The Commonwealth of Syndic Australia
An am fýrin a unsiač, ný Astrālēa adhartas - In Truth and Solidarity, Australia Advances
The Commonwealth of Syndic Australia is divided as a Federation into fourteen states and two territories:
The states of Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, New Zealand, Western Australia, Southern Australia, Tasmania, Capricornia, Riverina, New Anglia, Gambier, Northern Australia, Melanesia, and Fiji.
The territories of the Capital Territory and the Central Australic Territories.
It also disputes the Islands of New Guinea with Indonesia.
These states and territories are apportioned representation in the Federal Parliament. The Federal Parliament is bicameral - it has a lower chamber (the House of Representatives) and an Upper chamber (the Senate). The House of Representatives consists of Communal Representatives and the Senate of Senators. Both are democratically elected, with the House of Representatives reflecting the population and the Senate providing equal representation for states. Members of both typically belong to a Political Party, though some are independent, particularly in the House of Representatives. Both chambers meet at the Federal Parliament in the capital of Canberra.
The Federal Legislature is drawn entirely from the Federal Parliament. The political party or coalition with the majority of seats in the House of Representatives claims the mandate to form the Federal Government and thus will lead the legislative agenda for the term. The governing party or coalition's leader will become the Prime Minister and Head of Government, and the position of Deputy Prime Minister will be granted to either the leader of the next-largest coalition member party or another party member of the Prime Minister's choosing.
The position of Head of State is shared between the State Council. It is drawn from the Senate to the effect that it is constituted from the leaders of coalitions within the senate representing collectively (and sequentially) at least 66% of communes, being comprised of an odd number of (and at least 3) Senators.
Listed here is the current makeup of the Federal Cabinet and State Council.
The Federal Cabinet (Government Executive) is led by the Prime Minister in his capacity as Head of Government. The remainder of the executive is derived from the Federal Syndicates, whose leaders sit as Portfolio Ministers in the Federal Cabinet, and from the Federal Indigenous Advisory Council, who also elect a Portfolio Minister.
Whilst three organs of government are involved in constituting the Federal Government, this does not, therefore, constitute a tricameral (or larger multi-cameral) system, as the Federal Syndicates and their Portfolio Ministers have no direct legislative power as exclusively executive organs/representatives.
Either House of Parliament can initiate legislation, but generally, it sources from the House of Representatives and by extension the Federal Government. The Prime Minister and their party will generally have an election manifesto that grants them a mandate to legislate, with legislation outside of this mandate subject to executive cabinet support. Should exterior legislation not meet a Parliamentary threshold of 66% in favour, the Federal Cabinet may veto it. As such, non-manifesto legislation is generally negotiated with the cabinet. If legislation is vetoed by the cabinet, the State Council may in turn veto the veto as its mandate is supreme. If a piece of legislation's mandate is disputed, the State Council may settle said dispute. Any legislation must pass through both chambers of Parliament; if it fails in its second chamber, or is amended, it returns to its originating chamber and continues until it either fails or is accepted in full by both chambers.
Regulations are created by the Federal Cabinet and are subject to scrutiny by the Parliament and State Council. The State Council will examine proposed regulations for conflicts with existing law. Should the council give a batch of regulations the green light, it will pass through the Parliament for review. Should no objections be noted no vote is necessary; should an objection be voiced by any member the regulation is then subject to regular legislative procedures.
As Australia is a syndicalist state, its executive branch of government is comprised of trade union-like bodies known as Syndicates. Just as their legislative counterparts, the syndicates exist at the local, state, and federal levels of government*. Unlike the legislature, however, the syndicates operate under a soviet (or council) democratic system of membership. All** workers belong to a syndicate at a local level relevant to their occupation, and within their workplace (or equivalent) one worker is elected by their coworkers to be their delegate to their local syndicate and attend the syndic assemblies. This local syndicate works in tandem with the local government in regards to relevant regulations and resources, to ensure that the rights and opinions of experts are weighed in decisions as well as pure public/majority opinion. A delegate may be recalled and replaced by their workplace at any time, unlike a parliamentarian, who has an electoral term.
Just as one delegate is sent to a local syndicate for each local workplace, each local syndicate sends a delegate to the relevant state syndicate, and the same occurs between the state and federal syndicates. The state and federal syndicates are referred to as consolidated, as at these levels the diversity of occupations necessitates the combining of similar occupations into the same syndicates. As such, whilst a train driver and a courier may have their own local syndicates, they share a state and federal level syndicate (the State and Federal Consolidated Syndicates for Transport). These fulfill the same purpose as local syndicates, as well as being where the state and federal government drawn their cabinet ministers from.
In addition to regular delegates, the syndic assemblies of all syndicates will elect various committees and delegates for various issues and appointments. Chief amongst these are the secretariats - the primus inter pares and chairpersons of the syndicates. These are typically the seniormost members and direct the agendas, minutes, and discussions of their assemblies. Akin to normal delegates, the secretariat can be recalled at any time and replaced by an assembly vote.
* This is with the exception of the Federal Consolidated Syndicate for Consulic Affairs, which only exists at the federal level, as Consulic Affairs are a constitutionally reserved power of the federal government.
** Government Ministers, Judges, and their adjunctary staffers do not belong to any syndicates, as to preserve the separation of powers.
Australia's legal system is based on common law; the courts operate under an adversarial system, with the outcomes of court cases creating law known as judicial precedent or case law. The legal system is split between criminal and civil courts - those that deal with breaches of law and those that deal with breaches of social and legal contracts, respectively - and then into three levels - communal, state, and federal courts - as well as the High Court.
Cases are first brought to, or originate in, a court depending on their severity or appellate status. By convention, minor crimes and civil disputes originate in the Communal Court, major crimes and civil disputes in the State Court, and crimes and civil disputes that occur between parties located in different states in the Federal Court. Appeals to rulings in a court will be taken to the next level of court, which will review the case as an appellate court and either affirm the decision of the lower court or overturn it. Australia uses a tripartite verdict system in which, for criminal cases, a judge may find a defendant guilty, not guilty, or not proven. The tertiary verdict does not confer the protection of double jeopardy, whereas the secondary verdict is equivalent to a complete exoneration.
The High Court of Australia functions as the final court of appeal for any case, as well as the originating court for governmental disputes, disputes between the executive and legislature, and disputes regarding the constitution. If any legislation or regulation is found to contradict or contravene the constitution, the High Court can - and will - render such law null and void. Several rare crimes - such as treason - are intended to originate in the High Court, but such an occurrence is rare.
Judges are appointed by the relevant legislature. The Federal Judiciary of Syndic Australia, namely the Federal Court and High Court, consist of Judges and Justices respectively who are appointed to their positions by the Prime Minister from candidates nominated by the State and Territory judiciaries. Once appointed, a Federal Judge or Justice can only be removed from their position, by the Legislature, if they are found to be either incapable or corrupt. Elsewise, they may preside until they retire - which is mandatory for Judges at the age of 70.
All adult Australics, unless incapable or in conscientious objection, may be called for jury duty, including to a Federal level court. The High Court has no jury, though should it affirm the results of an appellate case it will generally also uphold the jury's decisions. At the Federal level, juries must represent every state; as such the chosen jurists are provided accommodation and compensation. The right to be judged by one's peers is held sacrosanct, and the jury has the right to give a perverse verdict - to declare a defendant not guilty (or give an otherwise illogical verdict in a civil case) as a protest to an unjust law. As the jury is intended to represent society at large, and laws are supposed to represent the values of society at large, such an act is considered to be in the interest of a just society.
To live in Australia for more than six months - let alone vote or seek political candidacy - one must first obtain citizenship, with the exception of tenure residency for international students, trainees, and apprentices, and unlimited residency for spouses. A prospective immigrant will generally complete the citizenship test and process at an Australic consulate before travelling to Australia, or at their place of local governance if under exception. As such, birth on Australic soil does not necessarily beget citizenship; at least one parent must be a citizen-resident. Children of new citizens, or children adopted from overseas, do automatically gain citizenship. Refugees and those applying for asylum are provisionally allowed residence in territories whilst they complete their citizenship process. Prospective citizens may not own businesses or land outside of Australia nor may a current citizen open a business or purchase land outside of Australia, with precious few exceptions - doing so whilst out of the country counts as a renouncement of citizenship. Apart from this, there are few prohibitions for citizenship; criminal convictions may impact depending on the crime/s and sanction/s involved, with emphasis on violent, financial, and hate-related crimes.
Voting in Federal elections is mandatory for all adult and capable citizens - thus all adult and capable residents. One can abstain on the grounds of conscientious objection, bit it is much easier to simply post a blank or invalid ballot, often referred to as a 'donkey vote'. Voting is done via secret ballot either in person, at a polling centre where one can be checked against the electoral roll, or via mail, also checked against the electoral roll.
The 12 states and 3 Territories are divided into 356 Federal communes of roughly equal population (approx. 100,000 ▒12,500) which serve as the electorates for the Federal House of Representatives. Members for this chamber of Parliament are elected utilising a single-member preferential system. That is to say, every voter numbers the candidates running in their electorate based on their preference. The candidate with the least number of first preference votes is discarded and their second preference votes distributed, until there are two candidates - the one with the majority wins.
For the Senate, each state elects 12 senators, and each territory 4. New Guinea is apportioned 2, for a total of 178. Voting for the Senate utilises a preferential proportional system. As such, there is a certain threshold of votes required to win a single seat (dependant on state population). The least popular candidate is discarded much the same as the previous voting method, until there are enough candidates above the threshold to fill each seat.
At each triennial Federal election, every seat in the House of Representatives is up for election, and half of the seats in the Senate (as a Senator's term is twice that of a Minister, at 6 years).
New Guinea, apart from its two Senate seats, has no representation in Federal Parliament. This is due to both the electoral difficulties presented by New Guinea's geography and sheer cultural diversity, and more prominently its position as a disputed territory in a cold war with Indonesia - and by extension the American Bloc. In compensation, New Guinea is granted extensive autonomy. Should New Guinea become a single state, pursuant to the end of decades of conflict, it would bring with it a population of approx. 4-6 million, 9 more senate seats, and thus 18 more communes.
Voting for the Federal Syndicates is open only to those within the relevant State and Territory Syndicates. Voting is very similar to the Senate, with each State Syndicate having 5 seats in their Federal Syndicate and each Territory Syndicate 3. New Guinea receives full state representation in the Syndicates with 5 seats.
Information derrived from the Federal Parliament of Australia et al ℅ the Australic Syndicated Intranet, last updated on June 29░, 2024