Ancient History (130,000 BAY - 2597 BAY)
Prior to the founding of the Pyeon Repulic, the region that would later become Koriya had been settled by the proto-Koriyan peoples some 130,000 years ago, in a series of intercontinental migrations that spanned all of modern-day Orienisia and Eckhart. A team of archaeologists from the Global History Institute in 16 AAY had unearthed a great number of palaeolithic bowls and the remains of leather headwear embedded deep within the sedimentary clay deposits at the Uiwon Province Archeological Site, serving as evidence of human settlement in Orienisia dating back to 130,000 BAY (Before Arrival of Yan). The discovery sheds light on the existence of a proto-Koriyan culture in ancient times. Animal husbandry first came to be in Eastern Orienisia around 10,000 BAY, two thousand years after the Uluric tribes reached Orienisia via the Nagaidesu Landbridge 12,000 years ago, introducing many species of modern domesticated animals such as the white-spotted ox, the modern cattle, merino sheep, the swine, and the black striped horse that filled vacant ecological niches left behind by megafauna that formerly inhabited the continental Orienisian steppe.
7000 years ago, the first civilizations on Orienisia learned how to smelt bronze and other similarly malleable metals, transitioning from hunter-gatherers into the bronze age, a period of time that lasted until the rise of the ancient Jyeon Republic and the discovery of iron. Several Koriyan tribes would be established in the various regions of southeastern Orienisia on the eastern shores of the Taal Megalake. Bringing iron tools, crops such as rice, sorghum, and soybeans with them, the Koriyans moved swiftly into the west, displacing the native Iwonese who once dominated the region, and forcing them north into the temperate rainforests of the northern shores and the temperate island of Iwon. These Koriyan migrants ultimately turned to hunter-gatherer lifestyles to support themselves, becoming the subjects of an ancient Ulusic civilization called Uril, which dominated the continent during the Bronze Age from the walled city of Infantino. The ancient civilization reigned for three thousand years before the Uril civilization mysteriously disappeared from historical records. A newly discovered tomb in 79 AAY within the deepest crypts of Ancient Infantino contained a black sandstone tablet inscribed with hieroglyphs; depicting a strange astronomical event where a rock fell from the sky. From that rock, numerous chimeras of beast were emerging. The alien creatures overran entire Ulusic armies only to be defeated by a singular hero whose name had since been lost to time. No known impact craters have been discovered to correlate to the tablet's supposed time period, leading Historians to believe it was the first heroic epic in history.
The ancient era officially concluded with the rise of the Jyeon Republic in 2597 BAY.
Jyeon Confederation Era (2597 BAY - 1121 BAY)
The modern Koriyan culture can trace its roots back nearly two millennia ago with the founding of the Pyeon Republic by First Lord Xi Xingping, a loose confederation of neighboring city-states united by the city of Pyeon. Governance in the Republic was done through a primitive direct democracy; in which voters called the proletarius anonymously nominated their desired officials through special bronze tokens which were inserted into a wooden ballot box. The elected officials, known as the Missionary of the Proles represented the proletarius in the Plebian Tribune. A Lord of the Confederation was appointed by the Tribune, who was in turn, experienced former missionaries of the Plebian Tribunal.
Pyeon and its neighbors, the tribes of Viria, Wang, and Yanguk.
Between 2590 and 2100 BAY, the Pyeon Republic underwent a four hundred year-long expansionism, during which the letter "P" would later evolve into "Y" as the language evolved. It conquered and subjugated the neighboring tribes of Viria, Wang and pushed the Yanguk westward from eastern Uiwon, southeastern Lunsan, Beomseong in the north and Jyeonian armies marched as far north as South Guantzu and the Hongli borderlands. Pingfei the 10th ultimately launched the Jyeong Confederation into a golden age after his armies successfully defeated the Hatalog Sea People at the Battle of Henan Forest in 2175 BAY. Pingfei famously declared; "It is at this point in time that even our ducks may lay eggs of silver", referencing how the most valuable commodity at the time was silver ore mined from Northern Guantzu quarries. At its maximum extent, the confederal entity was composed of over 27 different principalities or city-states directly governed by the central Jyeon government with limited autonomy. The territory of the Jyeon Confederation was united by its living standards which were ahead of their time, such prosperity led to a populace with relatively high literacy rates (22%) for a classical era entity due to a high presence of Educational Institutes.
Many well-known historical figures, both indigenous and foreign, through the centuries have called Jyeon home. This ranged from Sung Kwu, the "Aristotle" of critical thinking and reason to mathematicians like Jing Fang, a woman who was the first to calculate the curvature of Erudia by analyzing the discrepancies between two surface point references. The tribunal frequently appealed to the Lord of the Confederation to pursue public infrastructure projects so a significant fraction of confederal treasury was usually spent on construction projects such as the development of aqueducts, amenities like the pagoda-style public baths, to colossal dome roofed stadiums (Called J́ngj́ chang in Koriyan) where violent tournaments of the ancient martial art of Kwondo were hosted. All manners of cultural, scientific, and industrial developments in Jyeon cemented the Confederation's hegemony over its neighboring agrarian cultures of the Guantzu to the south and the horseback nomads in the West for several centuries. Most importantly, its democratic system would establish the framework for future democracy in the continent of Orienisia and ultimately the governance model of the PUCCR.
This three hundred year-long period was the heyday of the Jyeong Confederation, it would eventually end when Lady of the Confederation Xi Shishou drank a poisoned goblet of wine and was assassinated by misogynic-motivated members of the tribunal in 1666. Leaving behind no heirs to inherit the throne, what ensued from the subsequent power vacuum was a seven-century-long period of intermittent warfare and instability caused by internal and external threats, conspiracy and political intrigue, and the stagnating nature of its existence. By the end of the 15th Century BAY, the Ancient Jyeon Confederation was in its twilight years as an emaciated shadow of its former glory.
The Jyeon Confederation at its Height.
Nomadic Ulusic tribes displaced from the Ulusian plains by the seventh incursion of the seafaring Hatalog people caused the tribes to unify into a Khanate, waging multiple invasion campaigns into the temperate regions of eastern Orienisia over the course of three centuries. Finally, in 1125 BAY, the Lord of the Confederation Xi Higan the 7th desperately raised multiple armies after an envoy informed him that a Great Khan in the West had assembled an army of three hundred thousand horseback warriors to pillage Jyeon. Lord Higan raised a one-million-man army to combat the Eurabic Khanate. The four-year conflict climaxed at the Battle of Sounai Plains where Xi Higan's thirty legions suffered a humiliating defeat to 60,000 horse archers led by the Great Khan Mamaluk. The horde rode on and ransack Ancient Jyeon, causing fires that raged on for six consecutive days and consuming over 67% of the old city. As Jyeon could no longer even defend its own capital, the myth of Jyeon Supremacy was finally laid to rest. This point marked the irreversible decline of the Confederation and word of the sacking of Jyeon spread all across the Confederation. Its constituent vassal and client states staged multiple revolts and insurrections. The internal issues were the final nail to the coffin and the Jyeon Confederation would collapse in 1120 after the last Lord Higan the 7th committed ritualistic suicide. The Confederation's leading military officers disobeyed the Senate's attempt to re-establish the Pyeon state, choosing to balkanize the territory and divide the territories among each other, establishing individual petty kingdoms.
The Fall of Jyeon catapulted the continent of Orienisia into the early feudalistic era of kingdoms.
Three Kingdoms Period (1121 BAY - 468 BAY)
The main primary sources for this era are contained in manuscripts called the Records of the Three Kingdoms, which covered the Shurui Dynasty during the Three Kingdoms period. The most notable of Jyeon's successor states were three kingdoms called Gopyeon, Buyeo, and Usilla which accounted for a significant fraction of Jyeon's core states. The largest of these kingdoms, Gopyeon, fully occupied the regions north of the Koriyan Peninsula.
The Three Kingdoms of Koriya, circa 1100.
The Three Kingdoms Era is agreed to have lasted 553 years from 1121 BAY to 568 BAY. Tescottism, which arrived in Koriya through Buyeo during the 8th-century from the Eurabic Khanate, became the state religion of all three kingdoms and would play an important role in the establishment of the Holy Koriyan Empire. Oriensian cultures saw an advancement in their metallurgy and steel alloy first made its debut in 1101. Koriyan steel was notoriously poor in quality so Koriyan blacksmiths had to resort to multiple foldings of sword steel which increased the durability of the blades by up to 200% through the most advanced techniques. In the 6th century, Koriyan apothecaries discovered black powder, leading to the development of primitive hand cannons and single-shot rifles but were most popularly used to make hand grenades. Its force-multiplying benefits were quickly learned, increasing the offensive and defensive abilities of Koriyan armies.
In the 5th century, allied with Guantzu under the Shurui dynasty, Usilla unified the Koriyan Peninsula for the first time in Koriyan history since the Fall of Jyeon and created the modern united Koriyan national identity. After the fall of Buyeo and Gopyeon to the Shurui dynasty, they established a short-lived military government to administer the southern regions of the Koriyan peninsula. Queen Jindeok, as a result of the Usilla–Shurui War (576–570 BAY), decreed the national policy of Daeyeon Unification and when Usilla forces ultimately expelled the Protectorate armies from the peninsula in 570 BAY at the Battle of Churia, a catastrophic disaster struck Guantzu's capital city a few days after the battle.
The disaster was an earthquake measuring Magnitude 9.7 on the Richter scale occurring along a 5,000 kilometers long faultline in the Chen Guo subduction zone where the Orienisia tectonic plate and the North Eckhard oceanic plate meet. The strongest earthquake recorded to date during the course of human history caused non-stop tremors that lasted for over one-quarter of an hour, completely inundating most of the stone and wooden structures in the old city of Hanshāi with the exception of the sturdily built Imperial Palace. The earthquake was so powerful its tremors could be felt as far away as Jungho over six hundred miles away in Greater Juwan and it caused massive landslides that resulted in the Yellow river changing course, causing a great flood that swept away hundreds of thousands of Guantzunese in a single night. This event, known as the Deluge of Ralk the Destroyer, was prophesized in the third verse of Sacrifices in the Tescott Sutras three hundred years prior; "When the oppressors suffer a humiliating defeat to the swords of righteousness, their cruel god, Ralk the Destroyer, would roar with a rage that would shake Erudia thoroughly and alter its yellow streams." - Sacrifices 1:3.
This event happened to coincide with the victory at Churia. The superstitious Koriyan peoples viewed the event as a sign that the Koriyans were the god's favored people. Queen Jindeok took advantage of the new beliefs, appointing a Priesthood of eight and declaring herself the "Divine Mandate of Heaven" in 568. Thus, Jindeok's proclamation would mark the transition from the Three Kingdoms into the period of the Holy Empire and the theocracy's hegemony.
Early Holy Koriyan Empire Period (568 BAY - 300 BAY)
Following the Kingdom of Usilla's victory over the Guantzu Empire at Churia, the weakened Shurui Dynasty begrudgingly accepted Usilla's concessions and surrendered their Koriyan holdings to the south. The mandate of Daeyeon Unification was ultimately fulfilled with Usilla reclaiming the territories of Gopyeon and Buyeo at the Treaty of Gungho in 569 BAY. Jindeok was hailed as the first Divine Empress of Koriya after proclaiming herself to be an avatar of Yoo, the deity of the Erudia according to the Tescott Sutra.
Divine Empress, Queen Jindeok
The Kingdom of Usilla reformed into the Holy Koriyan Empire Empire. One of the sources of the era, the bibliography of Highpriest Wu, described the celebrations and festivals which took place as "Mountains of decadency and lakes of joy". Relics of the bygone era, such as the Plebian Tribune, were abolished by Jindeok. She'd consolidate political power to the central government in Seoul, cementing her reign. The establishment of a conservative Priesthood formed an elite ruling class that was not accountable to anyone other than the reigning Empress. All manners of the royal decrees were implemented by Jindeok and her successor, Gilyoung Lee. Religious tidings were made compulsory as a form of taxation and peasants were charged exorbitant sums of their income, reaching as high as 10%.
From 560 onward, Koriyan Tescottist temples wanted the average Koriyan to be able to read the Tescott sutras. This was due to a change in Zen Tescott teachings whereby people should be able to find salvation and nirvana on their own. Thus for the next 200 years, the Tescott establishment in Koriya built a plethora of schools to teach Koriyans to read the Tescott sutras. This led, inadvertently, to increasing literacy rates and thus the sophistication of Koriyan society as a whole.
The time period between 467 to 440 BAY was called the "Age of the Undead Curse" as heatwaves combined with cyclical flooding of the fertile lowlands caused by the moon, led to famines and plagues within the stagnated polity of Guantzu. Their hygiene traditions remained relatively archaic and desperately needed modernization. The worst pandemic to arise from this time period was an extremely contagious skin disease known as the Wasting Blight; the exact origin point of the mysterious plague eludes archeologists and historians to the present day but it is speculated to have arisen in the Hongli Borderlands.
Those infected with the Wasting Blight would suffer a range of symptoms from coughs, sneezes, and uncontrollable itchiness to the aggressive growths of red rashes after symptoms begin to appear. These rashes eventually rot into patches of necrotic tissue easily peeled off, giving its victims a zombified appearance while producing immense pain. The Wasting Blight would sweep over the continent of Orienisia through the golden silk road, a trade route that spanned across east and west Orienisia, killing approximately 6.77 million people over the course of 27 years and wiping out hundreds of isolated villages.
All manners of treatments were made up by the Priesthood in order to "cure" the diseased, none were truly based on any scientific merit and were no more than elaborate schemes to further exploit the desperateness of the proletariat. Eventually, Divine Emperor Lee Hyunsung fell ill from the disease. The event was covered up by the Priesthood and the empire's best physicians were summoned to the Royal Court. Yun Sangah, famed as one of Koriya's pioneering doctors, discovered that ice baths proved to be an effective treatment of blight. Further research proved that the disease could not survive low temperatures. To help relieve the discomfort of the treatment, she brewed a special nutritious tea based on red leaf extracts to help patients endure the bitterly cold ice treatments. Sangah also invented an early form of anti-bacterial disinfectant, an ointment of 75% Popo tree extract mixed with grounded maidenhair herbs to help patients recover. In recognition of her miraculous discoveries, Yun Sangah was the first Koriyan woman to earn the title of Royal Physician and spent the rest of her life serving as Lee Hyunsung's personal doctor.
In 443 BAY, Lee Hyunsung launched an attack on Guantzu and the plate-armored Hwarang demonstrated their effectiveness as soldiers in combat. With an army of 40,000 Hwarang, Lee Hyunsung waged a three-year-long campaign against Guantzu. The first instance of biological warfare was witnessed in the Siege of Hanshai when the dead bodies of the blight's victims were catapulted over the city's rebuilt walls. As the Guantzunese lacked the appropriate preventive customs, the city's garrison capitulated merely two weeks into the siege. The Guantzunese Empire was brought into the fold and the last cases of the Wasting Blight were eradicated from Eastern Orienisia. Concerned by the outdated customs being practiced by the Empire's newest subjects, Lee Hyunsung would go on to modernize the Empire's hygiene traditions.
Lee Hyunsung passed away from a heart attack in 436 and the throne was inherited by his son Chung-Hee. The successful campaigns in Guantzu paved the way to a wave of conquest and Chung-Hee's Hwarang armies carried the banners of Koriya all over Orienisia, pacifying the Hatalog Filipino warrior culture and both the Ulusic and Eurabic khanates once and for all.
The colonial Juwanese Empire had made landfall in Western Orienisia in 428 with the intention to found new colonies. When news reached Seoul, Divine Emperor Chung-Hee ordained a Holy Crusade against the expansionism of the foreign Juwanese. The Holy Crusade was a one hundred-year-long conflict between Juwan and Koriya that ended in the ratification of the The Aiko Accords in 328. Koriya's most legendary admiral and military general, Lee Sun-shin, made a legacy for himself through his legendary victories against the Juwanese navy during the first decades of the First Crusade on the side of Holy Koriya. Over the course of his career, Admiral Lee fought in over 25 recorded naval engagements, all against the Juwanese. In almost every battle, he was outnumbered and suffering attrition. His most famous victory occurred at the Battle of Huawei Bay, where despite being outnumbered 333 (133 warships, at least 200 logistical support ships) to 13, he managed to disable or destroy 31 Juwanese warships without losing a single ship of his own. He suffered death by a gunshot to the heart at the famous Battle of Nanyang. While the Battle of Nanyang ultimately resulted in the defeat of Holy Koriya, Lee was immortalized as a national hero of the Koriyan people who valiantly warded off foreign invaders.
The Juwanese stripped the Holy Koriyan Empire of their western coastline possessions, which were rich with resources such as porcelain, silk, and tea. These semi-autonomous territories was called the Juwanese Orienisia and were administered by the Northeast Oriental Trading Company, a mercantile trading giant that held a monopoly over the world's opium trade. The ethnic Koriyans that found themselves residing within Juwanese Orienisia often faced racial discrimination, being deemed a race of inferior peoples, and were regularly sold off as slaves in the global slave trade. The NOTC merchants regularly bartered for valuables using opium drugs in exchange for possessions, begetting a region-wide history of drug addiction among the local culture.
Late Holy Koriyan Empire Period (300 BAY - 6 BAY)
In 300 BAY, thirteen colonies had won a War of Independence, liberating themselves from colonial Juwan and unifying as the United States of Bhatkalia. The steam engine was invented in Juwan not long after, and it is often agreed that the loss of a significant portion of slave labor in Bhatkalia was the cause. This launched Erudia into the industrial revolution that in modern history, was the transition from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. These technological changes introduced novel ways of working and living and fundamentally transformed society as for the first time, merchants could now own the means of production and practice slavery in a more civilized manner. Ethnic Koriyans within Juwanese Orienisia were used as slaves to construct thousands of miles of Juwanese Orienisia railway, which coined the popular saying that "The railways are Koriyan because they are made out of bones.".
Political Map of Erudia, circa 292 BAY.
As a response to increasingly aggressive and belligerent actions from the imperial Juwanese, missionaries of the Holy Koriyan Empire were dispatched in 293 BAY to the newfound United States of Bhatkhalia and the First Jeijing Republic, proposing a military alliance between the three great powers. Hostilities between the Imperial Juwanese and Jeijingnese had resumed and through a series of conflicts, they suffered large territorial concessions of territory at the hands of the Juwanese. Considering the Juwanese expansionism as a great threat to the world order, the HKE established a military alliance between the three states in 292; a faction that would come to be known as the Two Hemispherical Coalition.
Beginning in 280, the leaders of the constituent nations of the Two Hemispherical Coalition met to discuss the growing threat that the industrial Juwanese powers and their colonial ambitions posed to the Axis. By this point already, the Axis had already been involved in numerous border skirmishes with Juwan and its vassals, and they feared that the unorganized nature of the Coalition's formal political structure would compromise its ability to defend itself in future. It was proposed at the conclusion of the final meeting in 276 BAY (which would later be known as the Manchuria Conference), the Coalition was disbanded after Bhatkhalia proposed to unite the three nations in a political union under a federal democratic government.
With the dissolution of the Coalition alliance, Juwan swiftly increased its holdings all over the globe, rapidly expanding along the eastern coast of Orienisia where it would contest the Holy Koriyan Empire and its northern client states for dominance over the region. This eventually led to several wars and armed conflicts between these powers and the HKE throughout the 2nd century, culminating in the 220 - 215 Juwanese-Koriyan War. Successfully driving the Juwanese out of the continent for the first time in a century, the Holy Empire cemented its dominance in the region. Rapid economic and industrialization followed throughout the country, as the Koriyans tapped into the vast mineral riches of the continent to fuel the development of their homeland into a modern industrialized nation. By 100 BAY, with rising living standards throughout the empire, the cities of Pyeon and Seoul had expanded large enough that they combined into one capital city called Pyeonseoul. The Koriyan Renaissance of the 90s BAY, a period of rapid economic expansion, low unemployment and poverty rates, industrial growth, and reduced government regulations and inflation rates, saw the Holy Empire go from an agrarian backward theocracy into a rising world power on the likes of Juwan and the United States.