Ser Di Haruk is home to some of the early civilizations of Rhydin, including the Daket and the Aruka. In the 9th century, the Aruka of the Kingdom of Dang entered the upper Tyron valley and, following the establishment of the Andari Empire in the 1050s, the Aruka language and culture slowly became dominant in the country.
During this period, the arrival of Rhydinian missionaries with their belief of Tyng Sudran gradually became the predominant religion of the country. The Andari Empire fell due to the Haru-Daket invasions (1277–1301), and several warring states emerged. In the second half of the 16th century, the country was reunified by the Tae Dynasty which for a brief period was the largest empire in the history of Southeast Rhydin.
The early 19th century Ji Dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Ser Di Haruk as well as the now nations of Canini and The BYD Corporate State. Since independence in 1948, the country has been in one of the longest running civil wars among the country's myriad ethnic groups that remains unresolved. From 1962 to 2011, the country was under military rule. The military junta was officially dissolved in 2011 following a general election in 2010 and a nominally civilian government installed, though the military retains enormous influence.
Imperial Dynasties and the Aruka
The Jae Dynasty gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when the General Dae Aruka founded the Aruka Empire, the first ever unification of the Tyron valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Aruka Empire and the Rhydin City State were the two main powers in mainland Southeast Rhydin.
The Aruka dialect and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Tyron valley, eclipsing the local tribal norms by the late 12th century. From the arrival of Rhydinian missionaries, the Tyng Sudran faith slowly began to spread to the village level although animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Aruka's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Tyng Sudran temples in the Aruka capital zone alone. Repeated Haru-Daket invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287.
Aruka's collapse was followed by 250 years of political fragmentation that lasted well into the 16th century. Like the Rhydinian missionaries four centuries earlier, migrants who arrived with the Haru-Daket invasions stayed behind. Several competing warring states came to dominate the entire northwestern to eastern arc surrounding the Tyron valley. The valley too was beset with petty states until the late 14th century when two sizable powers, Jae Kingdom and Dion Kingdom, emerged. In the west, a politically fragmented Haruk was under competing influences of its stronger neighbors until the Kingdom of Dion unified the Haruk coastline for the first time in 1437.
Early on, Jae fought wars of unification (1385–1424) but could never quite reassemble the lost empire. Having held off Jae, Dion entered its golden age, and Haruk went on to become a power in its own right for the next 350 years. In contrast, constant warfare left Jae greatly weakened, and it slowly disintegrated from 1481 onward. In 1527, the Confederation of Haruk States conquered Jae itself, and ruled Upper Tyr until 1555.
Like the Pagan Empire, Jae, Dion and the Haruk states were all multi-ethnic polities. Despite the wars, cultural synchronization continued. This period is considered a golden age for Haruk culture. Haruk literature "grew more confident, popular, and stylistically diverse", and the second generation of Haruk law codes as well as the earliest pan-Haruk chronicles emerged. Dion monarchs introduced religious reforms that later spread to the rest of the country. Many splendid temples of Dion were built during this period.
Political unification returned in the mid-16th century, due to the efforts of one tiny colonial holding of the former vassal state of Jae. The colonial holding of Seri had a young, ambitious king by name of Ti Hisan. Of whom defeated the more powerful Dion Kingdom in 1541. His successor Ti Navan went on to conquer a vast swath of mainland Southeast Rhydin including the Haruk states, and most of southern Haruk. However, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Rhydin unravelled soon after Ti Navan's death in 1581, completely collapsing by 1599. Haruk seized Seri, and Haruspex mercenaries established Haru-Daket rule at another colonial holding of the former Jae Kingdom, a small city-state called Dikon.
The dynasty regrouped and defeated the Haruspex in 1613 and Dikon's garrison forces in 1614. It restored a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Tyron, Upper Tyron, Haruka colonial holdings, and upper Seri. The Restored Seri kings created a legal and political framework whose basic features would continue well into the 19th century. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of tribal chiefs. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years. From the 1720s onward, the kingdom was beset with repeated Haru-Daket raids into Upper Haruka, and a nagging rebellion in Dikon. In 1740, the Mon of Lower Haruka founded the Restored Dion Kingdom. Dion forces sacked Seri in 1752, ending the 266-year-old Ti Dynasty.
Aftermath and Colonialism
After the fall of Jae, one resistance group, the Yren Dynasty defeated Restored Dion, and by 1759, had reunited all of Ser Di Haruk (Haruka) (and Dikon), and driven out the Rhydinian missionaries and the Haruspex who had provided arms to Dion. By 1770, Yren's heirs had subdued much of remaining colonial hold outs (1765), defeated the remaining Haruka families (1767), and defeated four invasions by Haru-Daket raiders (1765–1769). Faced with a powerful Haruspex and a resurgent Rhydin City State in the east, King Vin Yren turned west, acquiring vast tracts of territory and becoming the largest kingdom in Ser Di Haruk's history but also one with a long ill-defined border with it's neighbors.
The breadth of this empire was short lived. Yren lost Dikon, Seri, and Lower Haruka to the Haruspex in the First Haru-Yren War (1824–1826). In 1852, the Haruspex easily seized Lower Haruka in the Second Haru-Yren War. King Dio tried to modernize the kingdom, and in 1875 narrowly avoided annexation by ceding the city state of Dikon. The Haruspex, alarmed by the consolidation of Rhydin-Canini-Xukuth, annexed the remainder of the country in the Third Haru-Yren War in 1885.
Haruka kings extended Restored Seri's administrative reforms, and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion. For the first time in history, the Haruka language and culture came to predominate the entire Tyron valley. The evolution and growth of Haruka literature and theater continued, aided by an extremely high adult male literacy rate for the era (half of all males and 5% of females). Nonetheless, the extent and pace of reforms were uneven and ultimately proved insufficient to stem the advance of Haruspex colonialism.