The first evidence of human settlement in Tangatarehua dates back to around 40,000BC, with the population populated by Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers known as the Mohoao.
c. 40,000 BC: Earliest evidence of hominids on the islands of Tanngatarehua, specifically in the southernmost island of Motumakariri.
c. 15,000 BC: Estimated arrival of the Mohoao from Melanesia. Migration of other groups in this time. First evidence of primitive societies.
Kumara Period (~500 BC - 270 BC)
Polynesians first began migrating to Tanagatarehua around 500BC and set up a series of neolithic farming societies based around the important crop of kumara. This led to the formation of various "Potato Kingdoms" on Moanapapa and Marangawhenua.
c. 500 BC: Arrival of the first Polynesians
Puanga Period (270 BC - 378 AD)
The Puanga Period refers to the time when Tangatarehua first became united under a single Empress, which according to legend was Tamahine a te Puanga, the granddaughter of the demigod Puanga and great granddaughter of Rehua, God of the stars. Much of this period is shrouded in myth and legend though there is evidence that the nation and current imperial line dates back to around this era.
270 BC: Legendary date given for the ascension of Tamahine a te Puanga to the throne, the first Empress.
c. 100 BC: Ngati Puanga tribe believed to have conquered the entire island of Marangawhenua by this point.
c. 150 AD: Ngati Puanga begin expansion into Moanapapa.
Awakotiro-pai Period (378 AD - 864 AD)
The Awakotiro-pai period is earliest time from which historians can verify the existence of various Empresses. It is also when oral traditions were replaced by a written history and when the nation first began referring to itself as "Tangatarehua" rather than "Ngati Puanga".
378 AD: Earliest confirmed publication of Tikunga Tangata Rehua, a written account of Rehuan history as well as early legal system.
404 AD: Awakotiro-pai becomes the first permanent capital city of Tangatarehua.
592 - 611 AD: Pango people and remaining Mohoau driven out of Moanapapa, island now fully controlled by Tangatarehua imperial family.
Te Whanui Period (864 AD - 910 AD)
The Te Whanui Period marked a significant shift in Rehuan society with the appointment of the first Rangatira ("General" or "Chief"), who set up a feudal society and moved Tangatarehua society in a more patriarchal direction.
864 AD: Empress Kotero Peepi ascends to the throne, aged three years old sparking rebellion against imperial regents by the Toa (warriors).
865 AD: Kaitiaki Te Whanui Whakatau officially appointed as the first Rangatira who forms a government based near modern day Tamaki.
865 - 869 AD: Rangatira Te Whanui takes effective control of all imperial lands, uniting the country and quelling various rebellions before announcing formation of feudal system.
Rakipa Period (910 - 1157)
The Rakipa Period marked a return to direct rule by the Empress, who moved the capital to the northern city of Rakipa, on Moanapapa.
910: Rangatira Te Whanui Koroheke dies and is succeeded by his brother Te Whanui Hauauru despite his stated wish to be succeeded by his son Te Whanui Taioki.
911: Te Whanui Taioki, aided by sympathetic Kaitiaki, attempts a coup d'etat against Hauauru. The plot is unsuccessful and Taioki flees north to Rakipa on Moanapapa.
911 - 914: Tangatarehua descends into civil war between Toa loyal to Taioki and Toa loyal to Hauauru.
914: Empress Kaore-he-koreroteka officially strips Hauauru of Rangatira status and both men of Kaitiaki status. Toa under direct control of the Empress march north to Rakipa, via Tamaki.
915: Taioki and Hauauru both exiled to the island of Rangiwhero in disgrace. Kaore-he-koreroteka moves imperial capital to Rakipa and takes direct control of the nation.
Mahunga Kuia Period (1157 - 1178)
The Mahunga Kuia ("Twin Empress") Period was a brief time in which Tangatarehua was ruled simultaneously by two Empresses, due to conflict over succession, ultimately leading to the return of Rangatira-based governance.
1157: Empress Wahine Hapu-rua dies, leaving the imperial crown to her twin daughters Maharani Emera and Kamupene e toe ana who are crowned "Co-Empresses" or "Mahunga Kuia".
1166: Rangatira Te Mana Hanga resumes effective control of the country due to the Mahunga Kuias' inability to co-operate or agree over policy.
1173: Death of Empress Maharani Emera, leaving Kamupene e toe ana the sole remaining empress. Although the Mahunga Kuia had previously agreed that Crown Princess Tamahine Matamua, the daughter of Maharani Emera, should succeed them on the throne, Kamupene e toe ana attempts install her own daughter Princess Tawhai as the new Crown Princess.
1177: Empress Kamupene e toa ana dies and is succeeded by Tamahine Matamua at the insistence of Rangatira Te Mana.
Whakaara Period (1178 - 1393)
The Whakaara Period saw the Imperial capital moved to the city of Whakaara, while governance was handled by the Rangatira in Tamaki - a setting that continues to this day. This period saw Tangatarehua ruled by the Te Mana dynasty of Rangatiras.
1178: Supporters of Princess Tawhai attempt to storm Rakipa Castle to install her as Empress. Anticipating the siege, Rangatira Te Mana ensures the evacuation and safe passage of Empress Tamahine Matamua to the city of Whakaara, on the southern cost of Marangawhenua before having Princess Tawhai and her supporters arrested and executed for high treason.
1232: Rangatira Te Mana Huaki launches a full scale invasion of Rangiwhero, driving out the last of the Pango people.
1234: Huaki's forces come into contact with the "Kirima" (Yuri) people of Motumakariri, who offer fierce resistance to his attempts to conquer southern Rangiwhero.
1236: Huaki signs a peace treaty with Suzuki Natsuki, leader of the Yuri, splitting the island in half and giving Tangatarehua control of the areas north and west of the Maungapuia mountains while the Yuri were to retain the lands south and east of Maungapuia.
1393: Rangatira Te Mana Kaupapa assassinated by a group of rebel Toa from Moanapapa, led by Kaitiaki Kaiwhakarite o te Raki, making the end of the Te Mana dynasty.
Ariki Period (1393 - 1520)
The Ariki Period was arguably the most turbulent time in Rehuan history, ultimately leading to more than a century of civil war and periods of anarchy.
1393: Empress Tika me te whakaaro nui refuses Te Raki's demand to be appointed the new Rangatira and is herself assassinated. Te Raki then kidnaps Crown Princess Ngahuia, takes her north and forces her to marry him and declare him Rangatira.
1394: Princess Ngahuia's sister, Princess Manaia, who remains in Whakaara is crowned Empress Te Whanonga Maia by the Tohunga and declared the legitimate Empress due to her possession of the Whitu Tapu Taonga (Seven Sacred Treasures).
1395: Empress Te Whanonga Maia appoints Te Mana Teina the new Rangatira and orders him and an army of Toa north to Rakipa to capture Te Raki and rescue Princess Ngahuia.
1396: Te Mana Teina's forces meet fierce resistance at the Whangakawa strait and is unable to reach Moanapapa. Te Raki declares himself the 'Ariki' (Emperor) of Moanapapa and attempts to form a breakaway empire called "Tangatatangaroa" (People of the god of the sea.)
1397: Kaitiaki allied with Te Raki attempt to form similar breakaway nations, with Rangiwhero becoming "Tangatarangi" (people of the god of the skies) and rebellious Kaitiaki in Marangawhenua attempting to form "Tangatatane" (people of the god of the forest).
1397-1399: Te Mana attempts to reassert control over Tangatarehua again. He easily overruns Tangatatane, but is unable to extend his control beyond Maranagawhenua.
1401 - 1402: Tangatatangaroa and Tangatarangi launch a co-ordinated simultaneous attack on Tangatarehua sweeping Marangawhenua and deposing both Te Mana and the Empress.
1402: Princess Ngahuia, under Te Raki's control, returns to Whakaara and is crowned Empress Ngahuia Whakakahore of Tangatarehua. Te Raki is appointed the official Rangatira of Tangatarehua but demands to be referred to as 'Ariki' and claims higher status than the Empress.
1417: Te Raki dies with no clear successor. Various Kaitiaki claim the right to succeed him as Ariki and Rangatira and ultimately form breakaway nations.
1417 - 1520: Ariki Wars. Tangatarehua breaks down into a century of near-constant civil war, anarchy with the feudal system broken the Empresses holding only token power under the control of various puppeterring Kaitiaki.
Te Raki Period (1520 - 1690)
The Te Raki period saw a return to stability and the reunification of Tangatarehua, following a century of anarchy and turmoil.
1520: Te Raki Kaiwhakamarie, the great grandson of Kaiwhakarite o te Raki, formally relinquishes his claim on the title of 'Ariki' and is appointed Rangatira by Empress Te Manawanui roa.
1520 - 1537: Te Raki spends the remainder of his life quelling various rebellions and reunifying Tangatarehua until his death in 1537.
1581: Rangatira Te Raki He Maia conquers the entire island of Rangiwhero from the Yuri. He also successfully conquers the Awakoi Peninsula on the island of Motumakariri, driving the Yuri to the southern part of the island.
1608: Tamati Timoti, the Kaitiaki of Takutairoa attempts to form a 'peasant army' (Kaihu-toa) to overthrow Rangatira Te Raki Ture Tino, but is arrested before the plot can be enacted. The Rangatira enacts laws forbidding peasants from possessing weapons and centralises control of the nation, reducing the influence of the Kaitiaki.
Pakeha Period (1690 - 1779)
The Pakeha Period began with the first contact with Europeans, which introduced firearms, Christianity, Islam and significant scientific advances to Tangatarehua.
1690: A small group of European ("Pakeha") explorers land on the coast of northern Moanapapa. The explorers visit Tamaki the same year.
1695: Captain Paul van Daalen becomes the first Pakeha (foreigner) ever granted an audience with the Rangatira, which takes place in Tamaki and begins a period of mostly peaceful trade with European and Arab merchants.
1741: Traders bring muskets to Tangatarehua for the first time, to the alarm of Rangatira Te Raki Tawhito. He orders a group of Toa to travel to Europe and bring back Konganuku (metal) and report on western technology. The group become the first Rehuans ever to visit Europe.
1750: Islamic missionaries found the city of Wharekorana on the Awakoi Peninsula of Motumakariri.
1755 - 1771: Tawhito dies with no clear successor, beginning the "Musket Wars", a series of violent and deadly civil wars to determine the next Rangatira.
1771: Empress Atete ki te huri takes direct control of Tangatarehua, ending the Te Raki dynasty and the Musket Wars.
Te Ahunga Period (1779 - 1891)
The Te Ahunga period saw a rapid modernisation of Tangatarehua, including the adoption of a western-style constitution and Parliament. It also saw the country successfully fend off various attempts at invasion and colonisation.
1779: Kaitiaki Te Ahunga Whakamua of Kotiropai is appointed the new Rangatira, who warns the Empress that if Tangatarehua does not modernise its military it faces the imminent threat of European colonisation. Te Ahunga reinstates the feudal system but also creates a national education programme and the first western-style army as well as founding the Imperial Navy of Tangatarehua.
1803: European gunboats arrive at a number of Rehuan harbours, attempting to take the nation by force but are met by a surprisingly well-organised and well-equipped resistance. The Tangatarehua navy, though small, succeeds in sinking the gunboats to the shock and surprise of the Pakeha invaders.
1804: Te Ahunga sails north to the Ikame nga maramara islands, from which the Europeans launched their attack and forces them from the islands, subjecting many to Kaitangata (cannibalism) and incorporating the Ikame nga maramara islands into the Empire of Tangatarehua.
1829: Rangatira Te Ahunga Aringa, the son of Whakamua, conquers the entire island of Motumakariri, subjugating the Yuri people and forcing them to assimilate into Rehuan society or face extermination.
1835: Aringa convinces the Empress to enact a series of western-style constitutional reforms, including a codified constitution and legal system and the creation of the Whare o Mangai (Parliament).
1839: Aringa dies and is succeeded by his son Te Ahunga Karakia, a Christian.
1844: Karakia persuades Empress Korero e te atua to declare Christianity the new state religion, amid growing pressure from both Christians and Muslims for Tangatarehua to abandon its 'pagan' religion.
1863: The Empress attempts to reverse this decision following the death of Te Ahunga Karakia, with Christians questioning the legitimacy of the Empress's claim to the Imperial throne. This prompts a backlash from Rehuan Christians but the Empress persists with support from Parliament, who vote to abolish Christianity as the state religion.
1870: Empress Korero e te atua dies and is replaced by Empress Kaupapa-a-ture who announces that Tangatarehua will become a secular state with freedom of religion and affirms her own commitment to the continuing tradition of Tikanga Wairua. As a show of good faith she appoints Te Ahunga Whakaora, a Christian, as the new Rangatira.
1885: Te Ahunga Whakaora dies. The Empress refuses to appoint his designated successor Kaitiaki Te Ahunga Whananga as the new Rangatira, objecting to his openly stated view that the Empress was guilty of 'heresy' and should be dethroned.
1887: Whananga is declared the new Rangatira by an Act of Parliament and announces a policy of "aggressive Christianisation", destroying and desecrating a number of Tapu (sacred) sites.
1888: Whananga declares himself a "Christian Ariki" and the Empress is forced to go into hiding as he and his supporters attempt overthrow the imperial throne and cement his absolute control over the nation.
Tamaki Period (1889 - 1979)
The Tamaki period remains a controversial period in Rehuan history. While many of the modern institutions were begun in this period, its also a period marked by two wars and significant human rights abuses.
1889-1891: Restoration War. Kaitiaki loyal to the Empress led by Kaitiaki Te Rata Whakahoki of Tamaki lead a campaign against Whananga and are victorious despite Whananga receiving assistance from Europeans. Whananga is executed and eaten and the Empress returned to the throne.
1891: Te Rata Whakahoki officially declared the new Rangatira, beginning the Te Rata dynasty (who remain in power today).
1897 - 1901: Christian Wars. Te Rata is forced to quell a series of rebellions, mostly instigated by Christians and struggles to maintain control of the country.
1917: The Tikanga Wairua Party wins a majority of seats in Parliament, after 20 years of Christian Democratic Party dominance and political stagnation. The party bans Christians from running for Parliament and receives enthusiastic support from both the Rangatira and the Empress.
1920: The Christian Democrats are ejected from Parliament and the Tikanga Wairua Party take absolute control. In protest, Christians burn down a number of Tapu Marae (sacred meeting houses/temples).
1921: With support from Parliament, Rangatira Te Rata Tuhinga o mua officially outlaws Christianity, beginning a series of pogroms, church burnings, extrajudicial deaths and exile that would last until the 1950s.
1943: The ultra-nationalist Tangatarehua Imperialist Party come to power and begin to enact similarly harsh measures on other minorities including Muslims, the Yuri and foreigners.
1953: Rangatira Te Rata Porangi begins expanding across Polynesia in the hope of creating a pan-Polynesian Empire, beginning the Polynesian War.
1957: Porangi withdraws all forces from Polynesia, signs a ceasefire and abdicates in favour of his son Te Rata Pakanga.
1972: Pakanga quells a rebellion by a group for Yuri demanding independence, killing thousands and receiving international condemnation.
1973 - 1979: Tangatarehua comes to the aid of several small Polynesian countries facing western aggression. The nation is soon condemned for war crimes and forced to surrender to a coalition of western powers in 1979.
Post-war Period (1979 - Present)
The post-war period has seen rapid industrialisation as well as improvements in the nation's human rights record.
1980: Te Rata Pakanga executed for war crimes at behest of international community. This becomes the last execution in Tangatarehua. Controversial practices like kaitangata, all extremist political parties and even the right to declare war are banned by decree of the Empress. Te Rata Te Karere becomes the new Rangatira, but his role is now ceremonial.
1982: The Liberal Party sweep to power and begin a series of free-market economic reforms designed to industrialise the country and attract foreign investment. The party also normalise relations with the west.
1995: The current Rangatira, Te Rata te rongomau, comes to power.
2008: The current Empress, Tamahine o te marama, is crowned.
2009: Over 1,000 people killed after Tamaki struck by a major earthquake.
2014: Tangatarehua Financial Crisis plunges nation into economic depression, ending three decades of high economic growth.