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Soracana Islands Factbook

Soracana Islands
The Kingdom of Soracana Islands
Rajyamara ing Jili Soracana (Kacara)

Flag

(Greater) Coat of Arms
Motto: 'Rua Binda' (Kacara)
'Two Different Sides' (English)
Anthem: 'Kindung Sora na Cana' (Kacara)
'Song of The Sun and Moon'
Capital: Gato Uyuri
Largest City: Nilayam
Official Language: Kacara, English
Demonym: Soracanian
Government: Federal Parliamentary
Constitutional Monarchy
- Monarch: King Karsiyuha
- Co-Regent: Basubala Anggarjahia
Aksabani Halangpatak
Legislature: Sarbuka Arsad
(Supreme Council)
Establishment
- Tiranca Kingdom: ca. 1166
- Split : ca. 1534
- Soracana Islands Establish: ca. 1684
- British Protectorate: 1 January 1868
- Independence: 1 January 1960
Land Area
Total : 20,697 km2
Water (%): negligible
Population
- 2017 Estimate: 6,548,205
- 2010 Census: 6,119,818
- Density: 295.69/km2
GDP (nominal)
Total: NSD 128.6 billion (2017 estimate)
Per Capita: NSD 19,645.02
HDI (NS Version): 52,19 (2017)
Currency: JSD
(Soracana Islands Dollar)
Time Zone: EMAT (UTC +9)
Driving Side: Left
Calling code: +628
Country code: JS
Internet TLD: .js
Soracana Islands or officially The Kingdom of Soracana Islands (Kacara: Rajyamara ing Jili Soracana) is an islands country located in Southeast Ocean of Melayu Archipelago. It does not have land border with any nations in the region. But it has maritime border (clockwise from north) with Klate, Kutai darul iman, Hindu Raj, Mitra and soma, Eraman and Singgahmata. Its capital is Gato Uyuri while Nilayam is the largest city. Other notable city including Ruacalu, Halangnehu, Bankaya and Pasahiranta.

Historically, the archipelago is believe to be inhabited as early as 800 BC. The inhabitants were believe to reach the archipelago from Urawan Island and Klate Island. Inhabitant from Urawan were believe to settle the western part of archipelago which known as Yuhansanian. While the eastern part of the archipelago were settled by inhabitants from Klate Island. These peoples then known as Aksarancanian. These resulted in a diverse peoples in the archipelago. And with these diversity, they construct their own language, Kacara. Kacara language adopted some words from its neighboring language (which use in Urawan and Klate Islands) although it has its own constructed words also. Although Kacara has been use from early on, the writing system of Kacara was just introduce around 400 AD.

The first civilized kingdom emerge in mid 12th century centered in Tiranca Hill Range, Yuhansa Island before it spread throughout the archipelago. The named is Tiranca. As a naval kingdom, Tiranca Kingdom engage in trading with its neighboring nations. Nilayam become its west port while Gato Uyuri is the east port and become an important port to connect to Aksaranca Islands Group. The capital is Bankaya, on the foothill of Kaya Hill the second highest hill in Yuhansa Island. During the expansion era, King Jamrakarsi III moved the capital of the kingdom from Bankaya to Nilayam.

Dispute over succession during the reign of King Karsiaksa VI resulted in Civil War which ended by the split of the kingdom. Yuhansa Kingdom in the west with Nilayam as its capital and King Karsibasu was the first king. Aksaranca Kingdom in the east with Ruacalu as its capital and King Karsiagi was the king. Although it already split, war was still continue between the two nation. Eventually, after nearly a century of Dark Period, both kingdom was unite again under the reign of King Karsibasu which defeated Karsiagi and take over Ruacalu, the capital of Aksaranca Kingdom. King Karsibasu then change the name of the kingdom into Soracana Islands and entitled as High King (Hawirajya).

Soracana Islands is a developing country which heavily depended on tourism as its main economic drive. The government has continue to push to diversified its economy. It joined World Assembly in 2018 and pursue an international trade and cooperation.

Contents

1. Etymology
2. History
2.1 Early History
2.2 Tiranca Kingdom
2.3 Soracana Islands Establish
2.4 Western Contact
2.5 Protectorate
2.6 Independence
2.7 Modern Days
3. Geography
3.1 Climate
3.2 Urbanization
3.3 Flora and Fauna
4. Politics
4.1 Administrative Division
4.2 Military
4.3 Foreign Relations
5. Economy
5.1 Transport
5.2 Tourism
5.3 Agriculture and Fishery
5.4 Currency
6. Demographic
6.1 Language
6.2 Religion
6.3 Education
6.4 Healthcare
7. Culture
7.1 Art and Architecture
7.2 Music and Literature
7.3 Media
7.4 Cuisine
7.5 Sports

Etymology
The name of Soracana comes from native language Kacara. It is coming from 2 different words, 'Sora' and 'Cana' which means Sun and Moon. It is believe that the name is taken from the folk religion that worshiped by the majority of Soracanian.

The named Soracana was first mention in Karsi Chronicle (the complete history of Jamrakarsi Dynasty, Soracanian Royal Family). It was mention that the new kingdom will be named Soracana to honor the unification of both kingdoms, Yuhansa and Aksaranca. The earlier kingdom that predate Soracana Islands was Tiranca. The name itself literally means "Three Peaks". Although the naming of the Kingdom was coincided with the kingdom central power which located in Tiranca Hill Range. Nilam Kingdom was also sometimes called Aksamara Kingdom , referring to its first King, Aksabala. Aksamara was believes to have a meaning of "Aksa Land".

During the Dark Period, 2 kingdoms arise, Yuhansa and Aksaranca Kingdom. Yuhansa controlled the western islands group and Aksaranca controlled the eastern islands group. The name Yuhansa is coincidence with the name of the largest island and main domain of the kingdom. Yuhansa derive from Kacara word Yuha and Bansa which literally means Water Nation or Water Clan. The name refers to the main occupation of its citizens which are fishermen. While Aksaranca is derive from Kacara word Aksa and Ranca which means Sky Hill. The name refers to Aksa Hill which located in Aksaranca Island and also the most sacred place in Aksaranca.

History


Early History

The archipelago is believe to be inhabited in two stages. The first stage occur around 800 BC where early settler coming from the west and settling in Yuhansa Island. They mostly build small village around Nilam Bay to the Tiranca Hill Range. The second stage occur around 600 BC. These settlers were coming from the north and they settling in Aksaranca Island. Most of them established their villages around Aksa Hill.

There were basic differences between these two settlers. Yuhansanian is known as fisherman which most of them worship Goddess Canaki, the Goddess of Moon. They mostly build their village near the shoreline or at the river mouth. Only few villages that were build further inland. Aside from fishery, they were ship building expert. Inland villagers were farmers which produce rice, cassava and sweet potato for their staples food. These findings were based on trace of ancient irrigation system on Tiranca Hill Range in the center of Yuhansa Islands. Yuhansanian peoples spread their influence to the south and settling Nehu, Patak and Kajang Island together with nearby islet. The eastern reach of Yuhansanian peoples is Pakel Island, just east of Yuhansa Island. Pakel Island as the others island in the group (sometimes called as Central Group) were regard as the meeting point of Yuhansanian and Aksarancanian.

On the other hand, Aksarancanian is known as farmer which most of them worship God Soraba, God of Sun. They build their villages around the hill. There were also evidence of ancient irrigation system around Aksa Hill (notably in Banaksa and Aksamara municipality today). Although Aksarancanian were a true farmer but they successfully spreading to the nearest islands, including Jading, Gadak and Padan Island and several island in the Central Group. Aksarancanian who live in coastal area are known as salt farmers. The western reach of Aksarancanian is Ranta Island (part of Jili Dusi municipality today).

From early age, both culture had exchanged their knowledge, goods, and faith. The existence of Soraba Temple in Maranar and Bankaya (both in Yuhansa Island) and Canaki Temple in Calukanta and Ambargato (both part of Aksarancanian influence) solidified these thought. Scattered villages and remote tribal were found everywhere in the archipelago during prehistoric period.

Tiranca Kingdom
Main Article: Tiranca Kingdom

According to Bankaya Inscription dated 753 Soca Calendar (ca. 1166 M) and backed by Karsi Chronicles, Yuhansa Island was crowned its first king, named Aksabala from House of Jamrakarsi. The kingdom itself was named Tiranca Kingdom. This kingdom main domain were around the Tiranca Hill Range in Yuhansa Island before it spread much further. The peoples of Tiranca mostly worship Goddess Canaki with minority of them worship God Soraba. The capital was located in Bankaya in the foothill of Kaya Hill. King Jamrakarsi III, Aksabala grandson, was the one who initiated the conquest beyond the Tiranca Hill Range. He successfully conquered the whole Yuhansa Island.

His successor continued the conquest and took Nehu and Patak Island as its new domain. Their first contact with Aksarancanian occur during the reign of Jamrakarsi IV. At first it was mutual. They engage in trade and migration. Aksarancanian also being influenced with monarchical government system. But during the reign of King Jamrakarsi V, the idea of conquering the Aksarancanian become imminent. The first clash was Jili Dusi War in 1262 M. It then continued with several other wars until all the eastern group islands finally conquered in 1282 M. King Jamrakarsi V died shortly in 1284 after all of his conquest. After being conquered, several uprising occur in the east, notably Ruacalu Uprising (1302 M), Bahuakapit Uprising (1311 M) and Pasahiranta Uprising (1321 M). To suppress the Uprising, King Jamrakarsi VII decided to change its government. Aksarancanian was accepted in the King's Court and one of the two adviser of the King was picked from Aksarancanian.

When Tiranca was lead by King Karsiaksa VI, its reach its golden age. The economy was prosperous and cooperation between west and east was maintain highly. Military were a little bit strengthen although still consider to be minimal. Tiranca also developed trade with its neighbors. Textile, salt and fish become its main export. But the fact that the king was unmarried become highly debated by many elders. Prince Agibani as King Karsiaksa older cousin was seen as the suitable successor. And after King Karsiaksa VI died in 1533, Prince Agibani was crowned with title King Karsibasu. The coronation was criticized by Prince Jandiyuha, the younger cousin of the late King Karsiaksa VI.

The rivalry and opposition between them had drag the kingdom into a civil war (1534). Prince Jandiyuha able to take control Aksaranca Islands Group and finally established his own kingdom there. He crowned himself as King Karsiagi and the new kingdom was named Aksaranca. Enraged, King Karsibasu staging a war to Ruacalu, the capital of Aksaranca Kingdom. Both parties severe a heavy loss. A treaty was signed between King Karsibasu and King Karsiagi in Gato Uyuri which stated the split of Tiranca Kingdom and the establishment of a wholly sovereign Aksaranca and Tiranca Kingdom. King Karsibasu then change the name of Tiranca Kingdom into Yuhansa Kingdom to noted a new era of the kingdom.

Soracana Islands Establish

The archipelago remain separate for around a century. The relationship between Yuhansa and Aksaranca were bitter sweet. Sometimes the relationship were very good and sometimes its taking the lower end. Border dispute had been the main issue between both kingdoms. Other issues were tariff, immigration and economy.

For most of the time, Yuhansa continued to be the upper hand of both kingdoms in economy and military. These situation feared Aksaranca. The first clashed occur in 1567 where Aksaranca lost their territory in central islands group. The second war (1609), Aksaranca had to give Jading Island to Yuhansa after they lost in the war. In 1637, Aksaranca again had to lost its area after Padan Island and Gadak Island were given to Yuhansa.

In 1648, King Karsiagi V of Aksaranca signed a peace treaty with King Karsibala I of Yuhansa. The treaty will prevent Yuhansa to wage another war. The treaty however was viewed negatively by the Aksarancanian. The Aksaranca peoples saw the treaty as a sign of weakness of their king and they didn't favor it. The peoples also feels that Yuhansa had control their nation economically. Aksaranca Kingdom has to pay tribute to Yuhansa based on the treaty.

Uprising occur in Pasahiranta and Ruacalu, two largest cities in Aksaranca. The background was about the unfavorable king which drag them into the treaty. King Karsiagi V asked for Yuhansa assistant following the uprising. And the uprising were able to dismissed. During the reign of King Karsiagi VI, another fear came as the king was childless. His brother, Prince Basubani was the next in line to Aksaranca throne. But the peoples didn't see any competence in Prince Basubani. In fact, Prince Basubani was heavily lean towards Yuhansanian.

After Prince Basubani was crowned in 1679, he relax the immigration and many Yuhansanian able to enter the kingdom freely. The action made uproar in the capital city, Ruacalu. A large demonstration happened in the capital and blockade the Aksagi Palace. King Karsibala III of Yuhansa tried to help by sending Yuhansa Navy to blockade Ruacalu Port. The demonstration went on for days and weeks which devastated the kingdom economy and government. King Karsiagi VII (Prince Basubani title) don't want to use military on his peoples and demand the Yuhansa Navy to stand down and not come near the beach. But when the demonstration went violent, Chief Military of Aksaranca asked the King to use the armed forces much to the King reluctant. King Karsiagi VII demand to talked with his peoples.

King Karsiagi VII came down to the Aksagi Park, where all the demonstration concentrated. And when he deliver his speech to calm down the masses, an arrow shot his chest. The situation went chaotic and soon became violent as the military tracked down the shooter. When the situation uncontrollable, Yuhansa Navy made a land fall at Ruacalu Port and begin to siege the city. It was this chaos that made Yuhansa has a reason to take over all of Aksaranca. It didn't take long that Aksaranca was totally under Yuhansa power. King Karsiagi VII was then forced to surrender and immediately announce their submission into Yuhansa Kingdom. With his worsen condition, the King reluctantly agreed. And Aksaranca officially surrender to Yuhansa Kingdom in early 1683. King Karsiagi VII eventually died in June 1684 from complication of his wound.

The union of two kingdoms was officially established in 1684 when King Karsibala III of Yuhansa crowned himself with the title King Karsibala I of Soracana Islands. However, descendants of King Karsiagi VII of Aksaranca continues to claimed their sovereignty over Aksaranca domain and become the pretender to Aksaranca crown.

Some Aksarancanian still didn't accept the take over and uprising were staging several times in Ruacalu and Pasahiranta respectively. To suppress the uprising and prevent it to ever happened again, King Karsibala II of Soracana Islands decided to moved the capital. He viewed Bankaya as the capital was to west and it would be unbalance for their eastern part. The King select Gato Uyuri as the suitable place because the city is facing the eastern islands group even though it is still in Yuhansa Island. The city was traditionally the eastern port of Yuhansa Kingdom which connect the kingdom with Aksaranca.

Western Contact

It was believe that the Portuguese and Dutch were the first western nation to spot Soracana archipelago although no real documents ever mention about the possibility. The first documented western nation to set foot in the archipelago is the British. They landed in Calu Humang, a small port city in western part of Yuhansa Island. The meeting of foreign nation was quite surprising and the natives seems to be cautious because of their skin difference and also their mannerism.

The British then send their representatives to made official contact with King of Soracana Islands. The King welcomed the British representatives and treat them well. An official cooperation was made. British was given a shipping rights and trade rights with Soracana Islands. The King Advisory continue to place suspicion over the hidden agenda that the representative might had although the King dismissed such accusations. Contacts with British open a larger connections that Soracana have had before.

Protectorate States

From trading with British, Soracana had a surge increase in their economy. Spices, textile and pearls become their highly valuable trade commodities. To actively support their trade, The British representatives asked for the establishment of British Trading Post in the archipelago. Seeing that such establishment could initially increase their income, the King agreed immediately. The situation was slowly made Soracana Islands depend on British for their trade and foreign affairs. The King went further by asking the British representative into his court and even made them one of the King Advisory much to the others rage.

Aside from economy, Soracana Islands also depend on British military for their defense. The King enjoyed large navy that harbored at Nilayam Port and Ruacalu Port, two of the most important port in the country. The British even went further by asking the establishment of British Navy Based in Soracana Islands.

As Soracana Islands more and more depended on British in every aspect, it was easier for the British representative to enter the nation diplomatically. And the King also viewed that the country wouldn't be survive without their British friend. On 13 December 1867, The King of Soracana Islands and British Representative signed Treaty of Calugida which officially made Soracana Islands a protected states of British Empire. The treaty went into effect on January 1st 1868.

Independence

Soracana Islands enjoyed economic boom and military protection under their protected status while still enjoyed their freedom domestically. The country also still able to trade freely although with some strict guidelines from the British. But when the British involved in World Wars the situation change drastically.

Although the country didn't affected much by the World Wars but they were very much affected economically. World recession that happened after World War I crippled Soracana's economy as trade was dwindled. The situation worsen by armed race and the coming of World War II. When the British was defeated in South East Asia, it was affected negatively to their image in Soracana Islands.

When the World War ended in 1945, Soracanian mostly the younger generation urge the government to end the relationship with British. Demonstration happened across the country and some went violent. To answer the peoples demand, Soracana Government sent a representatives to held a meeting with the British. Several meeting was held both in London and Gato Uyuri for the independence moved.

In 1957, the British closed its naval based in Soracana as their first moved for giving independence although some of their navy still station in Soracana for defense purpose. The British also relaxed the international presence of Soracana Islands gradually. Soracana Islands could sent their representative to international institution and not being represented by British government.

With the decree signed by Queen Elizabeth II, British government officially give independence to Soracana Islands dating January 1st 1960. The peoples of Soracana overjoyed with the announcement and went to the streets to celebrated the moment. The Government of Soracana Islands begins to control their domestic and foreign affairs. The first parliamentary election was then held in late 1963. The first members of Sarbuka Arsad (Soracana Islands Supreme Council) was sworn in January 1964.

Modern Days

After the independence, Soracana Islands begin to engage in international stage. It established trade relationship with neighboring countries such as, Eraman, Singgahmata and Mitra and Soma. The nations still dependent on imports for their food commodities. The tourism boom in 1980's catapult their economy after heavy recession hit the nation. These situation resulted in dependent over tourism. Nowadays, the government has tried to diversified its economy and revitalize other sectors such as fishing, pearl farming, cotton plantation and textile industry.

Although Soracana Islands constitution stated that the kingdom is a unitary, political situation after the independence has shift this situation. Both region had asked greater power to control their own territory and limited the central government just around the capital. A compromised was made in 1980's with the constitution amendment which changes the kingdom's government from unitary into federal. Administrative restructuring were made with the creation of 3 regions and 8 provinces.

Geography


Soracana Islands is an archipelago which located in Southeastern Ocean of Melayu Archipelago. It can be divided into 2 groups, The Yuhansa (West) and The Aksaranca (East). The Yuhansa Islands Group is larger both in area and population than The Aksaranca Islands Group. The largest island is Yuhansa Island (9,731 km2). Although Yuhansa Island is the largest but Aksaranca Island is the highest. Aksa Hill which located in Aksaranca Island is the highest point in Soracana Islands with 453 m above sea level.

The archipelago is located in the Southeast Plate. The plate is one of the minor tectonic plate in Melayu Archipelago which include several nations such as Lumut, Klate, Kutai Darul Iman, Hindu Raj, Mitra and Soma, Eraman and Singgahmata. The islands in Soracana Islands is believe to emerge as the result of constant crush between Southeast Plate and Joshenia Plate to its north. All the hills in the country are dormant volcano, Aksa Hill in Aksaranca Island and Anar, Kaya and Kasi Hill all in Yuhansa Island known as Tiranca Hill Range.

Climate
Soracana Islands has a Tropical rainforest climate (Koppen climate classification Af), with no significant changes between wet and dry season. Although physically there are no dry season, but a range of months with fewer rainy days is consider dry by Soracanian. The coastal area is hotter and wetter than the higher ground. October-March is the wettest months with high rainfall while April-September is consider drier although rainfall still may occur.

The average yearly temperature is around 27o - 28oC during the day and around 21o - 22oC during the night. Coldest month is usually occur in January when the rainfall could reach more than 900 mm throughout the month. While the driest month usually happens on July with rainfall just around 70 mm throughout the month. Large fluctuation in temperature are rare.

The annual average relative humidity is high, averaging 78%, ranging from 68% in July to 82% in January. Soracana Islands position that surrounded by ocean makes it experience high wind velocity. The nation also prone to tropical cyclone although its rarely crossing it. Sunshine duration hours total around 2,700 per year from an average 5 hours of sunshine duration in January to 10 hours in July.

Urbanization

Flora and Fauna

Politics


Soracana Islands is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The system of government is a mixed of parliamentary system with Soracanian traditional system. The King still have an active role although in limited term. He still have veto power over legislation enacted by the parliament and still become the commander-in-chief of Soracana Islands Armed Forces.

Legislative power is vested by both the government and parliament. The unicameral legislature of Soracana Islands is known as Sarbuka Arsad (The Supreme Council). The 100 members of Supreme Council is elected by proportional representative systems. Currently, the Council is lead by Kayam Mardika Party which gained the largest seat after 2017 General Election. Voting is voluntary. Soracana Islands has been maintain a relatively high voters turnout for its election which stood around 70%. Most of the political parties in Soracana Islands are region based where there are Yuhansanian based party and Aksaranacanian based political party. Independent or Non-affiliated has never been barred from candidacy. The voting age has been lowered to 17 years from early 1980's. Universal suffrage has been enacted from the first election in 1965.

Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led jointly by Co-Regent. The Co-Regent system is chose to resemble the Co-Adviser of the King during the absolutism period. They are elected from the member of Supreme Council, usually the leader of two largest parties or party coalition in the parliament. The Co-Regent are jointly lead the Cabinet and govern the nation. The Co-Regent is the Head of Cabinet and also Head of Government. This situation makes Soracana doesn't have a different between government and opposition because all parties are joint together to govern the nation.

Soracana Islands's legal system is based on hybrid law, where both Common Law and Traditional Law are implemented. The judiciary is independent from both executive and legislative. Judges appointment is the responsibility of Soracana Islands Justice Assembly, an independent assembly which consist of judges and lawyers from all over the nation. The highest court in judicial system is the Supreme Court, followed by Regional Court of Appeal, Provincial Court and lastly the Municipal Court. Aside from these court system, there are also special court that present in the nation. Notably, constitution court of justice and military court of disciplinary.

Administrative Division
Kingdom of Soracana Islands is divided into 3 regions, Aksaranca, Yuhansa and Uyuri Capital Region. Aksaranca and Yuhansa are divided into 4 provinces each, 8 in total. While Uyuri Capital Region is not divided into province nor a part of any province. The provinces are divided into municipality totaling 88, including 4 municipalities in Uyuri Capital Region.

Division

Area (km2)

Population

Density

Capital

Type

Aksa

2,636

511,142

193.91

Pasahiranta

Province

Gadak-Padan

2,511

500,058

199,15

Calukanta

Province

Gato

1,570

750,523

478.04

Ruacalu

Province

Jading

2,228

497,811

223.43

Bahuakapit

Province

Aksaranca

8,945

2,259,534

252.60

Ruacalu

Region

Anar

3,102

1,166,295

375.98

Maranar

Province

Kasi

2,768

813,810

294.01

Kasiranca

Province

Luntara

3,259

898,222

275.61

Calu Humang

Province

Nehu Islands

1,983

595,721

300.41

Halangnehu

Province

Yuhansa

11,112

3,474,048

312.64

Nilayam

Region

Uyuri

640

386,236

603.49

Gato Uyuri

Region

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