Motto: "Liberty, Equality, Humanity"
Anthem: Hino Farroupilha
Capital: Porto Alegre
Largest City: Porto Alegre
Official Language: Portuguese
Recognized Languages: Basque, Guarani
Ethnic Groups (1955)
- 82% White
- 92% Christian
Demonym: Piratinese, Gaucho
Government: Unitary Presidential Democratic Republic
- Minister-President: Basileu Castanheira Guimarães
- Speaker of the House: Lázaro Lima Mascarenhas
- Chief Minister of the Supreme Court: Jorge Lisboa Amaral
- Marshal of the Republican Army: Vicente Teles Alves
Legislature: National Assembly
- Upper House: Supreme Council
- Lower House: Popular Chamber
Establishment: from the Empire of Hispania
• Independence: September 20, 1826
• Recognized: June 4, 1828
• Current Constitution: March 23, 1932
Land Area: 291,748 km2
Population: 6,050,798 (4th)
GDP (nominal): $50 billion
GDP (nominal) per capita: $8,263.37
HDI (1950): 0.687 medium
Currency: Cruzeiro (CR$)
Time Zone: UTC −3
Drives on the: right
Calling code: + 51
The Piratini Republic
Piratini, officially The Piratini Republic (República de Piratini in Portuguese) is a sovereign nation in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Sulia to the North, Guaraniria to the West, Uruguay to the South, and the Atlantic Ocean to the East. Piratini is home to an estimated 6 million people, of whom 1.5 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Porto Alegre. It is one of the smallest countries in South America. With a subtropical climate and an economy based on agriculture, cattle raising and industry, it is governed by the Party of the Popular Insurrection, ruling the country since 1930. The current president is Basileu Guimarães, elected in 1956 with 56% of the votes.
Before the discovery of Brazil, Piratini was inhabited by several native tribes, such as the Minuane, Charrua, and Caaguaras. The first European contact with natives in the region occurred in 1527, by the Hispanian conquistador Francisco Dávila. Jesuit priests and Basque immigrants, the latter expelled from Navarra after the 1571 Independence Wars, were the first to colonize the region. Piratini was also a target of colonial disputes between the Papal States and Hispania. Piratini served as the stage for many wars, such as the Guarani War, the Conquest of Uruguay, and the three Gaucho-Sulian Wars.
Currently, it is a free and democratic developing nation, although it has tense relations with Sulia, a fascist dictatorship that expressed its desire to annex Piratini.
Piratini comes from the Tupi-Guarani word Piratinin and means "noisy fish", referent to the fish species that live in the region.
The standard way to refer to a citizen is Piratinese or Gaucho.
During the discovery of Brazil, the region was inhabited for millennia by several indigenous tribes. Such tribes were skilled potters and used boleadeiras, an instrument still used today by the gauchos. These tribes had their first contact with European colonizers only in 1527 when a Hispanian fleet led by Francisco Dávila landed in the region of the city of Rio Grande. Spanish Jesuit priests were the first to settle there, followed by Basque immigrants in 1571, expelled from their lands by the Hispanian emperor Jorge II Castelo Branco.
The region was the target of disputes between the Papal State, who colonized the Southern Cone of South America, and Hispania, the country that colonized Brazil, Mexico, Florida, and the Caribbean. In the decade of 1630 raidings by Papal explorers were common, and the only solution saw by the Hispanian Emperor was the annexation of Papal South American colonies and European states. In 1645 the Papal War started, in both Europe and South America. After four years of war, the Papal States surrendered and gave the Colony of Uruguay and Entre Rios to Hispania, and lost half of its European lands.
However, in 1660 the Bandeirantes, Portuguese-Brazilian fortune hunters and explorers raided the region, enslaving several Indians and killing Jesuits and colonizers. Frightened, Basque pioneers and Portuguese immigrants organized themselves against the Bandeirante threat and united with Guarani Indians and Jesuits. In the lawless land that was the Hispanian colonies, they formed a militia against the Bandeirantes. In 1665 the explorers returned, and this time war between the Bandeirantes and the colonizers was fought. With 5,000 dead, the Bandeirante menace was expelled and did not return. However, the conflict drew authorities' attention to a possible separatist conflict by the Guarani Indians, and in 1680 the Jesuits were banned from operating in the region, and the Guarani were enslaved. It was the beginning of the Guarani War, which lasted ten years and devastated Piratini. Half of the Guarani population was killed or enslaved in the war, and the rest were driven into the colony of Entre Rios, which is less developed and served only as a border to counter the papal colonies.
In 1720 iron and coal were discovered in large quantities in the northern region of Piratini. This caused the Hispanian Emperor to send more immigrants to inhabit the region. A crisis in the empire began after a defeat by Lotharingia in the Great War of 1807, and in 1811 Mexico won its war of independence. This started a domino effect of colonial independence. In 1813 Florida became independent, followed by Amazonia in 1817 and Cabralia in 1818. The empire, which again went to war against Lotharingia, was unable to successfully fight two wars at the same time, and in 1822 the empire decreed the independence of all its American colonies. However, Piratini's colonial government remained loyal until 1826, when a popular revolution overthrew the colonial government, and a military-led republic was proclaimed.
Military Republic (1826-1835)
Piratini is a militaristic country since its foundation. The military republic proclaimed by Colonel João Carvalho was marked by diplomacy with neighboring countries and by the recognition of Rio Grande do Sul independence in 1828, after the payment of $ 5 billion. In 1829, the country allied itself with Uruguay, initiating a long-lasting friendly relationship between the two countries, both threatened by the Pratenese and Guarani expansion.
However, in order to pay the debt inherited with the payment to Hispania, in 1831 the tax laws were reformed. The tax rate more than doubled, and the population became impoverished. In 1834 João Carvalho, a fatherly and popular figure died, and the inexperienced Alfredo Nunes was elected president by the military council. His economic measures were disastrous, and in the same year, a crop failure brought hunger to the Piratinese, an illness then unknown to Piratini. Unable to take any action, there were protests against Alfredo and the military council. To contain the population, they instituted censorship in the press, which only made the population even more irritated. On August 5, 1835, Alfredo and three generals of the military council were killed at midnight, and a democratic republic was instituted by Hércules Areño.
Second Republic (1835-1855)
The republic of Hercules, which was in government for 15 years, was marked by its progressiveness and also by the cultural development of Piratini. An art lover, Hercules sponsored painters and writers to portray Piratini and also encouraged immigration, in an attempt to surpass the population of neighboring countries, since Piratini was the least populous country in the region, which meant an inability to defend itself against possible aggression from expansionist countries.
In 1847 a slave revolt claimed the lives of 2,000 Piratinese, among slaves, landowners and farmers. This divided the country between those who defended slavery and those who were abolitionists. President Hercules, who was an abolitionist and a defender of land reform, ended up being pressured by the army not to carry out his reforms. Led by reactionaries, in 1850 General Diogo Paiva arrested Hércules Areño, and new elections were organized. Aristides Braga, an abolitionist from the Progressive Party, won the election, and despite threats from the army, he outlawed slavery in October 1855, after several attempts. Outraged, the military arrested and executed Aristides, in what is considered the trigger for civil war.
Third Republic (1855-1872)
The civil war lasted two years and ended on December 6, 1857, with the capture of the last rebel general. This led to a reform of the army to avoid further military interference in politics. However, the progressives' popularity declined after the war, and for two decades only members of the conservative party were elected.
The reforms in the army proved efficient in 1865, with the First Gaucho-Sulian War. The neighboring country of Sulia never really recognized the Piratinese independence, and they have always claimed Piratini and Uruguay as an extension of their territory. The war began with the siege of Caxias, on July 1, 1865, and lasted until September, when an army of 10,000 gaucho men attacked the 20,000 southern soldiers. Surprisingly, the gauchos won, and Sulia retreated back to its borders. In December, the Uruguayan reinforcement arrived, in addition to enlisting another 20,000 soldiers. In 1866 there was an advance against the southern city of Lages, and Piratini won the battle, managing to advance to the city of Blumenau, where they were finally defeated. Despite this defeat, the government reached a peace agreement with the enemies, delimiting the borders from the Uruguay River and Pelotas River.
In 1869, another war would start. On April 10, 1869, Pratenian soldiers landed in Montevideo, starting a war for the annexation of Uruguay. Piratini joined the war but was attacked at the same time by Guaraniria in Uruguaiana. It was the Prata War. In November 1869 Uruguay surrendered, and with that, the Pratenian army could focus against Piratini - Pratenia was an ally of Guaraniria. On January 15, 1870, the siege of Uruguaiana finally ended after the arrival of Pratenian reinforcement, which defeated Piratini's army of 30,000 men. The critical situation and the fear of being annexed forced the government to enlist 80% of the male population. On March 5, 1870, the enemy army arrived in Pelotas. Despite numerical strength, the invading army was flanked by the gauchos, and on March 29, Piratinese victory was declared.
At the end of April, 15,000 soldiers liberated Montevideo, and in June a naval battle was fought in the La Plata Basin. The Uruguayan navy and Gaucha defeated the Pratenians, and 40,000 soldiers landed at Fresh Breeze, the capital of Pratenia. Meanwhile, in São Borja, on the western border, there was the last battle between Guaranis and Gauchos. With 50,000 dead in total, the battle was won by the gauchos. With Guaraniria defeated militarily and Pratenia invaded, the four countries met to discuss a peace treaty. Pratenia and Guaraniria would have to pay $3 billion to Piratini and Uruguay, while the borders would remain the same.
The victory made the conservatives even more popular, however, they would experience a sudden revolt in a couple of years.
Fourth Republic (1872-1928)
Piratinese soldiers of the 1898-99 War
In 1872 a liberal unrest captured the attention of the Piratinese population. Despite the good economic management of the conservatives, their discriminatory social policies, such as the ban on voting for non-whites, the impossibility of naturalizing immigrants and the mandatory military service for these same immigrants caused discomfort. And so, the Rio Grande revolt on May 24, 1872, led by the Piratinese Reform Party, exploded. The revolt was supported by a large part of the population, who managed to make the conservative president resign on July 12, 1872. The revolt put Demétrio Henriques in power. Its first step was to reform the right to vote, including non-whites and immigrants, in addition to abolishing compulsory military service.
It was during this republic that the country began its industrialization, inaugurating the National Railway Network in 1875, in addition to civil and military factories in 1880. The country quickly became an industrial pole in South America, ahead of neighboring countries, all agrarian, with the exception of Sulia. Piratinese products rivaled those of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, and with industrial development came along social development. In 1888 the Gaucho University Network was inaugurated, in 1891 the National Institute for Development, and in 1892 the National Coal and Iron Company. In 1887 reforms installed a maximum working day of 12 hours, and a low but sufficient minimum wage was instituted.
In 1898 a political crisis started in Sulia, and in an attempt to institute a president friendly to Piratini, Piratini invaded Sulia. The Second Gaucho-Sulian War was short and ended nine months later, in June 1899, with the installation of a puppet president, who remained in power until 1920, when a populist revolution took him out of office. During his government, relations between the two countries were finally established.
The Fourth Republic remained relatively peaceful until the 1922 coup by Hugo Torres, a politician from the Frente Roxa, a reactionary party. Hugo created several reforms that made the country go back in time, such as the end of the minimum wage and a daily maximum workhours of 14 hours. In 1927 Hugo decided to ban all opposition parties, which led to the Avenida da Praia revolt when socialist militants marched to the presidential palace and stormed the president's office. Many were arrested and some were killed, but the repression did not prevent a second civil war from starting in January 1928. The war was brief since 15,000 soldiers out of 20,000 joined the rebellion. In April, President Hugo fled to São Paulo, and on April 25 Venâncio Rodrigues was proclaimed president.
Fifth Republic (1928-Present)
Venâncio Rodrigues repealed Hugo's laws and modernized the army. In 1932, during his government, a new constitution updated with several new reforms and rights was approved. Of socialist nature, the constitution was voted by the population and approved with 70% of the votes. In the same year, the political parties previously banned by Hugo Torres were unbanned, and in the 1933 election, Emílio Almeida of the Popular Insurrection Party was elected.
His first step was to build fortifications on the border with Sulia. Relations with the neighboring country were lost after the end of the puppet president's term, and now the dictatorship of the New Sulian State, a fascist party, had planned to annex Piratini. In 1947, during the presidency of Horácio Borges, war broke out after the arrest of a Sulian official. Within twelve hours, the entire Sulian army was mobilized, and two days later, on March 1, 1947, the Sulian air force bombed Piratinese fortifications.
The war lasted four years, until August 11, 1951. During the first two years, the war was restricted to the border, and neither country could invade the other. The situation changed with the arrival of Uruguayan support in March 1949. The Piratinese managed to advance to Desterro, where the Battle of the Island was fought, and 300,000 died. After the capture of the capital of the state of Santa Catarina, Sulia surrendered. 7 years later, tensions have remained the same, and the chance of a new war is still high.
Climate types of Piratini
Meadows occupy around 66% of the surface of Piratini. They cover areas of regular topography, plain or wavy. Forests cover 29% of the national territory and are common in rugged terrains. In the highest areas, there are Araucaria moist forests. In these forests, there are Yerba mate, a target of economic exploitation since European colonization.
The northern part of the state lies on the southern slopes of the elevated plateau extending southward from São Paulo across the country of Sulia and is much broken by low mountain ranges. A range of low mountains extends southward from the Serra do Mar of Sulia and crosses the state into Uruguay. West of this range is a vast grassy plain devoted especially to stock-raising. The northern and most elevated part is suitable in pasturage and climate for sheep, while the southern for cattle. East of it is a wide coastal zone only slightly elevated above the sea; within it are two great lagoons, the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim, which are separated from the ocean by two sandy, partially barren peninsulas. The coast is one great sand beach, broken only by the outlet of the two lakes, called the Rio Grande.
According to the 1955 Census, there were 6,050,798 people residing in Piratini. The population density is 20.73/km². A census is taken every ten years, with the first taking place in 1885. The population growth rate is 3.5%, however, it is the result of immigration, as birthrates are not very high to maintain such high growth. 65% of the population lives in urban areas, as opposed to 35% living in rural areas. The largest ancestry groups included Portuguese with 75%, Basque with 40%, Italian with 35%, Spanish and German with 30%, Amerindian with 20%, and African with 15% - many people have ancestry consisting of multiple groups, and each group of every individual is counted in the Census.
Portuguese is the official language and is spoken fluently by 90% of the population. Basque and Guarani are recognized languages and are spoken in certain municipalities. Other languages spoken are German and Italian dialects, Polish, Arabic, and Ukrainian.
92% of the population considers themselves Christian. 90% of these Christians are Roman Catholics, while the rest are Protestants or Eastern Orthodox. The majority of the irreligious population is young, approximately 80% of those who answered to be irreligious are 30 years old or younger. Minority religions include Sunni Muslims, Spiritism, and Buddhism.
82% of the population is white, followed by mixed race with 11%, Black with 6% and Others (Amerindians and Asians) with 1%.
Metro area population
The Piratini Republic is a constitutional unitary democratic republic. Minority rights are protected but majority rule is ensured. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. The capital is Porto Alegre, in the basin of the Guaíba River. Piratinese citizens are subject to two levels of government: national, regional, and municipal.
The national government is responsible for the military, education, foreign relations, healthcare, road maintenance, taxation, welfare, monetary policies, energy, land distribution, and infrastructure. Municipal governments are responsible for police and firefighter forces, urban planning, and garbage collection. The national government is also divided into three branches: the executive, the judicial, and the legislative.
The Minister-President is both the head of the state and the head of government. The Minister-President appoints the Ministers, who assist in government. Elections are held every four years. There is no limit of terms to Parliamentarians, although the Minister-President may serve for a limit of three consecutive terms.
The legislature is called the National Assembly. It is divided into two chambers: the Supreme Council (upper house) and the Popular Chamber (lower house). In both houses, the seats are distributed to the most voted candidates in the country.
The current Ministries and ministers of Piratini:
The Legislative Palace in Porto Alegre
- •Minister of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishing: Fabrício Cardoso
•Minister of Culture: Simão Aguiar
•Minister of Economy, Trade, and Commerce: Conrado Vogel
•Minister of Education: José dos Santos Gomes
•Minister of Family and Welfare: Bartolomeu Balboni
•Minister of Foreign Relations: Irineu Barros
•Minister of the Interior: Gustavo Gabrielli
•Minister of Labor and Social Development: Cláudio Benali
•Minister of Public Health: Adão Macedo Ribeiro
•Minister of Public Resources: Jorge Silva Pereira
•Minister of Science and Technology: Francisco Ferrara
•Minister of Transportation and Aviation: Antônio Manuel Teixeira
•Minister of War: Henrique Magalhães
Foreign Relations and Military
Piratini's military spending in 1957 was $5 billion, or 10% of the GDP. The military is divided into three branches: the army, the navy, and the air force. In the event of a war, the army will be composed of both professional and conscripted soldiers. Piratini has 25 thousand active soldiers and 80,000 reservists.
The air force has a total of 210 aircraft. The air force also has 101 serviceable airports. The army has 319 tanks, 672 armored vehicles, 350 artillery, and 36 rocket projectors. The navy has a total of 15 submarines, 13 destroyers, 15 frigates, and 6 corvettes.
The Piratinese economy operates in a mixed economy system, progressing towards market socialism. The nominal GDP is $50 billion. The private sector constitutes 15% of the economy, state-owned industries accounting for 50% and the government constitutes 35% of the economy. Unemployment is at 6%, although the government is planning on implementing work programs for the unemployed.
In 1957 the trade surplus was $98 million. São Paulo is its top trading partner, followed by Pratenia, Minas Gerais, the United States, and Hispania. The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 39%, followed by agriculture at 31%.
Piratini most produced agricultural goods are cattle, cassava, corn, garlic, grape, orange, rice, soybeans, sugarcane, tobacco, and wheat. Piratini's most exported goods are coal, iron, tobacco, soybeans, automobiles, rice and beef. The most imported items are refined oil, machine parts, coffee, timber, steel, and rubber. The largest industries are the industry of automobiles, footwear, shipbuilding, chemical products, and electronics.
Lady Piratini, the personification of Piratini
Each region of the country has its own cultural background. In the south, the region is influenced by Basque traditions. In the Pampas, to the southwest, the old Gaucho culture is influential. To the north, in the Bells' Valley and the mountainous serra gaúcha, German and Italian immigrants shaped the culture of the region. The capital, Porto Alegre, is a mix of all these regional cultures. The entire country is also influenced by Portuguese culture.
The Piratinese are known for their fondness for chimarrão, a drink made from yerba mate, and for consuming churrasco (barbecue) regularly.
When not a Basque pioneer, the original Piratinese were Gaúchos, nomads that lived from cattle-raising. The gauchos were mixed, with Amerindian and European (Portuguese and Spanish) heritage. This changed in the 19th century, the result of immigration, and now pretty much every European culture can be found (albeit in small communities) in the country.
In regards to culture, Piratini is highlighted in visual arts and literature. Piratinese painting usually depicted the landscape and people of Piratini, and in the 1880s an artistic and nationalist movement began, the Nova Era, with the objective of elevating the country's morale in the face of hostile neighbors. The most popular styles in arts are realism, impressionism, and futurism.
Piratinese music is diverse, with pop, rock and roll, jazz, classical and folk music dominating the top charts. Piratinese jazz musicians are famous in the Americas. Piratinese literature is focused on two ages: the colonial period, and the wars of the 19th century. The Nova Era movement is still strong in literature, with authors such as Gabriel Pestana and his Três Noivas book, released in 1910 and Augusto Martins. In the decade of 1930, the Nova Era was blended with socialism, producing authors such as Mário Duarte and Paulo Scherer.
The Piratinese transport infrastructure consists of vast systems of roads, bridges, highways, railways, and ferries. Railways are the backbones of the Piratinese transport system. The first railways were built in the decade of 1870, by Hispanian investors. The railway system totaled 56,000 km in 1955.
Piratini has many airports, but only three are international, with the Rodolfo Rocha International Airport being the largest international airport. Most airports are state-owned, including Rodolfo Rocha.
Most of Piratinese energy comes from coal, but the government has plans of building three hydropower plants.