no real proof that Ubiratã ever existed, and it is likely that his character was invented as a personalization of several ancient heroes.

The Ahokokyn Civilization

There is proof that the Ahokokyn civilization existed, and two other settlements called Berotama and Nhambiretama are believed to have been part of the civilization, either as a confederacy or an alliance. This is due to the similarities found between the three city-states, especially regarding agriculture. It is also likely that the inhabitants of Nhambiretama and Berotama simply adapted the practices used by Ahokokyn. Nevertheless, the two city-states are believed to have been founded in the locations formerly resided by the old Yararawa and Uyawara tribes respectively.

The Ahokokyn Civilization was known for its' complexity, with roads, extensive fortifications, bridges, monuments, and even manioc-based agriculture. Other details about this civilization, such as its' leaders, are unknown.


An artists' conception of ancient Ahokokyn.

The Ahokokyn Civilization would collapse somewhere between 1520-1550 due to an epidemic of several western diseases, likely brought over by trade partners from other tribes after they in turn had come in contact with foreign colonists.

The Rise of Waikuri

Though the colonists would only come in contact with the Waikurians in the 1580s, missionaries had arrived as early as 1550s, some of whom claimed to have seen the final years of the Ahokokyn Civilization and documented its' history.

The missionaries lived among the Kaapuras, who, according to historical records compiled from both missionaries and oral history, were a warlike culture. Early Kaapura culture was centered around war - either against themselves or the Taputanians. They organized around small tribal villages, living off of the land through hunting, fishing, and small-scale agriculture. Eventually, when resources became scarce, they would move to another place and start the cycle all over.

The most noteworthy aspect of early Kaapuras, however, were their anthropophagic rituals. When a warrior was captured, he would be brought to the enemy tribe, where, after being publicly humiliated, he was treated fairly. The elder would give him a wife, and allow the warrior to live in his hut. The warrior never dared to escaped - for if he did, his own tribe would forsake him. After five days, the tribe held a massive party, where they would all drink an intoxicating beverage and hold a mock trial with the prisoners. The prisoner, knowing that his death and consumption would perpetuate the cycle of revenge, and knowing that his tribe would avenge him, played along. When the time of the execution came, the prisoner would be killed out with a blow to the head from his captor and consumed by the rival tribe.

The missionaries who witnessed this were horrified. After failed attempts to convert the Kaapuras and force them to abandon such traditions, they turned to colonization as a way to "purify" the Kaapuras.


Kaapura dance, c. 1500s.

The most influential passage written by missionaries was the following;
"...Unlike the welcoming nature of the Tabotas (Taputãnians) The Capuras (Kaapuras), the men who wear blue rags and luxurious feather garments, are, above all, naked savages, practitioners of sorcery and cannibalism, who believe they were brought upon the earth by the thunder. They know no laws, no kings, no gods."

Known as the Letters from the Missions, these texts were used to justify the colonization of Waikuri and general oppression towards the Kaapuras and other Waikurian peoples.

Soon, colonists, missionaries and mercenaries poured into Waikuri in an attempt to colonize Waikuri and exterminate or convert the locals. The Kaapuras, who were subjugated, killed or enslaved, set aside their rivalries to oppose the colonists. Enraged warriors, against the advice of their Elders, left their communities to fight back. They formed small, irregular bands, ambushing the invaders and retreating deep into the jungles. Their actions made it impossible for settlers and armies to navigate through Waikuri without being constantly harrassed.


First-generation Kariwa colonists. Enslaved prisoners can be seen in the background.

These groups eventually became known as the Apigawa Kaáreçé Sukuiri - the Men of the Green Forest. Overtime, their name would become blurred and they would be known as the Waikuri (or Guaiquiri by the Colonists) - baptizing the future nation.


Taputanian horse charge. The Taputanians sided with the colonists, and even after the defeat of their allies, the Taputanians continued to fight on until the fall of the Waikuri Confederacy.


Artwork depicting a skirmish between colonists and Zysquyqau tribesmen.

The Apigawa Kaáreçé Sukuiri were decentralized and led by a warrior known as Raoni Piatã - Raoni being the title given to respected warriors. They fought back against the Colonists, who struggled to combat the experienced warriors in the dense jungles. The war raged for ten years, until the colonists were forced out of Waikuri after the mythical Battle of Yurêma, when the Colonists sent ships down the Ysuikíri river to rally their troops, only to see them burnt down by fire arrows and sunk after they being ambushed near the village of Yurêma. It is said that the Waikurians attacked from the banks of the river and with canoes, even capturing some ships.

Birth of the Waikuri Confederacy

Raoni Piatã organized the Taxáwas of previous existing tribes and together, they formed an agreement that would create the first Waikurian nation. Organized in a Confederal system, the Taxáwas would rule over their local tribes. The tribes were reorganized into several nations, and each nation would hold a tournament to select a Surara - a skilled warrior that would serve as a general, mobilizing his armies to defend his region. Among them, one man would be elected as Raoni, who would lead the tribes.

Raoni Piatã, founder of Waikuri and veteran of the anti-colonial war, passed away shortly after the Confederacy was founded. His death led to a power struggle which ended after a man named Kaluanã was elected. Kaluanã's rule was uneventful. He was seen as weak and indecisive, and the integrity of the confederacy was beginning to fall apart.

The Tyranny of Raoni Guarapuava

The Council of Suraras was split between two factions; the Tribalists & the Centralists. The tribalists sought to maintain the decentralized structure of the confederacy, while the Centralists sought to centralize and delegate even more power into the hands of the Raoni. A man named Guarapuava belonged to the Centralist faction, and he made clear his opposition to Raoni Kaluanã's perceived weakness.

The Suraras expected a civil war, and the Council was split. It all came to an end, however, when Guarapuava murdered Kaluanã and his allies during a meeting. The Tribalists were executed and replaced with Guarapuava's lackeys. In a consensus vote, Guarapuava was elected Raoni of the Waikuri Confederacy.

During Guarapuava's rule, he centralized his rule, and moved his court to his native village, at the banks of the Ysuikíri river. His village was renamed to Tendawaçu, simply meaning "Grand Plaza", and would become the administrative center of the Confederacy. The creation of a formal capital was the first sign of centralization in Waikuri, and would pave the way for the birth of a formal nation-state. Other major centralizing measures included the creation of a formal tribute system and, most importantly, laws.

Guarapuava was able to implement proper laws, not only making him able to control Waikurian society more effectively, but helping in shaping a heterogenous Kaapura identity. Before his rule, Kaapuras were largely divided, the only uniting factor being a common language and religion. Guarapuava was able to unite all Kaapura subtribes with two measures. Firstly, he promoted urbanization by constructing cities such as Tendawaçu, and secondly, he prohibited tribes from moving out of their lands.

By prohibiting tribal migrations, tribes were forced to settle down into their villages and adopt sedentary lifestyles. Hunter-gatherer models that predominated at the time were exchanged for cassava-based agriculture. As cities became bustling trade centers, trade between neighboring villages and cities became more common. And as a result, cultural exchanges became more common, and internal conflicts came to an end, fostering amicable relations between subtribes that were previously at each other's throats.

With urbanization, the warlike culture of the Kaapuras declined. Anthropophagy was discouraged, and the rituals would simply die out. Instead of consuming their prisoners in a banquet, they would enslave them, forcing them to build houses, monuments and other structures. Controversially, Tendawaçu was built with slave labor.


The Raoni and his men cross the Ysuikíri.

Guarapuava's Death & Decline of the Confederacy

Raoni Guarapuava would die of natural causes in 1649, after 37 years of tyrannical rule. He was succeeded by Raoni Kauã, his son, who ruled in a similar manner. Kauã's most remembered feat is the conquest of the Zysquyqau people to the west. The brutal war between the Kaapuras and the Zysquyqayans, known as the Sierra War, greatly weakened the Confederacy.

Kauã outlasted his father and remained in power for 52 years, but died without an heir. His death triggered a regency period known as "Rule of the Suraras". At this rate, the Confederacy was falling apart with internal dissent - and the colonists saw this as a prime opportunity to finally defeat the Waikurians.

The Conquest of the Jungle & Kaapura Wars

Seeing an opportunity to expand their territory, colonists invaded Waikuri and, starting in 1738, took over parts of Waikuri with the aid of dissatisfied Taxáwas, Taputanian warriors thirsty for revenge, and opportunistic Suraras. During this time, the confederacy shattered into several smaller warlord states ruled by the Suraras.

The colonists established the Colony of Guaiquiri in the east, after conquering Tendawaçu, but struggled to bring order to the colony. During this time, Waikuri was a lawless frontier. Colonists fought against the Suraras, the Suraras fought themselves, and other, minor groups took advantage of both sides.

One of these groups were the Chiefs. Tribal Chiefs saw their power and influence drastically reduced under the Confederacy. They had opposed slavery and centralizing measures, and, although some were sympathetic towards the colonists, they saw them as no better than the stratocratic Suraras.


Tendawaçu during colonial years, seen on the other side of the river.

Facing this mass disorder and injustice, one Chief, in particular, would go out of his way to put an end to the chaos.

Ubirayara's Revolt & Tetamakátu

Ubirayara was a Kaapura chief who gathered a large following during the anarchic years. Seeing through the injustices prevalent at the time, he gained the support of several chiefs who wished to restore order and regain their privileges, and of the masses, especially those who were enslaved.

Ubirayara called for the creation of an egalitarian society without oppressive social divisions, where all tribes would live at peace with one another and work to their mutual benefit, developing the philosophy of Tetamakátu. Inspired by these ideals, the enslaved Taputanians and Kaapuras led a massive slave revolt, routing the colonists and defeating the Suraras under Ubirayara's banner. Ubirayara was elevated to Supreme Chieftain, the leader of not just the Kaapuras, but of the Taputanians, the Zysquyqayans, and the people of Waikuri as a whole.

Ubirayara redistributed land to entire communities of freemen, giving birth to collective farms, and kickstarting a system that would later take the shape of a proto-planned economy. However, Ubirayara would also empower another group.

The chiefs had rebranded themselves under Ubirayara. Now, they weren't mere village chiefs - they were Kasikes, powerful leaders who represented entire nations. This power was given to them by Ubirayara, who was a chief himself. After his death, the Kasikes would swiftly take power, abolishing the position of Supreme Chief, ruling collectively in a period known as the Kasikasgu.

The Kasikasgu

The Kasikasgu was structured to adhere to Waikuri's tribal castes, which began to solidify during this period. Social mobility was rare, and most Waikurians were forced to reside in their respective villages for most of their lives. Some have compared this period to Waikuri's equivalent to Feudalism - though this comparison is dubious at best, as the Kasikes themselves did not own any land, instead acquiring their wealth through tributes.

Tributes were collected from merchants and the general populace as a form of taxation. Tributes had first been introduced by the Waikuri Confederacy, and were restored by the Kasikes. Currency in the form of silver coins was introduced by the colonists and continued to be used after their departure, being especially common in urban areas. Commoners who failed to pay their tributes were turned into cheap labor through a system of peonage. These peons were used as cheap labor by their community, who made them work the most lowly and dangerous jobs. Those who were freed simply abandoned their communities, willingly becoming Tawaimas.


Kaapura Kasike, c. 1880.

In the eyes of the lower castes, the caste system was a betrayal of the ideals of Tetamakátu, something that would later become a major issue for the nation. During this time, Waikuri was strictly isolationist, shunning any outside influence. Eventually, this would also end.

The Rubber Boom & Kariwa Migrations

In 1892, a clandestine expedition into Waikuri discovered massive rubber reserves ripe for exploitation. Neighboring nations soon came knocking on the doors of the Waikurians, forcing the Kasikes to open up the country. After a large meeting, the Kasikes decided to open up the country after realizing they could not win a war against their technologically superior foes.

Soon, white (Kariwa) migrants flocked to Waikuri. Kariwa merchants enriched themselves in a matter of weeks, and their wealth surpassed that of the upper castes. Selling imported products, they displaced local merchants and Waikuri's internal economy sunk. In the countryside, Kariwa farmers freed up several acres of land through deforestation, setting up large farms in the south. They quickly outpaced the many of the smaller, local farms, who struggled to compete. Like the merchants, Waikurian farmers were enslaved en masse after they failed to provide proper tributes. Those who did not slave away at the farms went to work as rubber gatherers for a barely sufficient wage.

Kaapura rubber gatherers with their Kariwa boss.

The Kasikes were outraged as they saw their power diminish at the hands of the newly-born Kariwa elites, and employed violent, brutal methods to preserve their power and the caste system, demanding greater tributes and centralizing their power. The lower castes were outraged at their exploitation by their tribal leaders and the Kariwas, and, starting in 1897, anarchic violence would break out.

The Caste War

The Caste War began with several peasant revolts. These peasant armies claimed to follow the ideals of Tetamakátu, and sought to abolish the Castes and drive the Kariwas out of the country. Fighting between the remaining Kasikes, peasant rebels and Kariwa militias began to tear the nation apart.

Kariwa and Moreno soldiers, c. 1910.

During this time, a man named Huraçi Piranga gained prominence. Huraçi had been a member of his Kasike's personal guard, before he and his comrades were captured and forced to work in a Kariwa plantation. After escaping, he led a band of renegades against the Kariwas. As other peasant leaders were killed or gave up the fight, Huraçi stood as the last revolutionary.


Rebel village during the Caste War.

Huraçi replicated several tactics used by the Waikurians in the past, such as the heavy use of the jungle and booby traps. He employed fierce scorched earth tactics, burning farms and plantations and forcing the Kariwas to abandon their lands. With the land destroyed and the militias wiped out, the Kariwas surrendered, and many fled the country. And thus, in 1933, the Caste War came to an end.

Huraçi's Rule

Huraçi created a central government, and after solidifying his power, he fully abolished the Kasikasgu, reducing the Kasikes to ceremonial leaders. By doing so, he weakened the Caste System, allowing for more social mobility, but instead of fading away like Huraçi and his peers hoped, the castes survived, simply taking on another, less rigid form. Though his early policies were popular, his three most controversial policies, however; the Tirika, Omõgove and Mbopáyu, turned him into a villain in the eyes of Waikurians.


Kaapura rural family, c. 1935.

The policy of Tirika, or distancing, consisted of sending "undesirables" to small villages in remote parts of the country, where they would be completely isolated from their families. According to victims of the Tirika, they were told that, if the authorities heard of their escape, one of the victim's close relatives would be arrested and executed for treason in their stead. As Huraçi's regime ramped up in its' repression, the use of Tirika as a way to curb dissent became commonplace.

Omõgove, or revitalization, was the policy of censorship and ethnocentrism. A highly ethnocentric narrative was built around the Kaapuras, who was presented as a "chosen people". Through this policy, Kaapuras who expressed dissent or "fell out of line" were punished for "impurity", and people of other ethnicities were treated with suspicion.

Mbopáyu, or modernization, could refer to two things:

  • Cultural Modernization (Mbopáyu Yãnderekóara), a policy made with the goal of forcefully putting an end to the tribal structure of Waikurian society. This was to be achieved by suppressing the castes and to enforce a national identity. However, the policy backfired, and was often used by Kaapura authorities to target other ethnic minorities.

  • Economic Modernization (Mbopáyu Itáreko), a policy of rapid industrialization through five-year plans and foreign investment. Huraçi reorganized the economy in a corporative model to serve the interests of the state; and the brutal methods used to achieve complete industrialization, such as the use of slave labor by POWs from the Caste War up to absurd quotas and long working hours became infamous. The policy succeeded in industrializing Waikuri, and was dropped in the 50s.


Student march, c. 1964.

Huraçi created a highly authoritarian and protofascist government. Only members of the military were allowed into any sort of political office, and corruption had become commonplace. The military was employed as a sort of secret police, used to detain dissidents and control all aspects of Waikurian life.

Rubber exports had been the main fuel for the Waikurian economy for years. In the 50s, as the use of synthetic rubber became commonplace and demand for natural rubber dropped, the country entered a crisis. The government abandoned its' archaic economic policies and began to rely on foreign investment and loans. As debts began to climb and the economy showed no sign of recovery, it was clear that the next few years would be difficult.

Huraçi Piranga would die in 1958, at the age of 83. He would be succeeded by one his top generals, Moacyr Kayrês. Or as he would later be known as, the "Butcher of Pitãkwima".

Kayrês' Rule & The Pitãkwima Massacre

Kayrês was known for his corruption and indiscriminate use of Tirika. Under him, the country relaxed economic regulations even further, granting "special benefits" for his partner enterprises and embracing an almost laissez-faire policy. Kayrês would appoint relatives to important government posts, furthering government incompetence.

During Kayrês' rule, dissatisfaction amongst the general population grew. As communities were forsaken by their own government, Kasikes organized their communities and began to form popular assemblies, or Nhemgobes, in an effort to organize and aid their community's needs. Overtime, Nhemgobes would be propped up across the nation, and in secret, they began to coordenate and aid one another, planning to eventually seize power and overthrow Kayrês.


Voting during a Nhemgobe session, c. 1963.

The first attempt to overthrow Kayrês came in 1969, in the city of Pitãkwima. Citizens stormed police stations and took up arms, overwhelming the local garrison. The city's Nhemgobe declared the creation of a "provisional government" and set uo barricades all over the city, manned by popular militias.

However, when the uprising failed to spread, the government declared a lockdown of the region surrounding the city and unleashed the military upon them.


Popular militias during the Pitãkwima Uprising.


Government troops storm Pitãkwima.

The militias were no match against the government forces, and the uprising was crushed. Looking to make an example out of the insurrectionists, several locals, many of whom had not participated in the uprising but were relatives of the insurrectionists, were executed according to the Tirika Law. Many other crimes were committed by the soldiers, and the episode is remembered as a great tragedy.

But instead of discouraging the Nhemgobes, the massacre had the opposite effect. Dissent continued to spread amongst the populace, and the situation began to escalate further.

The Long Summer

The next few years would see passive resistance from the populace, but the anti-Kayrês movement would be revitalized after a popular activist, Sepetiba Apiúna, returned from exile. Apiúna was a Pajé, a spiritual village elder. He had protested against the regime as early as the 50s, but, frustrated at his failures, decided to leave Waikuri with his family in 1961.

Overseas, Apiúna wrote several articles in protest against the dictatorial regime in his homeland. Eventually, turning away from passive resistance in turn for violent revolution, he wrote a book titled Foundations of Waikuri, in which he called for a return to Tetamakátu and a reconciliation between Waikuri's tribal traditions and modern democracy. These ideals would fuel the creation of Nhemgobes and later prove decisive in creating a proper post-revolutionary state.

Apiúna secretly returned to Waikuri in 1972, and began to prepare the Nhemgobes for his plan to seize power. With the Pitãkwima uprising in mind, they opted for a well-organized approach. To better coordinate the Nhemgobes and their militias, he and his peers formed the General Committee for the Waikurian Revolution (Atywaçu Opawã'epê-kuarã Nhepuã Waikuri'nhen - commonly referred to as Aty Opanhewa, Opanhewa or simply AOP). The AOP would become the backbone of the Waikurian revolution.


AOP guerrillas enter Tendawaçu, 1977.

The plan would be executed in 1976 during the Great Circle celebrations. The AOP captured several cities in the north and western regions, though other regions would see fierce fighting between the revolutionaries and government troops. Facing mutinies and riots behind the frontlines, Kayrês would flee the country in January of 1977. His sudden escape led to the total collapse of the government, and the AOP was victorious. The fighting had only lasted seven months, and the episode was known as "The Long Summer". The last remnants of Loyalist resistance would surrender in 1981, ending any chance of the return of the old regime.

Revolutionary Waikuri

The period between 1977-1983 became known as Revolutionary Waikuri. During this period, a provisional government was put in place, and the chaos brought over by the revolution continue to plague the country for the next six years.

The period was primarily marked by political violence targeted towards businessmen and associates of the old government. Lynchings had become so common that revolutionary authorities set up "Popular Courts", where show trials were staged and the accused were given a formal death sentence. In their eyes, a quick death by firing squad was more humane than to be tore apart by a crowd of angry men.


Revolutionaries celebrate their victory.

The AOP provisional government formed a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution. Following the ideals of Tetamakátu and Sepetiba Apiúna, the new document, titled the Great Law of Nations marked the birth of a new Waikuri. Mixing elements of democracy, tribalism and socialism, the new Plurinational Union of Waikuri seemed like a political anomaly.

The most noteworthy aspect of the Great Law was its' merging of traditional tribal systems with democracy. The Nhemgobes and their representatives were to rule alongside the Kasikasgu and their chiefs. This new democracy came to represent both civic interests of the general populace and tribal interests.

Sepetiba Apiúna, who had led the provisional government with a trusted group of advisors, would step down from power in 1984, when new elections were to be held. His resignation would mark the transition from Waikuri's revolutionary stage to its' modern form.

Arandu Ygary's Government & The Golden Years

Arandu Ygary was elected Supreme Representative in the 1984 elections. A member of the AOP and a veteran of the revolution, his administration would continue the work of Sepetiba Apiúna.

The Loggers' War

Forest guardians capture a group of loggers.

The Rough Years

Protest.

The Pytuna Government


Pytuna supporters.

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Geography
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Geographic map of Waikuri.

The terrain of Waikuri is consists mostly of dense rainforests, especially in the east, where the capital city of Tendawaçu is located on the banks of the largest river in the country, the Ysuikíri.


Waterfall in the Tupana rainforest.


Tendawaçu from the other side of the Ysuikíri river.


Kaapura hunters in the jungle.

However, there are notable exceptions in the south and west. The south is notable for its' tropical savannah, known locally as the Kampos. The Kampos are comprised of large, open grasslands, making the region ideal for agriculture.

A tree commonly seen in Kampos.

The west is comprised of lightly-forested highlands called Sierras. The highest peak of the country, Parawá hill, can be found here.


The Sierra.

Climate

Waikuri can be classified as an equatorial nation. In the north, west and east, where dense forests can be found, the climate is humid. In the south and southwest, it is dry, with seasonal rain.


Two men out in the rain somewhere in the Tupana rainforest.

Biodiversity

Waikuri has some of the most diverse ecosystems in the world. The Tupana rainforest is renown for its' biological diversity, being rich in wildlife. The country takes pride in this fact, and many areas are reserved for natural parks.

Some unique animals that can be found in the Tupana rainforest are Capybaras, the national animal, tapirs, jaguars, toucans and several species of parrots.


A jaguar.

In recent years, the country has faced threats from a rising illegal logging industry. The failure of the state to protect the environment has generated a whole conflict in the dense rainforest, between loggers and self-defense militias who seek to drive them away themselves. In recent years, the government has largely restored order in the region, and deforestation is beginning to fade away, though environmental activists have called for proper legislation to protect the environment from future deforestation.

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Demographics
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Waikuri is home to 31 million inhabitants, who are known as Waikurians or Waikuri'nhen. The term "Waikuri'nhen" comes from the Nhen'che language. It is estimated that about 60% of the population is concentrated in urban areas, with the rest inhabiting small towns and villages. Most of the population is concentrated in the East and North.

The first census was done in 1865 and recorded a population of 10,128,971. It is believed that the Waikurian population reached somewhere over 30 million prior to contact with foreign colonists, but dropped due to disease, famine, and killings. Nevertheless, Indigenous Waikurians remain as the largest ethnicity in the country. Population growth began to rise significantly from the 1970s onwards, with a minor slump in 1990. Life expectancy rose from 61.8 years in 1954 to 83.9 in 2010. Illiteracy is still a major issue for the country, standing at roughly 15.4%.

Ethnic Groups

The main ethnic group in Waikuri are the Kaapuras. The ancestors of the Kaapuras arrived in the second wave of migrations to Waikuri, displacing the native Taputanians. For much of their history, Kaapuras lived in small villages in the north and eastern jungles, adopting a hunter-gatherer lifestyle with some limited agriculture. Many parts of Kaapura culture mirror their past lifestyles, especially when it comes to cuisine.

Kaapuras speak the Nhen'che language and inhabit the north and eastern parts of the country. Like other groups, they follow a tribal caste structure. Every Kaapura belongs to an internal tribe, known as a subtribe or subgroup, though they all find a common identity through Kaapura culture.

Traditionally, Kaapuras are identified by their traditional outfits, consisting of capes or garments made out of parrot feathers. Blue is a commonly used color. The use of body paint is also fairly common.


Kaapura man with 16th century Kasike garments.

The second group are the Zysquyqayans. The Zysquyqayans were, for most of their history, isolated from the conflict between the Kaapuras and Taputanians. This allowed them to build up a small but rich civilization in the Western highlands. Details about the Zysquyqayan civilization are unknown, but what is known is that they had a writing system and were rich in gold and silver. The Zysquyqayans were, above all, traders. They would often trade with the Taputanians for goods, as venturing into the dense Kaapura jungles was far more costly. The Kaapuras would eventually conquer the Zysquyqayans, who did not have an organized and battle-hardened army like the Kaapuras.

The Zysquyqayans, unlike the Kaapuras and Taputanians, adhere to Totemism. Zysquyqayans believe that their guardian spirits can inhabit their totems and grant them protection and fortune. In the past, Zysquyqayan totems were elaborate, built with gold and other valuable materials, though today, most totems are simply made of wood.

The Zysquyqayans are known best for their all-white traditional outfits, totems, and a language that seems to be completely unrelated to Nhen'che. However, it is believed that the Zysquyqayan language is closer to the ancient languages spoken by the first Waikurian migrants, leading some to believe that the Zysquyqayan language remained largely intact due to the lack of influence from outside groups.

For many years, the Zysquyqayans did not have a caste system. However, after being conquered by the Kaapuras, the Kaapura caste system was incorporated into Zysquyqayan life.

Zysquyqayan villagers.

The third group are the Taputanians. The Taputanians descended from the first migration wave to Waikuri; and were displaced by the Kaapuras. Unlike the Kaapuras, the Taputanians remained fragmented into several smaller subtribes. Each tribe has their own separate customs, and though their languages belong to the same family tree, each tribe speaks a different dialect. The Taputanians are rich in tradition and customs, many of which were appropriated by the Kaapuras.

Like the Kaapuras, the Taputanians use body paint and subscribe to Animism. They maintain a tribal caste system similar to that of the Kaapuras. An unique characteristic of the Taputanians, however, is their historical use of horses. In the southern Kampos, horses changed Taputanians, who went on to adopt a semi-nomadic lifestyle until they were defeated by the Kaapuras.


Taputanian horsemen.


A memorial built in honor of Taputanian warriors.

The last two groups descend from colonists and missionaries. Many of them are Morenos; mixed-race Waikurians with a partial white ancestry, but a small white minority still exists.


Moreno family.

About 77.71% of the population identifies as Indigenous Waikurian, with about 52.65% identifying as Kaapura, 15.22% as Zysquyqau, and 9.84% as Taputã. 5.02% Identifies as Kariwa and 16.05% Identify themselves as Moreno. The remaining 1.22% identifies with other ethnicities.

Caste

Historically, Waikuri has struggled with Caste Systems related to tribalism. The Caste System was introduced by the Kaapuras; though it also existed in Taputanian communities. Tribal affiliation is considered an important part of Waikurian identity, and one's place inside of this hierarchy defines their standing with the rest of society.

There are five classifications, the lowest being Tawaima; those with no tribe. Prior to Tirika, Tawaimas were outcasts who were ostracized from their tribes and forced to wander aimlessly. During Tirika, the government offered greater freedoms to those who were willing to become Tawaimas. And so, the number of Tawaimas rose during this time, and after the Tirika ended, those same Tawaimas were subjected to social ostracism. The Tawaimas are the lowest Caste and are often forced into the lowest jobs and positions.


Waikurian caste pyramid.

Above the Tawaima are the Tembikwai; servants or commoners. In the past, Tembikwai were those who inhabited villages, and were often hunters or fishermen. This has carried over into modern times, with most tribesmen belonging to this caste. Next in line are the Nhanhára; traders. The term is used to refer to business owners, who, due to their role in providing goods to the community, are seen as more important than the Tembikwai. Above the Nhanhára are the Avaauvitcha, common warriors. And finally, above them are the Tamuyas; Elders. The Tamuyas are, traditionally, Kasikes, Suraras (generals), and Pajés (Shamans). The term also applies to their relatives. Seen as the most honorable, they are granted massive privileges. Although the Caste System nearly fell apart during the Caste War, it rose again as the country stabilized, being more predominant in remote communities.

Religion

There are three predominant religions in Waikuri.

Tapytcha Yerová (People Faith) is the traditional Kaapura religion. It consists of two pillars; Ancestor Worship (Ytaikwera Rapé) and the "Thunder Cult" (Sunú Supã). In Kaapura mythology, the world was born when the Sunú Yanepã, the Thunder God, was distraught by the treachery of his brother, Makwá, and, in a fit of rage, struck a rock with the strongest of thunders, causing an explosion and transforming the rock into a planet. Seeking to provide a safe refuge for his children, he enriched the world with water and food before sending them to populate it. Supposedly, these children are the Kaapura people. As a result, the practitioners of Tapytcha Yerová worship their ancestors and hold their families in deep contempt. Non-Kaapuras who convert to the religion often try to marry into Kaapura families to "purify" their bloodline. Instead of praying, Tapytcha Yerová followers practice a ritual named "Pãkoré", where they come together and sing chants in honor of their ancestors of gods. Though they see the Thunder God as the supreme deity, they also see their ancestors, whom they call Akãtáu, as gods. This effectively makes Tapytcha Yerová a polytheistic religion. The religion dictates that any followers must strictly follow the rituals and remain close to their families, respecting and taking care of them. According to the religion, those who don't follow these guidelines will have their hearts slowly rot until death, becoming Makwápuxi, servants of Makwá, who is seen as a devilish figure.

Xyparakypa (Land Faith) originates from the Taputanians. It is overtly Animist, without any central deities. According to the Xyparakypa myth, the world was engulfed in a great flood, wiping away a mythical civilization known as Mukinguk. The earth had punished the Mukinguk for living a life of sin and waste, and the victims of the flood were cursed to become fish and stones at the bottom of the sea. After thousands of years, they were released from their torment and allowed to repopulate the earth. Xyparakypa's tenants prioritize a "spiritual connection" with the earth through rituals or gifts. One tenant known as "Xakúxerê" (Root-Dressing) consists of preserving their ancestral lands from bad spirits (Impuatô). This belief is what lead to centuries of Taputanian resistance against Kaapura and Kariwa conquests, as they saw both as spiritual enemies. However, some Taputanians who assimilated into the Kaapuras maintained their original belief system, and as a result, many Kaapuras who descend from Taputanian families practice Xyparakypa.

Taxohatxil (Guardian Faith) is practiced by Zusquyqayans. It is a form of Totemism, with Zusquyqayans believing that, by making a totem, they will store the souls of their ancestors and prevent them from wandering aimlessly in the world. They also believe that the presence of a Totem can allow their kin to protect them and maintain a spiritual connection to them, becoming their Guardians. Taxohatxil is a more reclusive religion, with a greater emphasis on the importance of a Totem rather than the actions of a believer.

Santismu (Saintism) is the classification given to a form of syncretism between Kariwa religions and Waikurian religions. Its' followers incorporate a mixture of Animism with their original religions, with many choosing Tapytcha Yerová due to the presence of a Supreme Deity that can be associated with a monotheistic god. It is practiced by Kariwa communities and some converted Kaapuras in the north.
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Government and politics
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Waikuri's has a syncretic form of government based on the proto-socialist ideals of Tetamakátu along with direct democracy and tribalism. Waikuri's political system is outlined by the Great Law of Nations, its' constitution.

Assemblies

An important element of Waikuri's political model is the Nhemgobe. The word "Nhemgobe" is used to refer to municipal or regional assemblies that operate on the basis of direct democracy and form the backbone to Waikurian democracy. The use of direct participation in politics via assemblies was only incorporated into Waikurian politics in the 70s, though elements of direct democracy can be found all over Waikurian history. For instance, up until the 19th century, Elders from certain Kaapura subtribes had limited powers, and decisions were made collectively by the tribe as a whole. Experts classify Waikuri as a semi-direct democracy.

In the municipal assemblies, local affairs are discussed and municipal decrees are enacted. Most decisions are carried out via majority vote. Each municipal assembly has a speaker and a Chairman/Chairwoman, both of which are directly elected by the assembly. The speaker presides over weekly sessions, whilst the Chairperson is the equivalent of a mayor, and is in charge of daily governance. One may formally become a member of the municipal assembly so long as they possess a clean criminal record and are over eighteen years old, though membership is not required to participate in decision-making.


A municipal assembly session.

As for a regional assembly, formally known as a Retã-Nhemgobe, is responsible for handling affairs within their federal unit, and is comprised of members from each municipality. Members of the regional assembly are subordinate to their respective municipal assembly, and may be recalled and replaced at any time. Like their municipal counterparts, regional assemblies have a speaker and a chairperson, though both are chosen by the regional assembly itself rather than elected directly.

Nhemgobes allow common citizens to hold a substantial amount of power over their representatives. For instance, citizens have the right to recall their officials and call for initiatives; both of which are formally done through assemblies.

Elections & Term limits

Elections are held every five years, and the offices of Supreme Representative, National Representative and Tribal Representative are contested. All of the previously mentioned representives may only serve two consecutive terms.

Municipal and regional assemblies do not follow an election cycle, as their representatives do not have term limits. Elections are only held after a representative is recalled and his seat is vacant. For instance, if a member of the regional assembly is recalled by his municipal assembly, his seat will be declared vacant and an interim representative will be appointed until a replacement is formally elected.

Waikurians must register their vote to be eligible to participate in the electoral process. Voting is done electronically. Other than the conventional candidates, voters must also pick tribal representatives. First, they specify which subtribe they belong to by picking from a list, and the available candidates are shown. This part of Waikuri's voting system is often criticized, as there is no solid way for a voter to "prove" what subtribe they belong to.

Legislature

Waikuri has a bicameral legislature. The lower house is known as the Good House, or Ukakatú. Members of the Ukakatú, known as national representatives (Mavarãnkwe Tetama), and represent the interests of the people in their federal unit. National representatives have a substantially higher level of autonomy through free mandates and cannot be recalled.

According to the Great Law of Nations, national representatives are subjected to the popular will. If an unpopular law is passed in the legislature, citizens may call for a referendum to keep or remove said law. This is done through a plebiscite that requires a specific amount of signatures, i.e. 20% of the registered electorate.

Any individual who wishes to run for a seat in the Ukakatú must either be a member of a local or regional assembly.


A Tribal Representative of the Tubanbá-Kaapura subtribe speaks during a meeting.

The Kasikasgu (Chieftainship), formally known as Council of Elders (Atywaçuréçe Tamuya), is the upper house. It is composed of elected Chieftains (Kasikes) who represent all Waikurian subtribes. A member of the Kasikasgu is formally known as a Tribal Representative (Mavarãnkwe Anamatawa). Tribal Representatives are similar to National Representatives when it comes to duties and obligations, but instead of representing the general populace, they represent their community's interests. Tribal Representatives cannot draft and propose legislation, but can vote on laws passed by the Ukakatú. Ultimately, any legislation must be approved by them before coming into effect.

Tribal Representatives often come from Waikuri's upper castes. Most are related to influential political families, an issue that has created a breeding ground of political dynasties within the Kasikasgu. The creation of the Kasikasgu stemmed from the role of Elders during the Waikurian Revolution, who hoped to regain their lost privileges by aiding the revolutionaries.

Supreme Chieftain

The Head of State is known as the "Supreme Chieftain" (Akã'Kasike). The Great Law of Nations describes the Supreme Chieftain as "the visionary guide of all Waikurian peoples". Though the office is largely ceremonial, it is vested with several emergency powers.

These emergency powers are "activated" when a state of emergency is declared. Such powers include:

  • Emergency decrees.

  • The ability to dismiss representatives.

  • The ability to declare martial law.

  • The power to prolong or lift the state of emergency.

These powers are often regarded as dictatorial and potentially putschist. However, the Great Law states that the only one who may declare a state of emergency is the Supreme Representative. In the scenario where the Supreme Representative has been impeached or removed from power and the Supreme Chieftain has assumed executive responsibilities, a state of emergency can only be declared with approval from the Ukakatú.

The Supreme Chieftain is also the commander-in-chief during wartime. The head of state is chosen through indirect elections and may only serve two five-year terms. The Supreme Chieftain presides over the Kasikasgu.

Supreme Representative

The Head of Government is the Supreme Representative (Omoakãvá), the de facto highest body in the country. The Supreme Representative is elected directly via general elections, and in the case of an impeachment or removal, the Supreme Chieftain is to temporarily assume their duties until the next elections.

Political organizations

The Great Law of Nations recognizes the General Committee for the Waikurian Revolution (AOP) as the sole legal political party in the country, though political movements are protected by the constitution. Theoretically, the non-partisan nature of Waikurian politics makes party politics irrelevant. After being elected into office, a representative may join the AOP or opt to remain as an independent. The AOP itself is a big-tent party with left-wing to right-wing factions.

National ideology

The Great Law of Nations recognizes Tetamakátu as the foundational philosophy of Waikuri. The document defines Tetamakátu as a concept characterized by:

  • Social Justice

  • Pacifism

  • Ethnic harmony

  • Social well-being/welfare

  • National unity

According to the Great Law, all public institutions are to strive towards these ideals and ensure that they are fulfilled.

Administrative divisions

TBA

Laws

The Great Law of Nations (Sã'mbikwaçuréçe Tetamawa) is the supreme law of the nation. The country follows the common law code, with specifics being dictated by the General Code of Law.

The highest judicial body is the Great Court (Kotewaçu). Its' judges are elected by the Ukakatú for a single ten-year term. Candidates are proposed by an independent body known as the Committee of Law (Atywaçuréçe Sã'bika).

Waikurian laws are largely progressive when it comes to social issues, with LGBT rights, abortion laws, environmental protections, polyamorous unions and anti-racist laws present.

Policing is carried out by the Tchavoláy, a military police comparable to a Gendarmerie. The Tchavoláy branches out into other areas, such a traffic policing and criminal investigation. The Bureau of Governmental Affairs, an independent body responsible for investigating corruption in government, works closely with the police. The Tchavoláy were originally meant to be a demilitarized police force, but due to environmental conflicts in the country, the government militarized the police forces along with granting citizens the right to bear arms.

Foreign Relations

Waikuri maintains a strict policy of neutrality, seeking amicable relations with its' neighbors and overseas partners. Waikuri's government has, however, exhibited some hostility to what it perceives as "colonialist nations".

Military and Intelligence

The Supreme Chieftain is the Commander-in-chief in times of war, though it is managed by the Ministry of Defense. Waikuri dedicates around 3% of its' GDP to the armed forces.

Waikurian training exercise.

Waikuri's armes forces are mostly compromised of Infantry. Although the nation is landlocked, it maintains a sizeable navy, dedicated to patrolling and guarding the many rivers that can be found in the country. Waikuri's army is mostly dedicated to routine security and the protection of natural parks and protected areas from poachers and loggers.

In the past, Waikurian warriors were known for their tenacity and heavy use of the terrain for their favor. Some of these tactics are used to this day by the army, with a specialized unit (The Jaguars) dedicated to jungle combat.

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Economy
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HEY! This section is currently being reworked. Sorry for the mess!

Over the last century, Waikuri's economy restructured itself towards an export-oriented focus. The nation's exports account for almost two thirds of the GDP. Some of the main exports are bauxite, silver, rubber, textiles, fish, soybeans, and cassava.

During its' ancient history, tribes in Waikuri often traded food and weapons through a barter system - with currency not being used until contact with foreign colonists. By the 19th century, currency had been introduced in the form of silver coins, though the country maintained a feudal structure under the Kasikasgu. During this period, cassava-oriented agriculture flourished, and the economy was directed towards communal self-sufficiency. At the turn of the century, however, Waikuri's natural rubber reserves would be exploited by the Huraçi Regime, and the country would effectively modernize in this period.

The nation's leadership has sought to diversify the economy, especially in the manufacturing sector, to decrease reliance upon imported goods and help the economy to grow. Waikuri is classified as a developing country and a newly-industrialized economy.

Economic policy

Tourism

The tourism industry has grown substantially since the 1990s. One of the most famous tourist activities in Waikuri is known as river expedition; where tourists pay for a trip on the Ysuikíri river, either on luxurious cruises with professional guides or simple canoes pioneered by locals.


Tourist boat on the Ysuikíri.

Some of the more adventurous souls prefere to explore the dense jungles of Waikuri, paying locals to guide them. However, in recent years, due to disappearances and wild animal attacks, authorities have advised tourists not to venture too far into the jungle.

Some traditional communities allow tourist visits, where they are given a window to Waikuri's traditions and ancient cultures. However, many communities have outlawed tourist visits, citing loitering, disruptions, and even harrassment at the hands of tourists.

Clean energy

Waikuri's electricity is fully generated by hydropower. The abundance of hydroelectric resources has allowed Waikuri to sell excess production to neighboring countries. Waikuri is also home to a large hydroelectric dam known as the Ykaray Dam, built in 1994.


Ykaray Hydroelectric Dam.

Officially, Waikuri has a total installed capacity of 59,766 MW, and 108 active hydroelectric plants. In recent years, programs to construct wind power in the southern parts of the country have proved successful, with several wind farms reaching 50% capacity.

Manufacturing

Though there is a noticeable informal sector, the economy has diversified drastically over the last two decades, allowing manufacturing to slowly emerge in the national economy.

The first form of manufacturing to arrive in Waikuri took form in the textile industry. The textile industry focuses on the production of clothing, fabrics with intricate patterns, and hammocks.


Textile worker.

Prior to the 2000s, the timber industry maintained an export-oriented focus, exporting raw material rather than manufactured goods. However, changes have brought about a rise in furniture manufacturing.

The automobile manufacturing industry is on the rise thanks to government subsidies. It's success came after the state-sponsored TEM (Tetamaywa Mba'yruwata - National Autos) developed cars popularly known as Oje'mbas; (short for Ojehayúva Mba'yruwata - Popular Car) known for their robust but practical designs and cheap prices.

The manufacturing sector is still nascent for Waikuri, and economists have emphasized the need to diversify and stimulate growth in manufacturing in order to advance the nation's development.

Agriculture

Up until the 20th century, agriculture focused largely on cassava. Agricultural production would later shift to rice, corn and soybeans. Most farms in the country are located in the south and southwest, with small, scattered farms located in other regions. About 23.14% of the land is arable.

Cassava extraction.

70% of agricultural production is sold to national markets, with the remaining 30% being exported. The country has seen a drop in agricultural output in recent years due to unproductive farms.

Mining

Most of the mining industry is concentrated in the western parts of the country. Waikuri is home to sizeable silver and bauxite reserves. The western bauxite reserves amount to 9.5 billion tons, with 90,000 tons of production. Its' silver reserves amount to 1.1 billion with a low 25,000 tons of production.

Social Issues

It is estimated that around 35-40% of the population is impoverished, with 10-15% in absolute poverty. 21.75% of people living in urban areas earn less than $800 a month, though this number is higher in rural areas, standing at 47.89%.

The country's existing poverty is seen as a byproduct of the old Tirika system, economic depression and past conflicts. Unemployment is also seen as a contributing issue, and in response, previous governments have sought to stimulate the national economy and create more opportunities.

A 1990 census estimated that 40% of the population was illiterate. Since then this number has sharply dropped to around 15% thanks to the end of Tirika and literacy programs, but illiteracy is seen as one of the leading causes for poverty.

Waikuri's industry is also a source of controversy. In the past, sewing factories were home to inhumane and unsafe work conditions. This would only change in 1996 after factory workers went on strike, bringing national attention to the poor labor conditions and with it, government action. Though labor rights have improved since then, informal workers and laborers continue to struggle with poor conditions.

One of the most troublesome issues in Waikuri is land control. It is estimated that 5% of the population controls about 70% of the land. Landless peasants constitute about 37% of the rural population. Early post-revolution governments only carried out minor land redistribution, mostly targeting landowners with connections to the government. In response to government inactivity, decentralized social movements calling for land redistribution emerged. This movement became known as the Tchinelima (Sandal-less) Movement, and stands as the most popular grassroots in the country.


Landless peasants in a makeshift encampment.

Poverty is also connected to past ethnic issues. 90% of the impoverished are Indigenous, whilst 60% of the country's richest 5% are Kariwa. Anti-racist legislation has helped to avoid serious racial discrimination, but social inequality has left the nation at the mercy of occasional ethnic tensions.

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Culture and society
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Waikurian culture is heavily connected to tribalism. Most Waikurians see themselves as belonging to a specific tribal subgroup and denomination. Though the rigid structure of tribalism and castes have weakened over the years, it continues to shape the lives of many Waikurians.

Rural tribes that choose continue to preserve their cultures and traditions are known as Traditional Communities. They often live in communal villages, dressing traditional garments and living off of the surrounding land through fishing, hunting and farming. The government grants exclusive rights for traditional communities, whose lands are legally reserved for their use. Most tribes that choose to become traditional communities are recently contacted tribes, or remote communities distant from large metropolitan areas.

Waikurians tend to be very family-oriented. However, the structure of a family tends to vary. For instance, it is common for Waikurian men, especially those in the upper castes, to have relationships with several women. The first woman is seen as the equivalent of a wife. As for those with lower castes, monogamous relationships are more common. Polygamy is often taken as a sign of power, and, as a side effect, a patriarchical structure where women are seen as servants to men rather than equal partners developed, and is still present in Waikurian society.

There is no stigma towards homosexuality in a general sense, though there is a tendency for families to not treat gay couples in the same manner as straight ones. At best, they are seen as mere friendships rather than legitimate couples.

A communal house (Mar'uka).

Other aspects of Waikurian culture are taken from several different tribes, combining all aspects into a single cultural group. The main indigenous ethnicities (Kaapura, Zysquyqau and Taputã) have their own separate sub-tribes, but are united by language and cultural similarities. The Kariwas and Morenos belong to the same cultural group, and lack the tribal structure of the Indigenous peoples.

Art

The most well-known form of Waikuri'nhen art is Graphism. Graphism can be seen in everything; ranging from common house decor all the way to paintings and pottery.


Graphism seen on a carpet.


Graphism seen on a plate.


Mirawã-Taputã pottery.

Another common form of Waikurian art comes in the form of body paintings. Traditionally, body paintings represented everything ranging from social roles, caste, marital status or simply as tribal identification. The diamonds seen in the Waikurian flag are called fish fin patterns, and they were used by Waikurian warriors, who believed such patterns were a sign of divine protection. The fish fin pattern is often associated with the Avaauvitcha caste.

Body paint patterns often vary from tribe to tribe. Modern Waikurians no longer use full body paint as their forefathers did; instead opting to tattoo patterns that, according to Waikurian superstition, bring good luck and health. Some rural tribes tattoo patterns on their children after a certain age to indicate their caste.

Compiled Waikurian patterns.

Men of a traditional community and their leg patterns

Plastic arts arrived to Waikuri in the 20th century. Paintings were often tied to literature, and romanticized the life of Waikuri's Kaapura peoples, accompanying "noble savage" tropes that dominated romantic literature at the time. Romantic artists were sponsored by the state at the time for their use of patriotic themes.

Oil painting depicting a Taputanian horse charge.

Romantic art was challenged in the 1920s and 1930s by a minimalist movement. Many non-Kaapura artists sought to accurately portray their ancestors' lifestyles and push back against the Kaapura-centric ideology of the Huraçi Regime, which deemed non-Kaapuras as subhuman.

Instead of adapting Vanguard urban styles predominant at the time, artists continued to use non-urban settings to depict Waikurian life in a more realistic manner. Minimalism continues to be the predominant form of art in Waikuri.

Minimalist artist.

A movement known as "Waikurian Futurism" emerged around the same time, mixing Futurism within a Waikurian setting. Waikurian Futurism praised the tribal identity of Waikurians and juggled themes of violence, nature and technological advancement. The movement quietly died down in the 60s, but has seen a revival in recent years.

Language

The official language of Waikuri is Nhen'che, though the Zysquyqau language, Linkwa Gerale and several smaller dialects are recognized in some regions.

It is believed that the Nhen'che language first originated after the ancestors of what are now the Kaapuras arrived in Waikuri and successfully settled parts of the country. However, the first records of the Nhen'che language emerged thanks to missionaries in the 16th century, who learned Nhen'che to communicate with the locals. The language has changed deeply since then, but it's structure is similar to its' early archaic variant. Nhen'che considered both a nasal and guttural language.


A teacher with his students in a small community-run school.

Linkwa Gerale emerged as a mixture of Kariwa languages and Nhen'che. It is estimated that it is spoken by 13% of the population, most of whom are Abandonatos. The language is widely spoken by the Kariwa and Moreno ethnic groups.

The Zysquyqau language is drastically different from Nhen'che. It is believed that the Zysquyqayans migrated to Waikuri prior to the Kaapura migrations, but the two groups had little contact until much later.

The Taputanian languages are also very different from Nhen'che, though there is no centralized Taputanian language, one dialect in particular, Wewena-Taputã, is spoken by the majority of the Taputanians and is recognized as a national language.

Below are examples of the same sentence in Nhen'che, Linkwa Geral, Zysquyqayan and Wewena-Taputã respectively.
Original: Long ago, in Waikuri, there was a man named Ubiratã...
Nhen'che: Akuerã kwive, Waikuri-upé, oykwe'anári-yepé apiga senui'ra Ubiratã...
Linkwa Gerale: Akuerã tempo, en Kwaiquiri, avya un apigá d'nome Ubiratã...
Zysquyqayan: Nayra qwexi, Waypuriqayaxi, xaqaziri daytá bâyna Ubiratã...
Wewena-Taputã: Txutyty-wyn, Ár'Aykury-Wydyha-nyn, Ubiratã-itpé anam-itê...

Music

Instruments like the flute, rattle, gourd trumpets, acoustic guitars and drums are heavily utilized in the Waikurian music scene.


A rattle (Maraká).

Waikuri's oldest musical genre is known as Atõy'kué. This genre is, essentially, folk music, and elements of it can be found in other genres of Waikurian music.

The use of acoustic guitars became commonplace after the 1960s, when a musical genre known as Pisasu-Atõy'kué (Neo-Folk) emerged, as artists found that guitars blended well with other traditional instruments. Since the 1980s, other musical genres have arrived in Waikuri and further enriched the musical scene.

Traditions and Festivities

Traditionally, it is common for Waikurian boys to be treated as men after turning twelve. This often translates into greater personal freedoms for young men who enter their teenage years. As for women, the environment is far more controlling, and ladies are only given independence after turning twenty.

Some Waikurians continue to use tattoed patterns or body paint to signal their caste and social role. Kasikes and Pajés often adorn their bodies with patterns. The Zysquyqayans do not use body paint.

Waikurian traditions are often centered around the tribe or family as a whole. In total, there are four main rituals held by families or tribes:

Pyrutekó - The "passing ritual" is large party held as a rite of passage for boys who have turned 12. In traditional communities, these parties go on for as long as three days. Families often adorn themselves with jewelry and full body paint, and the festivity is, in a subtle manner, used an opportunity for adults to showcase their wealth.

Oçevotekó - Meaning "farewell ritual", they are held yearly in remembrance of family members who have passed away. Instead of being a somber event, it is a joyful celebration. Families tend to travel to their ancestral villages and join their distant relatives in celebration.

Nha'mu - Practiced by the Taputanians, Nha'mu is a chant that resembles a conversation. According to Shamans, the chant is meant to be transcendental. The Nha'mu is often used in Taputanian rituals.

Fireworks during the Yereuçawapuã.

Yereuçawapuã - Meaning "Great Circle", it is celebrated every June. It first originated as a way to celebrate harvests. Overtime, it become a general festivity, marking the completion of the first half of the year. In urban areas, families invite their neighbors to a banquet or a picnic. Large festivals are held with music, dance and fireworks. This tradition originated from the Taputanians, but it was eventually appropriated and turned into a general nation-wide celebration. It is considered the most important yearly event.

Cuisine

Waikuri's has a rich cuisine, with several unique dishes. Many dishes are made out of cassava. Fish and fruits are also a staple of the Waikurian diet.

Below are some of the most common or renowed dishes in the country.

The national dish: Tapioka. Tapioka is a popular go-to choice; it is easy to make and anything can be used as filling.

Yaçaí, also unique to Waikuri.


Pamuna, made out of corn.

Fried Tukunaré.

Fish-flavored Mindipi'rõ. Mindipi'rõ is a type of thick soup made out of cassava flour.

Sports and Entertainment

Soccer is one of the more popular sports, but it isn't not the only one. Archery, wrestling and spear throwing are also predominant. Nation-wide tournaments known as the National Olympics are held every six years, with several other minor sports featured.


Waikurian archers during the opening of the National Olympics.

Wrestling.

Tug-of-war, marathons, kayaking and log races are some of the more minor sports, all of which are featured in the National Olympics.

Village children playing soccer.

Units of Measurement

Waikuri utilizes the metric system, having adopted it in 1905.

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