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Long story short, Samudera is an archipelagic nation located in southeastern Gael. It is a newly-industrialised nation, troubled with corruption and its socialist leaning, a reminiscent of the socialist period thirty years ago. Although quite leftist in its nature, its society is quite conservative and religious despite what statistics might say. Its main exports are agricultural and fishery product, with a significant contribution from its growing manufacturing sector.
Samudera (/samu'dəra/, pronounced sa-moo-THE-ra), officially the Federated Islands of Samudera (Sanggaric: Persakutuhan Pulau-Pulau Samudera, Ahnslen: Federai-Ile Samudai) is a federal presidential republic located in southeastern Gael. Situated between Gael and Southern Sea, Samudera consisted of more than a hundred islands. At 50,070 square kilometres, Samudera is the second smallest nation in Gael in terms of land area, after Negarakita. Bordered by Aruia in the northwest, Ainslie in the north, Negarakita in the southeast, and Townside in the southwest. With over 14 million people, it is one of the most densely populated nations in the Isles and Gael as well as the most populous Ipachi-majority country. Sanggar, Samudera's most populous and biggest island, contains almost half of the country's population.
Samudera has been undisputedly shaped by trade since at least the 5th century BC, bringing the idea of Buddhism and kingdom from India, which led to the rise of the Passareebu Empire and many thalassocratic kingdoms later on. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the last centuries BC, and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Samuderan history has been heavily influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Athara Magarat, Linaviar, Razzgriz, and Arnish are one of few nations that had considerably influenced the state of Samudera at some point in history. Kingdoms and Hangates rise and fall during the course of Samuderan history, with its latest incarnation the Kingdom of Samudera. The collapse of the Kingdom of Samudera prompted the lose of Samuderan nationhood for almost a century, before emerging again as a republic in 1936 and finally unified with its western half in 1952. The Lotus Revolution saw a radical change with the emergence of a socialist government. Though its rule is officially ended in 1991, its legacy keeps influencing the course of Samuderan politics up to this very day.
The name Samudera derives from the Sanskrit word of saṃ (सम्) and udra (मुद्र), meaning "gathering together of waters". The name is first attested in a manuscript dated from the 10th century, where the word is used to illustrate the 'spiralling water that encircles the world'. It has since been used as sort of a poetic way to describe the seas surrounding the Samuderan islands, and later, the islands itself.
Previously, the Samuderan islands had several names. Sanggarbhumi (Land of Sanggar), Dharmasraya (Great Righteousness), Hutama (Main islands, in reference to its periphery territory), among several others.
A folklore told us that in the closing stage of the Samuderan Civil War, it is claimed that the-then Prince Banser received an oracle from a priest during a visit to Selayar Temple. It is said that the priest prophesied that the Prince would be crowned 'Throne of the Ocean' in less than two years. True to his word, the Prince was crowned exactly two years after the meeting. He renamed the throne as Sinasana Samudera (Throne of the Ocean) and subsequently his kingdom as the Katahaan Samudera (Kingdom of Samudera).
The name was later used by the independence movement of Samudera in the early 1900s. 'Samudera' was the preferred name among the Samuderan elites at that time, as the previous names were deemed either too archaic or showing the dominance of the Sanggari, the major ethnic groups in Samudera. The name was soiled as the name of the newly independent republic in 1936, as the Republic of Samudera, and has been continually used to this present day.
Main Dispatch : History of Samudera
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Samuderan archipelago was reached by Homo sapiens in the 10,000 BC, after the migration of the Ipachis from mainland Gael. Recent foundings of hominin fossils proofed that human had reached Samuderan islands as far back as 80,000 years ago, although this itself is still controversial. Regardless, the undisputed Ipachi immigration triggered a series of human habitations across the Western Isles. The Ipachi were known for their sophisticated sailing style, able to traverse the immense distance across the sea. They reached Fujiraha and Linaviar respectively.
Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of the wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 25th century BC, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st millennium BC. Samudera’s position in the northern periphery of the Southern Sea and frequent trade with outside world made the archipelago flourished under the trade. Chinese and Indian trader influenced the archipelago heavily, bringing Buddhism and their kingdom system to Samudera as early as 500 BC.
Meanwhile, the Ipachi in Samudera were confined to the eastern periphery of the islands, decided to migrate to the western Islands. They met an indigenous tribe, dubbed ‘the Laih’ (the Others), and assimilated with them.
Passareebu Empire in 300BC
Its collapse caused the independence of the Cantonosian and Linavian tribes, the lost of government means wars between tribes continued long after the Empire's fall. Its long-lasting impact, however, still felt in both nations culturally. Many Indic aspects of the indigenous culture were attributed to the Empire.
Early Middle Age
Historians believed that the Dark Age of Samudera were filled with many kingdoms and chiefdoms, but there is no writings record ever found from this period. Hanaraka, an early Samuderan historian in the 11th century CE, wrote that in 981 CE there’s a ‘weird-looking army’ invading the Sanggar island. This prompted the warring island to unify against a single threat, and chieftain Dedi Kubusyat led the counterattack of the ‘weird-looking army’ and succeeded to drove them off the island. Later, it was found out that the invading army is a Khas-Kirati horde from their records. The attack unifies the whole island under a single kingdom, named Kingdom of Tana'ir (the kingdom of water and land).
The unified kingdom brought Cantonosian tribes under a single confederacy, effectively bringing them under their influence. A period of peace followed after the first invasion didn’t last long. A hundred year later, in the year 1098, another Khas-Kirati invasion led by Paija Hang invaded the Samuderan island. The unprepared island fell to the invading army. The locals dubbed the invaders as ‘Kilat’ or Thunder in Samud language.
The fallen Tana'ir Kingdom was replaced by Kilat Hangate, established by the Khas-Kirats to rule the defeated islands, the Samuderan and Cantonos islands. The next ten years, the Cantonosian tribes drove out the Khas-Kiratis completely, leaving Samudera as the sole part of the Kilat Hangate. This started an animosity between the two islands, with the independent and united Cantonos and Khas-Kiratis-influenced united Samudera.
Later, the Khas-Kirats greatly influenced the language, lifestyle, and social order, and the Khas-Kirats settled in the sparsely populated western islands, which were obliterated as the result of the invasion. This later will give rise to various ethnicities in modern Samudera.
After 300 years rule in Samudera, the aristocrats and nobility, which by then mostly comprised of indigenous Samuderan, toppled the Hangate and replaced it with a revived Sanggari Kingdom. The revived Kingdom of Sanggar immediately reassert its power over the Hangate and reincorporated the western Samudera that had rebelled fifty years ago.
The Kingdom tried to dominate the Southern Sea with its big navy. They were known for their sophisticated ship and sailings technique. They decided to invade Linavian Empire in 1452, managed to occupy half of Linaviar, but the subsequent shortage of supply drove them off the Empire’s territory. A failed invasion of Linaviar ensued, obliterating thirty-thousands Sanggari army. This opened the Samuderan mainland to the enemy, as the obliterated army couldn’t guard the homeland.
The inevitable invasions of the Sanggari homeland resulted in the establishment of Linavian influence in Samudera. The now-Linavian-inclined Kingdom of Sanggar underwent a prosperous trade with Linaviar and a period of peace and stability for a hundred year. Linavian technology and culture were absorbed, while the Kingdom itself become a de-facto part of Linaviar. Later on, it’ll help in the Linavian invasion of Xrevaro.
Early Modern Period
Samudera is a federal representative democracy with a presidential system. As a federal state, most power is vested within each individual state, while the federal government retains full control over the police force, foreign relationships, and economic policy. Following the Reformation era by President Abbas Laskar, it started the liberalisation of the government with the accommodation of minority parties which was previously heavily discriminated against. Reformation era oversaw the major revamp of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.
The president of Samudera is the head of state and head of government, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 1939 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice-president. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.
The highest representative body at national level is Grand People's Assembly (Belai Besar Rakyat) or BBR. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president. The MBR comprises two houses; People's Council (Dewan Rakyat), with 210 members, and Federal Council (Dewan Parsiarikatan), with 27 members. The People's Council passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation. Reforms since 1991 have markedly increased the People's Council role in national governance. The Federal Council is a chamber for matters of nation-wide management.
Parties and Elections
Since 1992, Samudera is a multi-party state that allowed any form of political spectrum and ideologies. In the three decades since the Reformation, no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats, resulting in coalition governments. The Samuderan Socialist Party (Partay Sosyalis Samudera) is the party of the incumbent President Justuva Susanto. The centre-right SCGAD (Samuderan Centrists for Growth and Development) party is the biggest party by Assembly's seat number and currently is in coalition with PSS, the second largest party, to support the incumbent president. The right-wing United Christian Party (Partay Kristan Bersatu) is the biggest opposition party, along with Samuderan Nationalist Party (Partay Nasyonalis Samudera). Other notable party such as Worker's Party (Partay Pekerja), Libertarian Party (Partay Liberterien), and Green Party (Partay Hijo).
Samudera's first general election elected members of the Representative Assembly (Majlis Perwakilan; Lower House) and the Constitutional Assembly (Majlis Konstituante; Upper House) in 1954. At the national level, Samuderan people did not elect a head of state – the president – until 1967. Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the 300-member People's Council (Dewan Masyarakat) and the 45-seat Federal Council (Dewan Persiarikatan).
Most civil disputes appear before Pengadilan Negeri (State Court); appeals are heard before Pengadilan Tinggi (High Court). Mahkamah Agung (Supreme Court) is the country's highest court, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; Pengadilan Tata Negara (State Administrative Court) to hear administrative law cases against the government; Mahkamah Konstitusi (Constitutional Court) to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions.
Samudera is a member of the League of TWI, Cooperative Union, and partial-member of Gael Four.
Ever since its independence in 1936, Samudera's policy has always been officially 'free and active', which means Samudera is free to form relationships with all countries, with no restriction defined upon others while actively engaging herself in the international stage to promote region-wide peace and democratic values in the whole Isles. In short, Samudera is friend to all and enemy to none.
The policy is important in keeping the security of the nation, as Samudera don't have a formidable military to guard its 900-kilometre long islands chain. Therefore it is a great importance to the nation to keep its territory safe from hostile nations while keeping its allies close to home.
This has been practised to a different degree by many presidents of Samudera during its existence. For much of the socialist period, Samudera became more isolationist in nature while still maintaining the facade of a 'free-and-active' policy. The foreign relationship policy became more obscure day by day, as the nation's foreign relations was heavily intertwined with its internal politics.
Late Samuderan presidents, after the Reformation, have been ardent followers of the policy set by the founding fathers during the nation's early day. The nation's entry to Cooperative Union and Gael Four showed Samudera's willingness to further engage itself in the international stage. However, this effort has been thrown in doubt after President Justuva's inadvertent 'intervention' in the Second Orsandian Civil War.
Samudera's closest and foremost ally is Ainslie, although Negarakita often included in the list. In general, Samudera is in good term with most of its neighbours, with the most notable exception being Roendavar.
Geographical Map of Samudera
Samudera is the biggest archipelagic nation in Gael, located offshore of Gael's southwest peninsula. Extending approximately 960 kilometres from northwest to southeast, it is flanked by Gael in the north and Southern Sea in the south. According to a geospatial survey conducted between 2010 and 2012 by the National Cartography Agency, Samudera has 122 islands, with about 31 of them are inhabited. The largest are Sanggar, Jimbaran, Galuh, Banggi, Layan, Garuda, Seni, and Rembulan. Samudera doesn't share land borders with other nation, but it does share maritime borders with Aruia and Ainslie to the north, Negarakita to the southeast, and Townside to the south.
At 2,451 metres, Mount Lamun is Samudera's highest peak, and Lake Tong in Sanggar is its biggest and natural lake, with an area 686 km². Samudera's largest rivers are in Sanggar and Jimbara, and include Ran, Padan, Langgi, and Gari; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.
Samudera's average population density is 298 people per square kilometres, although Rembulan Island has a higher population density.
Samudera's climate is almost entirely subtropical, dominated by the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) found in every major island of Samudera, followed by the subtropical highland climate (Cwa) that predominantly lies inside the Sanggarian highland and some of the highest mountain peak, and finally, the hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) found in some northern coast of Rembulan island, due to the influence of Badara desert in Ainslie.
Winter is relatively mild all around Samudera, with the highland as the exception. The average temperature in the coast is around 21 °C, and the highland averaging around 16 °C. The area's relative humidity ranges between 70 and 90%. Occasionally typhoon and large-scale storms reached Samudera from the tropical area, usually between June and November. Blizzard and dust storms could also pose hazards and it is usually unpredictable, due to the nature of winds and air column around Samudera.
Tectonically, Samudera is highly unstable, making the country a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. It lies on the Southern Gael subduction zone where Argent plate is pushed under Eterael plate where they melt at about 80 kilometres deep. A string of volcanoes runs through all major Samuderan islands, with Galuh island and Ralolo islands having the most active volcanic activity. Of the 32 volcanoes, around 13 are active. Between 1950 and 200, 11 volcanic eruptions were recorded, mostly on Galuh and Ralolo islands. While volcanic ash has resulted in fertile soils (a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Sanggar and Rembulan), it makes agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas.
A massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Tong around one million years ago. It is believed to be one of the largest eruptions in the history of the Isles, cooling down the global climate significantly. One of the most violent volcanic eruptions in recent history also occurred in Samudera with the eruption of Mount Gahar in 1839, resulting in the death of tens of thousands of people. Most of the deaths were caused by harvest failure due to the volcanic ashes covering the atmosphere. It also resulted in the fall of Kingdom of Samudera and its subsequent incorporation to Ahnslen and Dormill-Stiura, respectively. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 1999 Sailendra earthquake and tsunami that killed an estimated 45,000 in Southern Sanggar and Negarakita.
Historically, Samudera has generally loyal and strong military, especially Navy, dating back to the Kingdom of Sanggar in early 1400. Battles after battles, wars after wars, was fought in Samuderan soils, defending or even attacking their own brethren. The military had an indisputable role in shaping Samudera's history. In 1940, after four years of the instability of interim government, Adnan Rajaraja led an armed uprising against the fragile new Republic of Samudera. This arguably increased military influence over the politics and life of the peoples. The régime brutality and dictatorship made most of the population live in perpetual fear and darknesses. The Ahnslen occupied Samudera after the World War II, helping it recover from the destruction while also installing a regime that was loyal to them. In 1965, Seroja Revolution toppled the regime, voted to limit the country's force to a small one that its sole purpose is defending the homeland. Orsandia and Vucari maintained base throughout Samudera's socialist period, nearly 30 years until its abandonment following the Reformation.
Pasukan Pertahanan Negara (Homeland Defenders Force) is Samudera's military force. The small military consisted of approximately 14,000 soldiers, with another 5,000 in reserve, and 1,000 soldiers serve in NJSF (Norsan Joint Security Force). Its sole purpose is to defend and maintain Samuderan sovereignty over its land. It's prohibited to fight in foreign lands, except in peacekeeping activity and its special force branch in NJSF, in cooperation with Ainslie.
PKN's main focus is in its Navy, Pertahanan Laut (PPN-PL or PL). It's consisted of x ships and manned with approximately 7,000 soldiers. Samudera is divided into 4 sectors, Harni Sea Fleet, Banda Sea Fleet, Southern Sea Fleet, and Eastern Fleet. The Navy is headquartered Labuan. PKN's Army, Pertahanan Darat (PPN-PD or PD), consisted of 5,000 soldiers and equipped with x. Most of its equipment is imported from Ainslie and Orsandia, since the military equipment is produced in just small quantity in Samudera, due to regulations. PKN's Air Force, Pertahanan Udara (PPN-PU or PU), is consisted of x planes. Its main base is located in Bhinneka.
Main Dispatch : Economy of Samudera
As an emerging market and an early industrialised nation, Samudera is a middle rising economic power in Gael and northern periphery of Southern Sea, despite its relatively small land area size. Samudera has a mixed economy, with extensive state enterprise and government-funded businesses fused with a substantial private sector. The government retains its' influence over key segments of infrastructure, with 100% ownership of the electricity, water, and transportation. It has been decreasing its control over several sectors since the 90s. The government is slowly privatising several sectors and the government ownership of certain businesses within them. Examples include ElangAir (the national airline), Prakinan (commercial fishing enterprise), and Angro (agriculture sectors).
Manufacturing, agriculture, and service are the three largest industries in the Samuderan economy, and agriculture has been a consistent major sector since ancient times. As Samudera has a cheap and great number of labours, and fertile soil, agriculture (primarily rice and fruit farming) is an important part of the sector. Athara Magarati companies are one of the major employers in the manufacturing sector, such as Kodo and KC Automotive. As of 2016, the agricultural sectors alone accounted for 26% of national GDP. The tourism industry is also a major part of the economy, and it is estimated that 3 million tourists entered Samudera each year, who spend millions of dollars within Samuderan borders.
The technology industry is still on a small scale basis, most still classified as a startup, and most notably the Go-Tor, online transportation platform. Government-owned Rakitrakit, a company which produces electronic component, also gains a huge boost provided by the government to expand secondary sector on Samudera. Overall, the government has been eager to subsidise startups in the technology sector, with the most subsidy given to green energy projects.
The aviation sector, primarily the major business of the industry, ElangAir, has been suffering setbacks since plane crashes in 2012. It has not fully regained its significance and credibility since before these crashes, but the business is being kept afloat due to the government subsidising the industry.
Samudera was the top 10th coal producer in 2005: 140 million tonnes hard coal in a year. The majority of which, 90 million tonnes were exported. Samudera has significant energy resources, starting with oil - it has 24 billion barrels of conventional oil and gas reserves, of which about 12 billion are recoverable. That's the equivalent of about 24 years of oil production and 120 years of gas. These resources were untapped in the socialist era due to the government barring private and/or foreign companies to extract them, only since the Reformation era it was opened for extraction. It has 12 billion tonnes of recoverable coal and has 10 gigawatts (GW) of geothermal potential. It has even more in the form of solar, wind, biomass and biofuel potential. Samudera's domestic oil consumption has grown from 90 thousand barrels per day in 2003 to 110 thousand barrels per day in 2013. As of 2015, Samudera's total national installed power generation capacity stands at 8,430 MW.
Ragatara Dam, the country's largest dam, serves several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. The power station has an installed capacity of 43 MW which feeds into the national grid managed by the state-owned electricity company (Widyanagara).
Main article : Demographics
According to the 2017 estimate, the population of Samudera is 14.9 million, with population growth at 1% per year. One-fourth of the population live in Sanggar Island, the biggest island in Samudera. In 1939, the first post-colonial census gave a total population of 10 million.
Samudera currently possesses a relatively young population, with a median age of 29.2 years (2015 estimate).
The population is expected to grow to around 15.5 million by 2020 and 20 million by 2050. An additional 3 million Samuderan live overseas. Most of them settled in Ainslie and Negarakita, and its immediate neighbour.Another is exiles and illegal immigrant scattered around the neighbouring countries, especially Keverai and Thuzbekistan.
Ethnic Map of Ethnicity Native to Samudera
There are 17 government-recognised ethnicities in Samudera, although ethnic Sanggari is by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 40% of the total population. Harni and Danrinian followed behind, each contributing around 20% and 9% of the total population. Other ethnics include Bharata that mostly resides in Bharata state (its namesake), and the southern part of Sanggar and Penyu Islands is inhabited mostly by Danrinian and Mandaranese. The once vibrant and ancient Khas-Kirati communities in Samudera have mostly assimilated with Ipachis culture, but they still retained their own distinct culture. There are also some pocket Ahnslen communities in the 3 big cities on Samudera, most notably Kotapura.
Immigration and emigration had affected Samudera's ethnicities in modern times. Since 1991 reformation, workers from Ainslie came to Samudera and vice versa. Another popular destination for Samudera is Athara Magarat, Orsandia and Negarakita.
City area population
While religious freedom is stipulated in the Samuderan constitution, the government officially recognises only four religions: Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism. This practice recognition of religions had been abandoned, although there's still no move to change the laws. In reality, most of the population stated that they are an atheist, consisted 43% of the population in 2015 census. Christianity follows behind with over 30%(Dominated by Whindism sect with over 85% of the Christian denomination), Buddhism with 14% of the population, mostly located in Bharata state and Sanggarian highland, Islam with 8%, and others or non-descript with 2%.
In the Constitution, the laws uphold every human as equal being with no discrimination in every single aspect of life. However, in practice, discrimination towards the religious one is widespread across the country. This discrimination arose after the People's Revolution, in which religion was despised by most of the socialist officials. There is no president since 1965 that uphold a certain religion.
Christianity : Whindism
Main article : Whindism
Whindism spread to Samudera in the 1930s, as Samudera was still part of Ainslie proper. As these Ahnslens moved to Samudera, they began to set up churches in the nation, attracting Whindist missionaries to the nation. These Whindist missionaries began speaking and preaching in the churches of Samudera, converting and attracting more traditionalist Christians into the sect. Later Ahnslen workers wave in the late 1990s resulted in increasing adoption of Whindism as religion. 1995 census reported that 27% of the population holds Whindism as their religion, compared to 16% in 1990 census. Relations between the traditional and Whindist Christians began to sour, as Whindism became a compatible sect with the atheists of the nation. The Atheists and Whindists formed a fragile political alliance, which ensures the continuity of Whindism in the nation.
Samudera has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. Each ethnic group has their own arts, architecture and housing, cuisine, traditional dresses, festivals, music and dance, rituals, myths, philosophies, and language. The cultural identities developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Linavian, Ahnslen, Arabic and Dormill-Stiuraian sources, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Buddhism, Whindism, Catholicism, Islam, Heyúva, and other native religion. The result is a complex and unique cultural mixture that differs from the original indigenous cultures. Examples include the widespread practice of syncretism in the western and southern part of Samudera and Kahyan belief which is a fusion between Buddhism and animism. Traditional Sanggaric dance, for example, contains aspects of Buddhism culture and mythology, as do walang kulihit (shadow puppet) performances. Samudera currently holds 4 items of ACESTI's World Cultural Heritage, include walang kulihit, karis, mateka, and traditional Sanggaric dance.