Motto: "Liberty, Equality, Humanity"
Anthem: Hino Farroupilha
Capital: Porto Alegre
Largest City: Porto Alegre
Official Language: Portuguese
Recognized Languages: Basque, Guarani
Ethnic Groups (2015)
- 78% White
- 77% Christian
Demonym: Piratinese, Gaucho
Government: Unitary Presidential Democratic Republic
- Minister-President: Verônica Torres
- Vice President: Lázaro Lima Mascarenhas
- Speaker of the House: Basileu Castanheira Guimarães
- Chief Minister of the Supreme Court: Jorge Lisboa Amaral
- Marshal of the Republican Army: Vicente Teles Alves
Legislature: National Assembly
- Upper House: Supreme Council
- Lower House: Popular Chamber
Establishment: from the Empire of Brazil
• Independence: September 20, 1835
• Recognized: June 4, 1845
• Current Constitution: March 23, 1932
Land Area: 291,748 km2
Population: 12,364,530 (4th)
GDP (nominal): $191.5 billion
GDP (nominal) per capita: $15,489.23
HDI (2015): 0.810 very high
Currency: Cruzeiro Sulino (CRS$)
Time Zone: UTC −3
Drives on the: right
Calling code: + 51
The Piratini Republic
Piratini, officially The Piratini Republic (República de Piratini in Portuguese) is a sovereign nation in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Juliana to the North, Paraguay, and Argentina to the West, Uruguay to the South, and the Atlantic Ocean to the East. Piratini is home to an estimated 12 million people, of whom 3.5 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Porto Alegre. It is one of the smallest countries in South America. With a subtropical climate and an economy based on agriculture, cattle raising, and industry, it is governed by the Socialist Homeland Party, ruling the country since 1980. The current president is Verônica Torres, elected in 2017 with 56% of the votes.
Before the discovery of Brazil, Piratini was inhabited by several native tribes, such as the Minuane, Guarani, Charrua, and Caaguaras. The first European contact with natives in the region occurred in 1527, by the Hispanian conquistador Francisco Dávila. Jesuit priests and Basque immigrants, the latter expelled from Navarra after the 1571 Independence Wars, were the first to colonize the region. Piratini served as the stage for many wars, such as the Guarani War, the Conquest of Uruguay, and the Ragamuffin War.
Currently, it is a free and democratic developing nation, although it has tense relations with the rump state of Brazil, its former master.
Piratini comes from the Tupi-Guarani word Piratinin and means "noisy fish", referent to the fish species that live in the region.
The standard way to refer to a citizen is Piratinese or Gaucho.
During the discovery of Brazil, the region was inhabited for millennia by several indigenous tribes. Such tribes were skilled potters and used boleadeiras, an instrument still used today by the gauchos. These tribes had their first contact with European colonizers only in 1527 when a Hispanian fleet led by Francisco Dávila landed in the region of the city of Rio Grande. Spanish Jesuit priests were the first to settle there, followed by Basque immigrants in 1571, expelled from their lands by the Hispanian emperor Jorge II Castelo Branco.
The region was the target of disputes between England, who colonized the Southern Cone of South America, and Hispania, the country that colonized Brazil, Mexico, Central America, Florida, Cuba, and the rest of South America. In the decade of 1630 raidings by English explorers were common, and the only solution saw by the Hispanian Emperor was the annexation of English South American colonies. In 1645 the Uruguay War started, in both Europe and South America. After four years of war, all English colonies in South America were handed over to Hispania.
However, in 1660 the Bandeirantes, Portuguese-Brazilian fortune hunters and explorers raided the region, enslaving several Indians and killing Jesuits and colonizers. Frightened, Basque pioneers and Portuguese immigrants organized themselves against the Bandeirante threat and united with Guarani Indians and Jesuits. In the lawless land that was the Hispanian colonies, they formed a militia against the Bandeirantes. In 1665 the explorers returned, and this time war between the Bandeirantes and the colonizers was fought. With 5,000 dead, the Bandeirante menace was expelled and did not return. However, the conflict drew authorities' attention to the possibility of a separatist conflict by the Guarani Indians, and in 1680 the Jesuits were banned from operating in the region, and the Guarani were enslaved. It was the beginning of the Guarani War, which lasted ten years and devastated Piratini. Half of the Guarani population was killed or enslaved in the war, and the rest were driven into the colony of Entre Rios, which is less developed.
In 1720 iron and coal were discovered in large quantities in the northern region of Piratini. This caused the Hispanian Emperor to send more immigrants to colonize the region. A crisis in the empire began after a defeat by France in the Great War of 1807, and in 1811 Mexico won its war of independence. This started a domino effect of colonial independence. In 1813 Florida became independent, followed by Colombia in 1817 and Peru in 1818. The empire, which again went to war against France, was unable to successfully fight several wars at different continents at the same time, and in 1822 the empire decreed the independence of all its American colonies.
Empire of Brazil and Farroupilha Revolution
The province of São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, the predecessor province of the Piratini Republic, played a marginal role in Brazilian affairs. Following the Brazilian defeat in the Cisplatine War, in which Uruguay became an independent country, São Pedro was one of the regions that suffered the most, as the majority of Brazilian soldiers in the war were conscripted from the province. In 1835 the estancieiros, the elite of the province, under the leadership of Bento Gonçalves began a revolt against the Imperial government. The revolt (which became known as Farroupilha Revolution) is believed to have begun due to the difference between the economy of Rio Grande do Sul and the rest of the country. Unlike the other provinces, the economy of Rio Grande do Sul focused on the internal market rather than exporting commodities. The province's main product, charque (dried and salted beef), suffered badly from competition from charque imported from the neighboring countries of Uruguay and Argentina. The people that benefited from these markets were called "Gauchos," nomadic cowhands and farmers who lived in Rio Grande do Sul. The Gauchos also lived in Argentina and Uruguay.
On 20 September 1835, Bento Gonçalves captured the provincial capital of Porto Alegre, considered by most the beginning of the uprising/revolution. It was a rebellion against the unfair trade reinforced by the provincial government, who fled to the city of Rio Grande. On 11 September 1836, Antônio de Souza Neto declared the independence of Rio Grande do Sul, under the name of Riograndense Republic. General Bento Gonçalves became president. Gonçalves was arrested by the Imperial Army but he escaped in 1837. Shortly after his escape, the Imperial Army of Brazil attacked Porto Alegre, but they failed to recapture the province's capital. On 12 December 1837, the city of Rio Grande was captured by the Farroupilhas, and they began preparing an attack on Santa Catarina, a province to the north of Piratini.
The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels, and with his support, the rebellion spread through Santa Catarina, where the state of the Juliana Republic was established under David Canabarro's control. In 1839 the Riograndense Republic was recognized by the United Kingdom, France, and Uruguay. The Uruguayan state sent military and financial support to the Gaucho rebels and even proposed to merge the two countries - the Riograndense leadership refused the offer, though. In 1841 the revolutionaries reached the province of São Paulo, which meant they were just one step away from Rio de Janeiro, the capital of Brazil. In 1844 the province of Rio de Janeiro was invaded by the Gauchos, and in 1845 the Imperial Navy was defeated by a joint Riograndense-Uruguayan fleet. Following the defeat at sea, Brazilian emperor Dom Pedro II agreed to concede independence to Rio Grande do Sul on 4 June 1845. The same day, the name of the country was changed to The Piratini Republic (República de Piratini), a name taken from the city of Piratini, the former capital of the Riograndense Republic.
First Republic (1845-1865)
In 1847 an election was held and Hércules Areño from the Liberal Party was elected president. The republic of Hercules, which was in government for 12 years, was marked by its progressiveness and also by the cultural development of Piratini. An art lover, Hercules sponsored painters and writers to portray Piratini and also encouraged immigration, in an attempt to surpass the population of neighboring countries, since Piratini was the least populous country in the region, which meant an inability to defend itself against possible aggression from expansionist countries.
In 1857 a slave revolt claimed the lives of 2,000 Piratinese, among slaves, landowners and farmers. This divided the country between those who defended slavery and those who were abolitionists. President Hercules, who was an abolitionist and a defender of land reform, ended up being pressured by the army not to carry out his reforms. Led by reactionaries, in 1860 General Diogo Paiva arrested Hércules Areño, and new elections were organized. Aristides Braga, an abolitionist from the Progressive Party, won the election, and despite threats from the army, he outlawed slavery in October 1865, after several attempts. Outraged, the military arrested and executed Aristides, in what is considered the trigger for civil war.
Second Republic (1865-1875)
The civil war lasted less than two years and ended on January 6, 1867, with the capture of the last rebel general. This led to a reform of the army to avoid further military interference in politics. However, the progressives' popularity declined after the war, and politics began to be dominated by the conservatives.
The greatest threat to Piratinese sovereignty arose in the middle of the civil war. The Paraguayan war started in 1865 with the Paraguayan invasion of Brazil and Argentina, and in April 1866 Piratini was also invaded by the Paraguayans. The reasons for the war are the Paraguayan quests for a coastal territory and dominance in the Río de la Plata. In June 1866 both the rebels and the loyalists of Piratini joined the Brazilian-Argentinian coalition. The Paraguayans managed to reach Porto Alegre but they failed to capture it. Following the arrival of Coalition forces in 1867, the Paraguayans were driven out of Piratini by 1868. Paraguay came to an agreement with Argentina in 1869, but Piratini, Uruguay, and Brazil continued to attack Paraguay until 1870 when the Paraguayan leader Solano López agreed to pay reparations to the coalition and renounce his claims.
The triumph made the conservatives even more popular, however, they would experience a sudden revolt in a couple of years.
Third Republic (1875-1928)
Piratinese soldiers of the 1898-99 War
In 1875 a liberal unrest captured the attention of the Piratinese population. Despite the good economic management of the conservatives, their discriminatory social policies, such as the ban on voting for non-whites, the impossibility of naturalizing immigrants, and the mandatory military service for these same immigrants caused discomfort. And so, the Rio Grande revolt on May 24, 1875, led by the Piratinese Reform Party, began. The revolt was supported by a large part of the population, who managed to make the conservative president resign on July 12, 1875. The revolt put Demétrio Henriques in power. Its first step was to reform the right to vote, including non-whites and immigrants, in addition to abolishing compulsory military service.
It was during this republic that the country began its industrialization, inaugurating the National Railway Network in 1878, in addition to civil and military factories in 1880. The country quickly became an industrial pole in South America, ahead of neighboring countries, all agrarian, with the exception of Argentina. Piratinese products rivaled those of Brazil and Argentina, and with industrial development came along social development. In 1888 the Gaucho University Network was inaugurated, in 1891 the National Institute for Development, and in 1892 the National Coal and Iron Company. In the year 1887, several reforms installed a maximum working day of 12 hours, and a tiny but sufficient minimum wage was instituted.
In 1898 a political crisis started in the Juliana Republic, and in an attempt to institute a president friendly to Piratini, Piratini invaded Juliana. The First Gaucho-Julianian War was short and ended nine months later, in June 1899, with the installation of a puppet president, who remained in power until 1920, when a populist revolution took him out of office. During his government, relations between the two countries were finally re-established.
The Fourth Republic remained relatively peaceful until the 1922 coup by Hugo Torres, a politician from the Frente Roxa, a reactionary party. Hugo created several reforms that made the country regress, such as the end of the minimum wage and daily maximum work hours of 14 hours. In 1927 Hugo decided to ban all opposition parties, which led to the Avenida da Praia revolt when socialist militants marched to the presidential palace and stormed the president's office. Many were arrested and some were killed, but the repression did not prevent a second civil war from starting in January 1928. The war was brief since 15,000 soldiers out of 20,000 joined the rebellion. In April, president Hugo fled to Brazil, and on April 25 Venâncio Rodrigues was proclaimed president.
Fourth Republic (1928-Present)
Venâncio Rodrigues repealed Hugo's laws and modernized the army. In 1932, during his government, a new constitution updated with several new reforms and rights was approved. With socialist aspirations, the constitution was voted by the population and approved with 70% of the votes. In the same year, the political parties previously banned by Hugo Torres were unbanned, and in the 1933 election, Emílio Almeida of the Popular Insurrection Party was elected.
His first step was to build fortifications on the border with Juliana, Paraguay, and Argentina. Relations with the neighboring Juliana Republic were lost after the end of the puppet president's term, and now the dictatorship of the New Republic of Juliana, a fascist regime led by German expats, had planned to annex Piratini. In 1947, during the presidency of Horácio Borges, war broke out after the arrest of a Julianian official. Within twelve hours, the entire Julianian army was mobilized, and two days later, on March 1, 1947, the Julianian air force bombed Piratinese fortifications. The war lasted four years, until August 11, 1951. During the first two years, the war was restricted to the border, and neither country could break each other's defensive line. The situation changed with the arrival of Uruguayan support in March 1949. The Piratinese managed to advance to Desterro, where the Battle of the Island was fought, and 300,000 died. After the capture of the capital of the Julianian capital, the Juliana Republic surrendered. The fascist government was arrested and tried for war crimes, and a democratic republic was installed.
Starting in the decade of 1950, the biggest issue became the status of religion. The Popular Insurrection Party (the PIP) supported an atheist state, while conservatives defended the idea of a confessional state. The origins of the debate are political; as a Marxist-Leninist party, the PIP was staunchly anti-religious, and the rise of national socialism, especially among the Protestant German community, led to the Insurrectionists fearmongering against Protestants. The religious question was taken very seriously by the government, and in 1967 the PIP turned Piratini into an atheist state. The world was at the height of the tripolar Cold War among capitalists, fascists, and communists, and each side was becoming increasingly paranoid and authoritarian. The PIP started to pass authoritarian laws that curtailed civil and political rights, and Piratini was turning into a dictatorship. Protests against the PIP's policies began in June 1977, after the results of the 1977 national election indicated another victory for the Insurrectionists. The fraudulent elections were challenged by both the Socialist Homeland Party and the National Republican Party, respectively a socialist and a conservative party.
In 1979 the Insurrectionist president, Flávio Cerqueira, attempted a self-coup on April 11, an attempt to finally turn the country into a dictatorship, but it backfired, and riots spread throughout the country. After long months of riots and protests, the Socialist Homeland Party, with the support of the police, ousted Mr. Cerqueira and police commander Alfredo Gomes became the Piratinese president. Fair and free elections were held in 1981, and the Socialist Homeland Party (the PPS) won the election. The PPS undid the authoritarian laws of the Insurrectionists, and the country started to experience an unprecedented period of civil and political freedoms. The economy began to flourish, and Piratini became a secular state with full freedom of religion. Despite a severe economic crisis in the early 2000s, politics have been democratic and peaceful, and every election was dominated by left-wing parties. In 2017 the current president, Verônica Torres from the PPS, was elected. She is the first female president in Piratinese history.
Climate types of Piratini
Meadows occupy around 66% of the surface of Piratini. They cover areas of regular topography, plain or wavy. Forests cover 29% of the national territory and are common in rugged terrains. In the highest areas, there are Araucaria moist forests. In these forests, there are Yerba mate, a target of economic exploitation since European colonization.
The northern part of the state lies on the southern slopes of the elevated plateau extending southward from São Paulo across the Juliana Republic and is much broken by low mountain ranges. A range of low mountains extends southward from the Serra do Mar of Juliana and crosses the state into Uruguay. West of this range is a vast grassy plain devoted especially to stock-raising. The northern and most elevated part is suitable in pasturage and climate for sheep, while the southern for cattle. East of it is a wide coastal zone only slightly elevated above the sea; within it are two great lagoons, the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim, which are separated from the ocean by two sandy, partially barren peninsulas. The coast is one great sand beach, broken only by the outlet of the two lakes, called the Rio Grande.
According to the 2015 Census, there were 12,364,530 people residing in Piratini. The population density is 42.38/km². A census is taken every ten years, with the first taking place in 1885. The population growth rate is 0.82%. 82% of the population lives in urban areas, as opposed to 18% living in rural areas. The largest ancestry groups included Portuguese with 75%, Basque with 40%, Italian with 35%, Spanish and German with 30%, Amerindian with 20%, and African with 15% - many people have ancestry consisting of multiple groups, and each group of every individual is counted in the Census.
Portuguese is the official language and is spoken fluently by 90% of the population. Basque and Guarani are recognized languages and are spoken in certain municipalities. Other languages spoken are German and Italian dialects, Polish, Arabic, and Ukrainian.
92% of the population considers themselves Christian. 90% of these Christians are Roman Catholics, while the rest are Protestants or Eastern Orthodox. The majority of the irreligious population is young, approximately 60% of those who answered to be irreligious are 35 years old or younger. Minority religions include Sunni Islam, Spiritism, and Buddhism.
78% of the population is white, followed by mixed race with 14%, Black with 7% and Others (Amerindians and Asians) with 1%.
Metro area population
The Piratini Republic is a constitutional unitary democratic republic. Minority rights are protected but majority rule is ensured. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. The capital is Porto Alegre, in the basin of the Guaíba River. Piratinese citizens are subject to three levels of government: national, regional, and municipal.
The national government is responsible for the military, education, foreign relations, healthcare, road maintenance, taxation, welfare, monetary policies, energy, land distribution, and infrastructure. Municipal governments are responsible for police and firefighter forces, urban planning, and garbage collection. The regional government has no power and only exists for the purpose of collecting statistics. The national government is also divided into three branches: the executive, the judicial, and the legislative.
The Minister-President is both the head of the state and the head of government. The Minister-President appoints the Ministers, who assist in government. Elections are held every four years. There is no limit of terms to Parliamentarians, although the Minister-President may serve for a limit of three consecutive terms.
The legislature is called the National Assembly. It is divided into two chambers: the Supreme Council (upper house) and the Popular Chamber (lower house). In both houses, the seats are distributed to the most voted candidates in the country.
The current Ministries and ministers of Piratini:
The Legislative Palace in Porto Alegre
- •Minister of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishing: Fabrício Cardoso
•Minister of Culture: Simão Aguiar
•Minister of Economy, Trade, and Commerce: Conrado Vogel
•Minister of Education: José dos Santos Gomes
•Minister of Family and Welfare: Bartolomeu Balboni
•Minister of Foreign Relations: Irineu Barros
•Minister of the Interior: Gustavo Gabrielli
•Minister of Labor and Social Development: Cláudio Benali
•Minister of Public Health: Adão Macedo Ribeiro
•Minister of Public Resources: Jorge Silva Pereira
•Minister of Science and Technology: Francisco Ferrara
•Minister of Transportation and Aviation: Antônio Manuel Teixeira
•Minister of War: Henrique Magalhães
Foreign Relations and Military
Piratini's military spending in 2018 was approximately 10% of the GDP. The military is divided into three branches: the army, the navy, and the air force. In the event of a war, the army will be composed of both professional and conscripted soldiers. Piratini has 60 thousand active soldiers and 120,000 reservists.
The air force has a total of 210 aircraft. The air force also has 101 serviceable airports. The army has 319 tanks, 672 armored vehicles, 350 artillery, and 36 rocket projectors. The navy has a total of 15 submarines, 13 destroyers, 15 frigates, and 6 corvettes.
The Piratinese economy operates in a mixed economy system, progressing towards market socialism. The nominal GDP is $191.5 billion. The private sector constitutes 30% of the economy, state-owned industries accounting for 40% and the government constitutes 30% of the economy. Unemployment is at 6%, although the government is planning on implementing work programs for the unemployed.
In 2018 the trade surplus was $105 million. Brazil is its top trading partner, followed by Argentina, Uruguay, the United States, and Spain. The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 39%, followed by agriculture at 31%.
Piratini most produced agricultural goods are cattle, cassava, corn, garlic, grape, orange, rice, soybeans, sugarcane, tobacco, and wheat. Piratini's most exported goods are coal, iron, tobacco, soybeans, automobiles, rice, and beef. The most imported items are refined oil, machine parts, coffee, timber, steel, and rubber. The largest industries are the industry of automobiles, footwear, shipbuilding, chemical products, and electronics.
Lady Piratini, the personification of Piratini
Each region of the country has its own cultural background. In the south, the region is influenced by Basque traditions. In the Pampas, to the southwest, the old Gaucho culture is influential. To the north, in the Bells' Valley and the mountainous serra gaúcha, German and Italian immigrants shaped the culture of the region. The capital, Porto Alegre, is a mix of all these regional cultures. The entire country is also influenced by Portuguese culture.
The Piratinese are known for their fondness for chimarrão, a drink made from yerba mate, and for consuming churrasco (barbecue) regularly.
When not a Basque pioneer, the original Piratinese were Gaúchos, nomads that lived from cattle-raising. The gauchos were mixed, with Amerindian and European (Portuguese and Spanish) heritage. This changed in the 19th century, the result of immigration, and now pretty much every European culture can be found (albeit in small communities) in the country.
In regards to culture, Piratini is highlighted in visual arts and literature. Piratinese painting usually depicted the landscape and people of Piratini, and in the 1880s an artistic and nationalist movement began, the Nova Era, with the objective of elevating the country's morale in the face of hostile neighbors. The most popular styles in arts are realism, impressionism, and futurism.
Piratinese music is diverse, with pop, rock and roll, jazz, classical, and folk music dominating the top charts. Piratinese jazz musicians are famous in the Americas. Piratinese literature is focused on two ages: the colonial period, and the wars of the 19th century. The Nova Era movement is still strong in literature, with authors such as Gabriel Pestana and his Três Noivas book, released in 1910, and Augusto Martins. In the decade of 1930, the Nova Era was blended with socialism, producing authors such as Mário Duarte and Paulo Scherer. The most famous writers are Erico Verissimo, author of the historical novel trilogy O Tempo e o Vento (Time and Wind), and poet Mário Quintana.
The Piratinese transport infrastructure consists of vast systems of roads, bridges, highways, railways, and ferries. Railways are the backbone of the Piratinese transport system. The first railways were built in the decade of 1870, by Hispanian investors. The railway system totaled 56,000 km in 1955.
Piratini has many airports, but only three are international, with the Rodolfo Rocha International Airport being the largest international airport. Most airports are state-owned, including Rodolfo Rocha.
Most of Piratinese energy comes from coal, but the government has plans of building three hydropower plants. One-fourth of energy comes from wind power.