by Max Barry

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San Carlos Islands

San Carlos Islands
Сан-Карлос Острова (Russian)


Coat of Arms

"The Last Frontier"
"Последний Рубеж" (Russian)

Commonwealth of the San Carlos Islands



Largest City

Saint Petersburg

Official languages

English, Russian

Recognized minority languages

Belarusian, Bulgarian,
Croatian, Czech, Estonian,
Haida, Hungarian, Latvian,
Lithuanian, Polish, Serbian,
Slovak, Slovene, Romanian,
Tlingit, Tsimshian,
Volga German, Ukrainian

Religion (2019)

82.8% Christianity
17.0% Non-religious
.1% Indigenous religions
<.1% Other


San Carlos Islander


Federal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy

• Monarch

Maria Vladimirovna

• Governor General

Andrey Pavlov

• Prime Minister

Elena Kuznetsova

• Chief Justice

Alexey Vasilev


Legislative Assembly

• Upper House

State Duma

• Lower House

State Council

Portland Consensus (US)

28 June 1932

• Alexander Archipelago
transferred to Russian
Monarchy in exile

• New Russia

Victoria Consensus (CAN)

10 December 1940

• North Coast Islands,
Queen Charlotte Islands,
and Northern Vancouver
Island transferred to
New Russia

San Carlos Act

28 June 1941

• San Carlos recognized
as Commonwealth under
Russian Monarchy


• 2019 Estimate


GDP (nominal)

2019 estimate

• Total

$711 Billion (19th)

• Per capita

$83,444 (2nd)

Gini (2019)

low · 18th

HDI (2019)

very high · 2nd


San Carlos Ruble (SC₽)

Time Zone


Date format

Driving side


Calling code


Internet TLD


The San Carlos Islands (Russian: Сан-Карлос Острова, tr. San-Karlos Ostrova), officially the Commonwealth of the San Carlos Islands is a sovereign country comprising the Alexander Archipelago, Queen Charlotte Islands, North Coast Islands, Northern Vancouver Island, and and numerous other smaller islands and island chains. The neighboring countries are the United States to the north-east and Canada to the south-east. The population of roughly 8.5 million is highly urbanized. The capital of the San Carlos Islands is Ketchikan, and its largest city is Saint Petersburg. The country's other major metropolitan areas are San Carlos City, New Archangel, Charlotte, and Port Swansea.

Indigenous San Carlos Islanders inhabited the islands for thousands years prior to European discovery with the arrival of Russian explorers in the mid 18th century. In 1778, the San Carlos Islands' southern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled by fur-traders and gold prospectors. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades and by the late 1860s, most of the islands had been explored and found control control of the Russian islands transferred to the United States and the British islands to the Dominion of Canada. On 28 June 1932 after the Portland Consensus, Russian Emperor in exile Kirill Vladimirovich purchased the Alexander Archipelago from the United States for $100,000,000, establishing it as the recognized successor to the then defeated Russian Empire. On 10 December 1940, Emperor in exile Vladimir Kirillovich, Kirill's successor, negotiated with the Canadians to to come to the Victoria Consensus where the Queen Charlotte Islands, North Coast Islands, and North Vancouver Island would be purchased on behalf of the growing population of Russian exiles from the Soviet Union. On 4 February 1941, the San Carlos Act was approved by Vladimir Kirillovich federating it's states and territories and recognizing the islands as a Commonwealth with under the Crown. The San Carlos Islands has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising seven states and one territory.

The San Carlos Islands is a highly developed country, with the world's 20th-largest economy, generating its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, and manufacturing. It has a high-income economy, with the world's second-highest per capita income. It is a regional power and has the world's 18th-highest military expenditure. The San Carlos Islands has the second-highest human development index and the fourth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. The San Carlos Islands is a member of the United Nations, G20, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Pacific Islands Forum.



The name San Carlos Islands derived from the name of the Spanish Packet Boat the San Carlos, which under the orders of Viceroy Antonio de Bucareli and command of Captain Juan de Ayala in the 1770s was one of the first European ships to sail the waters of the modern day San Carlos Islands.

Colloquial names for San Carlos Islands include "the Final Frontier", "the Commonwealth", and "Little Russia".


Pre-colonial history

Aboriginal totem poles in

Human habitation of the San Carlos Islands is known to have begun at least 17,000 years ago, with the arrival of the Haida people in the present-day state of Queensland. Indigenous San Carlos Islanders have established an intimate connection with the islands' lands and oceans through their spiritual beliefs. Canadian Museum of Civilization anthropologist Diamond Jenness has compared Indigenous San Carlos Islanders to Vikings.

At the time of European contact they had already established established highly structured societies, and constructed many villages. Indigenous San Carlos Islanders have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a matrilineal kinship system, with a societal structure based on a clan system, properly referred to as a moiety. Indigenous San Carlos Islanders are known for their craftsmanship, trading skills, and seamanship. They are thought to have been warlike and to have practiced slavery.

European Colonization

Portrait of Baranov, the
first European to establish
a settlement in the San
Carlos Islands in 1799

The first recorded European sighting of the San Carlos Islands, and the first recorded European landfall on the Islands (in 1799), are attributed to the Russians. The first ship and crew to chart the San Carlos Islands coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Sv. Pavel captained by Russian navigator, Alexei Chirikov. He sighted the west side of New Wales Island in July of 1741, He sent a group of men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to land on the northwestern coast of North America. In 1774, Spanish explorer Juan José Pérez Hernández sighted Langara Island (part of the Queen Charlotte Islands). The Russians charted the whole of the Alexander and North Coast Archipelagos and incorporated the Alexander Archipelago into "Russian America" during the 18th century. In 1799 Alexander Baranov, the governor of Russian America, established the first permanent settlement in the San Carlos Islands, calling it Fort Saint Michael.

Due to an increase in American activity in the region; by 1849 the British had established colonies on Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1851, and on the North Coast Islands in 1858. By the 1860s, the Russian government was ready to abandon its Russian America colony and thus it's hold on the Alexander Archipelago. Zealous overhunting had severely reduced the fur-bearing animal population, and competition from the British and Americans exacerbated the situation. This, combined with the difficulties of supplying and protecting such a distant colony, reduced interest in the territory. After Russian America was sold to the U.S. in 1867, for $7.2 million (2 cents per acre, totalling $114,657,180.85 in today's USD), all the holdings of the Russian–American Company were liquidated.

General Jefferson C. Davis ordered the Russians out of their homes in New Archangel after the purchase, maintaining that the dwellings were needed for the Americans. The Russians complained of rowdiness of the American troops and assaults. Many Russians returned to Russia, while others migrated to the Queen Charlotte Islands and the North Coast Islands. In the mid-19th century a population of tens of thousands of Aboriginal people's was reduced by smallpox and other diseases the Europeans had built up an immunity to, to some one thousand.


Kerensky reviewing a draft of the
San Carlos Act in 1941

In 1920 Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, his wife Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha who was also his paternal first cousin, and his three children escaped to Sitka, Territory of Alaska in 1920, following the Russian Revolution. After a London court order in July 1924 recognized Grand Duke Michael to be legally dead, Kirill first declared himself "Guardian of the Throne" on 8 August 1924 and then on 31 August 1924 he assumed the title Emperor of all the Russias.

In early-1932, being an Emperor without any lands or people to govern but seeing a chance to gain some, Emperor in exile Vladimirovich contacted the American government, who was full-sing in the Great Depression, about purchasing the Alexander Archipelago. President Hoover, seeking funds to mitigate the depression accepted the offer and sold Vladimirovich the Archipelago for $10.7 million (about $200 million in 2018) at the Portland Consensus. Declaring the lands "New Russia" he made a decree inviting all Russians who fled the Soviet Union to relocate to the Islands.

In 1938 Emperor Kirill Vladimirovich passed away and was succeeded by his son Vladimir Kirillovich. Seeing the unprecedented growth and development of towns like New Archangel (Sitka), Saint Petersburg, and Ketchikan, mainly due to immigration from the Soviet Union; Vladimir saw the need to expand the borders of New Russia. He visited London and Ottawa to study the needs of British and Canadian governments as they were New Russia's closest neighbor. Seeing the defeat at the Battle of Dunkirk and a low point in the Allied fighting capability, he offered $13.8 million (about $250 million in 2018) and four out of five of New Russia's destroyers to the Dominion of Canada for the North Coast Islands, Queen Charlotte Islands, and Northern Vancouver Island. On 10 December 1940, the Victoria Consensus was signed by Vladimir Kirillovich, Winston Churchill, and William Lyon Mackenzie King.

Soon after Victoria Consensus, former Russian political figures and democratic reformers Viktor Chernov and Alexander Kerensky who fled the Bolsheviks demanded that New Russia become a Democracy. Fearing another Revolution Emperor Vladimir Kirillovich gave in. He, in congruence with his advisers, as well as Chernov and Kerensky; drafted the San Carlos Act which changed the name from "New Russia" to what the Islands are called today, created the current states and territories, established the Federal Parliament, proclaimed Vladimir Kirillovich as Emperor of Russia and Tsar of the San Carlos Islands, and formed the position of "Governor General" to represent the Tsar in the federal government as was done in Finland and Poland under the Russian Empire. The San Carlos Act was approved on 28 June 1941, 9 years after the Portland Consensus, a date which became the San Carlos Islands' national day, San Carlos Islands Day.

Contemporary era

After the ratification of the San Carlos Act, the Commonwealth experienced much economic growth, combined with the policies of successive democratic governments, led to the emergence of a new San Carlos Islands identity, marked by the adoption of the green, white, and blue flag in 1945, the incentivization of immigration from the Soviet Union and other Communist countries in 1962, and the implementation of official bilingualism (Russian and English) in 1980. Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the San Carlos Islands Pension Plan, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, and San Carlos Islands Student Loans, though state governments, particularly New Columbia and Tongass, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, a series of constitutional conferences resulted in the creation of the San Carlos Islands Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1984.

A number of crises shook San Carlos Islands society in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These included the 1998 crash of Alaska Airlines flight 47, killing 61 San Carlos Islanders; the Saint Petersburg massacre in 2004, an Al-Qaeda sponsored van attack targeting civilians; and the Haida Crisis of 2005, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and indigenous groups.

The San Carlos Islands joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a U.S.-led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia. The San Carlos Islands also sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. In 2011, San Carlos forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan Civil War, and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s.

Government and politics

Tsarina of the
San Carlos Islands

Andrey Pavlov,
Governor General
of the San
Carlos Islands

Elena Kuznetsova,
Prime Minister of
the San Carlos
The San Carlos Islands is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Tsarina Maria Vladimirovna reigns as Monarch of the San Carlos Islands. Since the passage of the San Carlos Act, she is represented in the Commonwealth by the governor general at the federal level and by the governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. Thus, in practice the Governor General has no actual decision-making or de facto governmental role, and merely acts as a legal figurehead for the actions of the prime minister and the Federal Executive Council. The governor general does have extraordinary reserve powers which may be exercised outside the prime minister's request in rare and limited circumstances.

The federal government is separated into three branches:

• Legislature: the bicameral Parliament, defined in section 1 of the constitution as comprising the monarch (represented by the governor general), the Senate, and the House of Representatives;

• Executive: the Federal Executive Council, which in practice gives legal effect to the decisions of the cabinet, comprising the prime minister and ministers of state who advise the governor general;

• Judiciary: the High Court of the San Carlos Islands and other federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the governor general on advice of the Federal Executive Council.

Parliament House, Ketchikan

In the Senate (the upper house), there are 86 members: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories (the San Carlos Capital Territory). The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 200 total members; 150 of witch elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats and 50 of witch elected using proportional representation. Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years simultaneously; State Council members have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; thus only 45 of the 86 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution.

The San Carlos Islands' electoral system uses mixed member proportional voting for all lower house elections. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 16 years and over in every jurisdiction, as is enrollment. The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament.

There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Red+ Coalition which is a formal grouping of the center-left to far-left Red+ Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Social Democratic Party and it's minor partners and the center-right to right-wing Blue+ Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Conservative Party and its minor partners. Within San Carlos Isladns political culture. Independent members and several minor parties have achieved representation in San Carlos Islands parliaments, mostly in upper houses.

The most recent federal election was held on 18 May 2019 and resulted in the Blue+ Coalition, led by Prime Minister Elena Kuznetsova, retaining government.

States and territories

A map of the San Carlos Islands' states and territories

The San Carlos Islands has seven states — Admiralia (ADM), Petersland (PLD), New Wales (NW), Tongass (TON), Oueensland (QLD), Columbia (COL), and Victoria (VIC) — and one major mainland territory — the San Carlos Islands Capital Territory (SCICT) In most respects, this territory function like the states, except that the Commonwealth Parliament has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the territory parliament.

Under the constitution, the States essentially have plenary legislative power to legislate on any subject, whereas the Commonwealth (federal) Parliament may legislate only within the subject areas enumerated under section 51. For example, State parliaments have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, but the Commonwealth Parliament does not have any specific power to legislate in these areas. However, Commonwealth laws prevail over State laws to the extent of the inconsistency. In addition, the Commonwealth has the power to levy income tax which, coupled with the power to make grants to States, has given it the financial means to incentivize States to pursue specific legislative agendas within areas over which the Commonwealth does not have legislative power.

Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliament — unicameral in the Capital Territory and, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly; the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a governor; and in the San Carlos Islands Capital Territory, the Administrator. In the Commonwealth, the Queen's representative is the Governor General.

Foreign relations

A. Medved House, Ketchikan, is the
headquarters of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs.

Over recent decades, the San Carlos Islands' foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the SCIUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Community. The San Carlos Islands has pursued the cause of international trade liberalization. It has joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and led to the formation of the Charlotte Group.

The San Carlos Islands is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the San Carlos Islands–United States Free Trade Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with Canada, with another free trade agreement being negotiated with Russia — the San Carlos Islands–Russia Free Trade Agreement — and Japan, South Korea in 2011, San Carlos Islands–New Zealand Free Trade Agreement. In November 2015, the San Carlos Islands put the Trans-Pacific Partnership before parliament for ratification, however in February 2016 its ratification was struck down.

The San Carlos Islands maintains a deeply integrated relationship with the neighboring United States, with free mobility of citizens between the two countries under the Trans-Puget Travel Arrangement and free trade under the San Carlos Islands–United States Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement. The United States, Canada and the United Kingdom are the most favorably viewed countries in the world by San Carlos people, sharing a number of close diplomatic, military and cultural ties with the San Carlos Islands.

Along with the United States and other North and South American countries, the San Carlos Islands is party to the Rio treaty, a regional defence agreement. A member of the United Nations, the San Carlos Islands is strongly committed to multilateralism and maintains an international aid program under which some 12 countries receive assistance. The 2016 budget provides SC₽500 million for development assistance. The San Carlos Islands ranks nineteenth overall in the Center for Global Development's 2012 Commitment to Development Index.


San Carlos soldiers deployed to Iraq
in 2017

The San Carlos Islands' armed forces — the San Carlos Defense Force (SCDF) — comprise the Royal San Carlos Navy (RSCN), the San Carlos Army and the Royal San Carlos Air Force (RSCAF), in total numbering 81,214 personnel (including 57,982 regulars and 23,232 reservists) as of November 2015. The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor General, who appoints a Chief of the Defense Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government. Day-to-day force operations are under the command of the Chief, while broader administration and the formulation of defense policy is undertaken by the Ministry of Defense.

In the 2016–17 budget, defense spending comprised 2% of GDP, representing the world's 18th largest defense budget. The San Carlos Islands has been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq; it currently has deployed about 2,241 personnel in varying capacities to 12 international operations in areas including Iraq and Afghanistan.


The San Carlos Islands boasts one
of the fastest growing oil economies
in the world.

A wealthy country, the San Carlos Islands has a market economy, a high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, the San Carlos Islands ranked second in the world after Switzerland from 2013 until 2018. In 2018, the San Carlos Islands overtook Switzerland and became the country with the highest average wealth. The San Carlos Islands poverty rate decreased from 10.2% to 8.8%, from 2013 to 2019. It was identified by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the nation with both the highest median wealth in the world and the highest average wealth per adult in 2013.

The San Carlos ruble is the currency for the nation. The San Carlos Islands Securities Exchange is listed as the tenth-largest stock exchange in the world.

Ranked sixth in the Index of Economic Freedom (2017), the San Carlos Islands is the world's 19th largest economy and has the second highest per capita GDP (nominal) at US$83,444. The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2017 Human Development Index. San Carlos City reached top spot for the third year in a row on The Economist's 2014 list of the world's most livable cities, followed by New Swansea, Petersburg, and New Archangel in the fifth, seventh, and ninth places respectively. Total government debt in the San Carlos Islands is only about SC₽28 billion — 4% of GDP in 2019. The San Carlos Islands has among the highest house prices and some of the highest household debt levels in the world.

The Pavlovsky Brewery, the San
Carlos Islands' first major brewer.
The San Carlos Islands brewing
industry is the world's eighth
largest exporter of beer.

An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase in the San Carlos Islands' terms of trade since the start of the 21st century, due to rising commodity prices. Since 2001, the San Carlos Islands has managed to keep a balanced budget and provide its citizens a favorable tax situation. The San Carlos Islands has grown at an average annual rate of 4.5% for over 15 years, in comparison to the OECD annual average of 2.5%.

The San Carlos Islands along with Australia was the only advanced economy not to experience a recession due to the global financial downturn in 2008–2009.

The Kozlov Government floated the San Carlos ruble in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system. The Alekseev Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labor market and the further privatization of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry. The indirect tax system was substantially changed in September 2000 with the introduction of a 11% Goods and Services Tax (GST). In the San Carlos Islands' tax system, personal and company income tax are the main sources of government revenue.

As of September 2018, there were 5,877,201 people employed (either full- or part-time), with an unemployment rate of 3.8%. Data released in mid-November 2013 showed that the number of welfare recipients had dropped by 2%. In 2018 55,621 Unemployment Allowance Program recipients were registered. According to the Graduate Careers Survey, full-time employment for newly qualified professionals from various occupations has increased in recent years.

Since 2008, inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70% of GDP. Rich in natural resources, the San Carlos Islands is a major exporter of energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. This sector contributes substantially to the export performance of the nation. The San Carlos Islands' largest export markets are Japan, Canada, Russia, the United States, and New Zealand. The San Carlos Islands is the world's eighth largest exporter of beer.


The San Carlos Islands has one of
the world's most highly urbanized
populations with the majority living
in metropolitan cities. (Pictured:
San Carlos City skyline, Columbia.)
The San Carlos Islands is highly urbanized, with 67% of the population living in the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (metropolitan areas of the state and mainland territorial capital cities) in 2018. Metropolitan areas with more than one million inhabitants are Saint Petersburg, New Archangel, and San Carlos City.

In common with many other developed countries, the San Carlos Islands is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. However, in 2018 legislation was passed to increase the total fertility rate of the San Carlos Islands to 2.1 by 2030 by creating incentives for couples to birth two or more children children such as mortgage aid, tax benefits, and universal daycare and pre-k.

In 2018 the average age of the San Carlos population was 37.5 years.








Saint Petersburg



Agata Naoumova (Social Democrat)


San Carlos City



Zoë Daniels (National)





Carson Belcher (National)


New Archangel



Varlaam Pasternak (Conservative)


Port Swansea

New Wales


Pierce Breckinridge (Liberal)


Fort Stikine



Snezhana Nikolaeva (San Carlos Democrat)



Capital Territory


Sergey Pasternak (Social Democrat)





Sofiya Lagunova (Green)


Fort Rupert



Brianna Cook (Liberal)


Port Alexander



Osip Krupin (Conservative)

Ancestry and immigration

Until the late 1990s, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came to the San Carlos Islands after fleeing the Soviet Union and other Eastern European Communist States (principally Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine). Their descendants form a broad ethnic category known as Balto-Slavic San Carlos Islanders. Starting around the passage of the San Carlos Act, the San Carlos Islands received a large wave of immigration from Anglosphere countries, with many more high-skilled immigrants arriving from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States than in previous decades coming to either take advantage of the strong San Carlos job market or to retire.

Today, Immigration to the San Carlos Islands has slowed considerably in the recent decades, this has been attributed to it's strict and sometimes characterized racially and religiously biased Immigration laws. Despite this, the San Carlos Islands still has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for about 60% of the population, 102,417 permanent immigrants were admitted to the San Carlos Islands in 2017-18. Most immigrants are skilled. In 2018 the five largest foreign-born populations were those born in Russia (29%), the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (11%), Poland (10%), and Belarus (6%).

In the 2016 San Carlos Islands census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:

• Russian (41.1%)

• Belorussian (7.9%)

• French (2.3%)

• Irish (1.6%)

• Slovenian (1.4%)

• English (19.5%)

• Polish (4.4%)

• German (2.3%)

• Serbian (1.6%)

• Indigenous (1.0%)

• Ukrainian (8.9%)

• Croatian (4.6%)

• Czech (2.3%)

• Greek (1.2%)

• Lithuanian (.8%)

• Dutch (.8%)

• Kazakh (.3%)

• Filipino (.3%)

• Tatar (.1%)

• Chechen (<.1%)

At the 2016 census, 85,176 people (1.0% of the total population) identified as being Indigenous — Aboriginal San Carlos Islanders.


A multitude of languages are used by San Carlos Islanders, with Russian and English (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56% and 29% of San Carlos Islanders, respectively. As of the 2016 Census, just over 1.2 million San Carlos Islanders listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Ukrainian (255,530 first-language speakers), Polish (212,942), Belarusian (204,424), Croatian (170,353), Czech (153,318), Serbian (102,212), and Slovene (76,659). The San Carlos Islands' federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages in consonance with the Federal Official Languages Act Russian and English have equal status in federal courts, the Legislative Assembly, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either Russian or Engligh and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all states and territories.

English has been established as the official language of Columbia, New Wales, and Victoria. Although more than 75 percent of English-speaking San Carlos Islanders live in these states, there are substantial Anglophone populations in the Capital Territory, Petersland, and Tongass; Petersland has the largest English-speaking population outside of the three Anglophone majority provinces. The Capital Territory, the only officially bilingual Administrative subdivision, has a English-speaking minority constituting 33 percent of the population. This cluster of English speaking San Carlos Islanders, mainly those working for the federal government, spills over into the state of Tongass.

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but Engligh is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to Russian. The Capital Territory, Tongass, and Petersland allow for both Russian and English to be spoken in the state legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Admiralia, Engligh has some legal status, but is not fully co-official. There are 2 distinct indigenous languages and dialects. However, no state has granted these indigenous languages any official status.

Additionally, the San Carlos Islands is home to many sign languages. Russian Sign Language (RSL) is spoken across the country due to the prevalence of ASL in primary and secondary schools. Due to its historical relation to the anglophone culture, American Sign Language (ASL) is spoken primarily in Columbia, New Wales, and Victoria, although there are sizeable Anglophone communities in the Capital Territory, Petersland, and Tongass.


The San Carlos Islands has no state religion; The San Carlos Islands Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion. In the 2016 census, 82.8% of San Carlos Islanders were counted as Christian, including 51.9% as Eastern Orthodox, 25.9% as Roman Catholic, and 5% as Protestant; 17.0%, of the population reported having "no religion"; .12% identify with non-Christian religions, the largest of these being the Indigenous religions (0.1%), and Judaism (0.02%).

Before European settlement, the animist beliefs of of the San Carlos Islands' indigenous people had been practiced for many thousands of years. Aboriginal San Carlos Islander's spirituality places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land and dependence on the sea. The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law and customs. Aboriginal art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions. The 2016 San Carlos Islands census counted more than 85,176 respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion.

Since the arrival of the First European explorers, Christianity has become the major religion practiced in the San Carlos Islands. Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services in the San Carlos Islands. For all of San Carlos Islands history, the Russian Orthodox was the largest Christian denomination, with a large Roman Catholic minority, followed by Greek Orthodox, Anglicans, Serbian Orthodox, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Southern Baptists.

The San Carlos Islands has one of the highest levels of religious adherence in the world. In 2019, 76.3%% of San Carlos Islanders attended church on a weekly basis.


The San Carlos Island's life expectancy is the second highest in the world for males and the fifth highest for females. Life expectancy in the San Carlos Islands in 2016 was 81.1 years for males and 85.5 years for females.

Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8% of GDP. The San Carlos Islands introduced universal health care in 1988. Known as Medicare, it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently set at 2%. The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (subsidising the costs of medicines) and general practice.


Two San Carlos universities rank in
the top 50 of the QS World
University Rankings, including the
University of Columbia (20th).

School attendance, or registration for home schooling, is compulsory throughout the San Carlos Islands. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 until about 16. In some states (e.g., Admiralia, the New Wales, and Victoria, children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship.

The San Carlos Islands has an adult literacy rate that was estimated to be 99% in 2016. In the Program for International Student Assessment, The San Carlos Islands regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developed countries (member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Roman Catholic education accounts for the largest non-government sector.

The San Carlos Islands has 31 government-funded universities and one private university, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level. The OECD places the San Carlos Islands among the least expensive nations to attend university. There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. About 58% of San Carlos Islanders aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications, and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of local to international students in tertiary education in the San Carlos Islands is one of the highest in the OECD countries. In addition, 30.9 percent of the San Carlos Islands' population has attained a higher education qualification, which is among the highest percentages in the world.



The Russian Bishop's House in New
Archangel was the first building in
the San Carlos Islands to be listed
as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in
Since 1932, the primary influence behind San Carlos Islands culture has been Russian and East Slavic culture, with some Anglo-Celtic and Indigenous influences. The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive San Carlos Islands culture. Since the mid-20th century, American popular culture has strongly influenced the San Carlos Islands, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences come from neighboring Canada, and through large-scale immigration from other Anglo, Mediterranean, and West Slavic nations.


Traditional designs, patterns and stories infuse contemporary Indigenous San Carlos Islander art, "the last great art movement of the 20th century"; Indigenous San Carlos Islander society continues to produce a robust and highly stylized art form, a leading component of Northwest Coast art. While artists frequently have expressed this in large wooden carvings (totem poles), Chilkat weaving, or ornate jewellery, in the 21st century, younger people are also making art in popular expression such as Aboriginal San Carlos Islander manga. Early Russian-San Carlos Islander artists, trained in Europe, showed a fascination with the unfamiliar land. The cubist works of Timur Ignatov, Innokenty Volkov and others associated with the 20th-century Admiralia School — the first "distinctively San Carlos Islander" movement in Western art — gave expression to a burgeoning San Carlos Islands nationalism and democratic ideals in the lead-up to the San Carlos Act. While the school remained influential into the new century, modernists such as Liliya Andreeva, and, later, Vladislava Lagunova and Vyacheslav Pavlov, explored new artistic trends. The landscape remained a central subject matter for Viktor Matveev, Prokopiy Borisov and other post-San Carlos Act artists whose works, eclectic in style yet uniquely San Carlos Islander, moved between the figurative and the abstract. The national and state galleries maintain collections of local and international art. The San Carlos Islands has one of the world's highest attendances of art galleries and museums per head of population.

San Carlos Islands literature grew slowly in the decades following European settlement though Indigenous oral traditions, many of which have since been recorded in writing, are much older. 20th-century writers such as Matvei Chaykovsky and Yury Ignatov captured the experience of the bush using a distinctive San Carlos Islands vocabulary. Their works are still popular; Ignatov's poem "Wading Through the Canal" (1935) is regarded as the San Carlos Islands' unofficial national anthem. Nikifor Filippov is the namesake of the San Carlos Islands' most prestigious literary prize, awarded annually to the best novel about San Carlos Islands life. Its first recipient, Frederick Winship, went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988. San Carlos Islands winners of the Booker Prize include Platon Vasilyev, Feodor Naoumov, and Floyd Neil. Author Valerian Yakovlev, playwright Matfey Pavlovsky, and poet Oscar Symonds are also renowned literary figures.

Many of the San Carlos Islands' performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's San Carlos Islands Council. There is a symphony orchestra in each state, and a national opera company, Opera SCI, well known for its famous soprano Cecilia Samuels. At the middle of the 20th century, Ninel Fedorova was one of the world's leading opera singers. Ballet and dance are represented by The San Carlos Islands Ballet and various state companies. Each state has a publicly funded theater company.


The Streets of New Archangel (1939), the world's first feature length film, spurred a boom in San Carlos Islands cinema. Come the late 1940's, Hollywood monopolized the industry, and by the 1960s the San Carlos Islands film production had effectively ceased. With the benefit of government support, the San Carlos Islands New Wave of the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, many exploring themes of national identity, such as The Early Days, while The Huntsman and the Ozploitation movement's Whale for Help series became international blockbusters. In a film market flooded with foreign content, San Carlos Islands films delivered a 5.2% share of the local box office in 2015. The SCIACTAs are the San Carlos Islands' premier film and television awards, and notable Academy Award winners from the San Carlos Islands include Luther Strickland, Danila Fyodorova, Gabriella Garnett, and Benedikt Popov.

The San Carlos Islands has four public broadcasters (the San Carlos Television, Сан-Карлос Вещание, Канал Содружества and the Native Television Service), seven commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Each major city has at least one daily newspaper, and there are two national daily newspapers, The Islander and The San Carlos Islands Financial Review. In 2010, Reporters Without Borders placed the San Carlos Islands 4th on a list of 178 countries ranked by press freedom, behind Finland (3rd) but ahead of the United Kingdom (19th) and United States (20th).


Most Indigenous San Carlos Islands tribal groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora. The first settlers introduced Slavic cuisine to the islands, much of which is now considered typical San Carlos Islands food, such as Beef Stroganoff, and Pelmeni. Immigration transformed San Carlos Islands cuisine; immigrants particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving San Carlos Islands coffee culture, and the influence of Anglo cultures has led to San Carlos Islands variants of their staple foods, such as the American-inspired hamburgers, hotdogs, and french fries. San Carlos Islands beer is produced mainly in the major urban areas.

The San Carlos Islands is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centers, which has influenced coffee culture abroad.

Sport and recreation

About 24% of San Carlos Islanders over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities.

The San Carlos Islands's official national sports are ice hockey and football. Handball, basketball, boxing, auto racing, volleyball, athletics, tennis, bandy, biathlon, figure skating, weightlifting, gymnastics, wrestling, martial arts, rugby union, and skiing are widely enjoyed at the youth and amateur levels.

The San Carlos Islands shares several major professional sports leagues with Canada and the United States. San Carlos Islands teams in these leagues include two franchises in the National Hockey League, as well as three Major League Soccer teams and one team in each of Major League Baseball and the National Football League.

The San Carlos Islands has participated in almost every Olympic Games after 1936, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1980 Summer Olympics, the 1992 Winter Olympics, the 1996 Basketball World Championship, the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup.