Ibica redirect(s) here.
The United States of Ibica (USI), commonly referred to as Ibica, is a federal republic consisting of 10 states and 4 Territories. The 10 Contiguous states and Romane Territory occupy the Eastern 2/3rd of the Continent of Ibica. The territory of Haviland is a group of Islands in the Bay of Albion, and the territories of James Island and Edward Island are in the Bosphorus Ocean.
Local tribes making up the area of Modern Day West Monroe and East Monroe were unified into the Monroe Empire in 1231, under the rule of the Carter Dynasty. The eastern area of Monroe Revolted under the heavy hand of King Mason the third and sparked the Monroe Civil War in 1430. The Kingdom of Angola helped to negotiate peace in 1435, insuring East Monroe had a strip of land connecting it to the Bosphurus Ocean, more to ease their own concerns about the aggressive Carter Dynasty. East Monroe entered into a loose confederation with West Monroe and Angola after the ousting of the Carter Dynasty in 1549. The Ibican Confederation entered into a Federation with the Kingdom of Albion in 1700, creating one of the world's first republics under the same consitution used to this day.
Ibica embarked on a vigorous expansion across Eastern Ibican Continent throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, displacing Native tribes, acquiring new territories, and gradually admitting new states until it encompassed the majority of the continent. Ibica is a developed country and has one of the world's largest economy by nominal and real GDP, benefiting from an abundance of natural resources and high worker productivity. While the USI economy is considered post-industrial, the country continues to be one of the world's largest manufacturers. It is an economic and military power, a prominent political and cultural force, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
The land area of Ibica is 930,306 square miles (2.4 Mm2). The coastal plain of the Bosphurus seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Estacado. The Madisonian Mountains divide the Souther seaboard from the grasslands of the North. The Missouri River, the world's fourth longest river, runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the East. The Rocky Mountains, at the Northern edge of the nation, extend north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4.3 km).
Ibica, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. In the east, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. The southern tip of Angola is tropical. The Great Plains is the East are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. Extreme weather is not uncommon—the states bordering the Bosphurus are prone to hurricanes.
Ibica has operated under a two-party system for most of its history. For elective offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1924, the major parties have been the Conservative Party, and the Progressive Party. The third-largest political party is the Sovereignty Party, which advocates for the statehood of Territories. The President and Vice-president are elected through direct election.
The winner of the 2016 presidential election, Conservative Evaline Buckley, is the 39th, and current, Ibican president.
In the Current Congress, both the House of Representatives and the Senate are controlled by the Conservative Party. The Senate currently consists of 15 Conservatives, and 5 Progressives with two independents who caucus with the Progressives; the House consists of 111 Libertarians and 49 Republicans, with one Democrat. In state governorships, there are 7 Conservatives and 3 Progressives. All territorial governships are held by the Sovereignty Party.
Ibica is one of the world's oldest federations. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law. The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. For 2016, the U.S.I. ranked 2nd on the Democracy Index and 4th on the Corruption Perceptions Index.
In the Ibican federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.
The federal government is composed of three branches:
Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.
Executive: The President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to Congressional override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the President with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The House of Representatives has 128 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year, with 1 Representative from each territory, Except James Island.
The Senate has 20 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The President serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The President is elected by direct vote. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice has seven members, who serve for life.
The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion. The governor (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.
The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus.
Taxes are levied in Ibica at the federal, state and local government level. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP.
U.S.I. taxation is generally progressive, especially the federal income taxes, and is among the most progressive in the developed world. Payroll taxes for Social Security are a flat regressive tax, with no tax charged on income above $113,700 and no tax at all paid on unearned income from things such as stocks and capital gains. The historic reasoning for the regressive nature of the payroll tax is that entitlement programs have not been viewed as welfare transfers. The top 10% paid 51.8% of total federal taxes in 2009, and the top 1%, with 13.4% of pre-tax national income, paid 22.3% of federal taxes In 2013 the Tax Policy Center projected total federal effective tax rates of 35.5% for the top 1%, 27.2% for the top quintile, 13.8% for the middle quintile, and −2.7% for the bottom quintile. The incidence of corporate income tax has been a matter of considerable ongoing controversy for decades. State and local taxes vary widely, but are generally less progressive than federal taxes as they rely heavily on broadly borne regressive sales and property taxes that yield less volatile revenue streams, though their consideration does not eliminate the progressive nature of overall taxation.
Describe the economy of your nation.
Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 2 million miles of public roads, including one of the world's longest highway systems at 31,000 miles.Ibica has one of the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 765 vehicles per 1,000 Ibicans. About 40% of personal vehicles are vans, SUVs, or light trucks. The average Ibican adult (accounting for all drivers and non-drivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day, traveling 29 miles (47 km).
Mass transit accounts for 12% of total Ibica work trips. Transport of goods by rail is extensive, though relatively low numbers of passengers (approximately 31 million annually) use rail to travel. However, ridership on Rail Ibica, the national intercity passenger rail system, grew by almost 37% between 2010 and 2015. Also, light rail development has increased in recent years. Bicycle usage for work commutes is minimal.
The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated, while most major airports are publicly owned. Three of the largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are Ibican-based.
The Ibican energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year. Energy consumption per capita is 7.8 tons of oil equivalent per year. In 2005, 40% of this energy came from petroleum, 23% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources. For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part because of public perception. In 2007, several applications for new nuclear plants were filed.
Ibican public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the Ibican Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17. About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. Just over 2% of children are homeschooled. Some 80% of Ibican college students attend public universities.
Ibica has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Ibicans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees. The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%. The World Assembly assigns Ibica an Education Index of 0.97.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Ibican Department of Defense administers the armed forces, including the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and the Coast Guard.
Military service is voluntary. Ibican forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 5 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy's Bosphurus and Carpathian fleets.
Law Enforcement and Crime
Law enforcement in Ibica is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with state police providing broader services. Federal agencies such as the Ibican Investigations Agency (IIA) and the Ibican Marshal Service IMS have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing federal courts' rulings and federal laws. At the federal level and in every state, a legal system operates on common law. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Plea bargaining is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.
In 2012 there were 3.7 murders per 100,000 persons in Ibica. Among developed nations, Ibica has average levels of violent crime. Gun ownership rights continue to be the subject of contentious political debate. The IIA's Uniform Crime Reports estimates that there were 2,246 violent and property crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012, for a total of over 6 million total crimes.
Capital punishment is sanctioned in Ibica for certain federal and military crimes, and used in 11 states. Meanwhile, several states have either abolished or struck down death penalty laws.
Ibica has a life expectancy of 81.8 years at birth. The infant mortality rate is 6.17 per thousand in Ibica.
In 2010, coronary artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in Ibica. Low back pain, depression, musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, drug abuse, kidney disease and cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted per-capita rates. Ibican underage drinking among teenagers is among the highest in industrialized nations. Rape is at a record high, with 107.3 rapes committed per 100,000 persons.
Ibica is a global leader in medical innovation. Ibica solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since 2010 as ranked by a 2011 poll of physicians. Health-care coverage in Ibica is a Variation of a multi-payer system. All citizens and Legal Residents may enroll in either the public state or territory run public health care option, subsidized by the federal government, or a private provider, or may choose to be uninsured and pay out of pocket
References / Resources
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